BL4S100
C-Programmable Single-Board Computer with Networking
User’s Manual
019–0172_D
Digi International Inc.
www.digi.com
BL4S100 Users Manual
Part Number 019-0172_D • Printed in U.S.A.
©2016 Digi International Inc. • All rights reserved.
Digi International reserves the right to make changes and
improvements to its products without providing notice.
Trademarks
Rabbit, RabbitCore, and Dynamic C are registered trademarks of Digi International Inc.
RabbitNet is a trademark of Digi International Inc.
The latest revision of this manual is available on the Digi International Inc. website,
www.digi.com, for free, unregistered download.
BL4S100 User’s Manual 1
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1. Introduction 4
1.1 BL4S100 Description ...........................................................................................................................4
1.2 BL4S100 Features.................................................................................................................................4
1.3 Development and Evaluation Tools......................................................................................................6
1.3.1 Tool Kit .........................................................................................................................................6
1.3.2 Software ........................................................................................................................................7
1.3.3 Optional Add-Ons .........................................................................................................................7
1.4 CE Compliance .....................................................................................................................................8
1.4.1 Design Guidelines .........................................................................................................................9
1.4.2 Interfacing the BL4S100 to Other Devices...................................................................................9
Chapter 2. Getting Started 10
2.1 BL4S100 Connections ........................................................................................................................11
2.1.1 Hardware Reset ...........................................................................................................................12
2.2 Installing Dynamic C ..........................................................................................................................13
2.3 Starting Dynamic C ............................................................................................................................14
2.4 Run a Sample Program .......................................................................................................................14
2.4.1 Troubleshooting ..........................................................................................................................14
2.4.2 Run a ZigBee Sample Program (BL4S100/BL4S150 only) .......................................................15
2.5 Where Do I Go From Here? ...............................................................................................................16
Chapter 3. Subsystems 17
3.1 BL4S100 Pinouts ................................................................................................................................18
3.1.1 Connectors ..................................................................................................................................18
3.2 Digital I/O ...........................................................................................................................................19
3.2.1 Digital Inputs...............................................................................................................................19
3.2.2 Digital Outputs............................................................................................................................22
3.3 Serial Communication ........................................................................................................................25
3.3.1 RS-232 ........................................................................................................................................25
3.3.2 Programming Port .......................................................................................................................25
3.3.3 Ethernet Port ...............................................................................................................................26
3.4 A/D Converter Inputs..........................................................................................................................27
3.4.1 A/D Converter Calibration..........................................................................................................29
3.5 USB Programming Cable ...................................................................................................................30
3.5.1 Changing Between Program Mode and Run Mode ....................................................................30
3.6 Other Hardware...................................................................................................................................31
3.6.1 Clock Doubler .............................................................................................................................31
3.6.2 Spectrum Spreader ......................................................................................................................31
3.7 Memory...............................................................................................................................................32
3.7.1 SRAM .........................................................................................................................................32
3.7.2 Flash Memory .............................................................................................................................32
3.7.3 VBAT RAM Memory.................................................................................................................32
BL4S100 User’s Manual 2
Chapter 4. Software 33
4.1 Running Dynamic C ...........................................................................................................................33
4.1.1 Upgrading Dynamic C ................................................................................................................35
4.1.2 Add-On Modules.........................................................................................................................35
4.2 Sample Programs ................................................................................................................................36
4.2.1 Digital I/O ...................................................................................................................................37
4.2.2 Serial Communication.................................................................................................................43
4.2.3 A/D Converter Inputs..................................................................................................................45
4.2.4 Real-Time Clock .........................................................................................................................46
4.2.5 TCP/IP Sample Programs ...........................................................................................................46
4.2.6 ZigBee Sample Programs............................................................................................................46
4.3 BL4S100 Libraries..............................................................................................................................47
4.4 BL4S100 Function Calls.....................................................................................................................48
4.4.1 Board Initialization .....................................................................................................................48
4.4.2 Digital I/O ...................................................................................................................................49
4.4.3 Rabbit RIO Interrupt Handlers....................................................................................................75
4.4.4 Serial Communication.................................................................................................................79
4.4.5 A/D Converter Inputs..................................................................................................................80
4.4.6 SRAM Use ..................................................................................................................................94
Chapter 5. Using the Ethernet TCP/IP Features 95
5.1 TCP/IP Connections ...........................................................................................................................95
5.2 TCP/IP Sample Programs ...................................................................................................................97
5.2.1 How to Set IP Addresses in the Sample Programs .....................................................................97
5.2.2 How to Set Up your Computer for Direct Connect ....................................................................98
5.2.3 Run the PINGME.C Demo ............................................................................................................99
5.2.4 Running More Demo Programs With a Direct Connection......................................................100
5.3 Where Do I Go From Here? .............................................................................................................102
Chapter 6. Using the ZigBee Features 103
6.1 Introduction to the ZigBee Protocol .................................................................................................103
6.2 ZigBee Sample Programs .................................................................................................................104
6.2.1 Setting Up the Digi XBee USB Coordinator ............................................................................105
6.2.2 Setting up Sample Programs .....................................................................................................107
6.3 Dynamic C Function Calls................................................................................................................111
6.4 Where Do I Go From Here? .............................................................................................................111
Appendix A. Specifications 112
A.1 Electrical and Mechanical Specifications ........................................................................................113
A.1.1 Exclusion Zone.........................................................................................................................115
A.1.2 Headers.....................................................................................................................................115
A.2 Jumper Configurations.....................................................................................................................116
A.3 Use of Rabbit Microprocessor Parallel Ports...................................................................................118
Appendix B. Power Supply 120
B.1 Power Supplies.................................................................................................................................120
B.2 Batteries and External Battery Connections ....................................................................................121
B.2.1 Replacing the Backup Battery..................................................................................................121
Appendix C. Demonstration Board 122
C.1 Connecting Demonstration Board....................................................................................................123
C.2 Demonstration Board Features.........................................................................................................124
C.2.1 Pinout........................................................................................................................................124
C.2.2 Configuration............................................................................................................................124
Appendix D. Rabbit RIO Resource Allocation 126
BL4S100 User’s Manual 3
D.1 Digital I/O Pin Associations ............................................................................................................127
D.2 Interpreting Error Codes ..................................................................................................................128
Appendix E. Plastic Enclosure 130
E.1 Assembly Instructions ......................................................................................................................131
E.2 Dimensions.......................................................................................................................................133
Appendix F. Additional Configuration Instructions 134
F.1 XBee Module Firmware Downloads................................................................................................134
F.1.1 Dynamic C v. 10.44 and Later..................................................................................................134
F.2 Digi® XBee USB Configuration ......................................................................................................135
F.2.1 Additional Reference Information ............................................................................................136
F.2.2 Update Digi® XBee USB Firmware .........................................................................................138
Index 139
Schematics 142
BL4S100 User’s Manual 4
1. INTRODUCTION
The BL4S100 series of high-performance, C-programmable single-board
computers offers built-in RS232, digital I/O and analog inputs combined
with the Ethernet and Zigbee network connectivity in a compact form fac-
tor. The BL4S100 single-board computers are ideal for both discrete manu-
facturing and process-control applications.
A Rabbit® 4000 microprocessor provides fast data processing.
1.1 BL4S100 Description
Throughout this manual, the term BL4S100 refers to the complete series of BL4S100 single-
board computers unless other production models are referred to specifically.
The BL4S100 is an advanced single-board computer that incorporates the powerful Rabbit
4000 microprocessor, serial flash memory, static RAM, digital inputs, digital outputs, A/D
converter inputs, RS-232 serial ports, and Ethernet and ZigBee network connectivity.
1.2 BL4S100 Features
Rabbit 4000 microprocessor operating at 40.00 MHz.
Screw-terminal connectors
512KB SRAM (battery-backed), 512KB/1MB fast SRAM, and 1MB/2MB flash memory
options.
20 digital I/O: 12 protected digital inputs, and 8 sinking digital outputs.
Advanced input capabilities including event counting, event capture, and quadrature
decoders that may be set up on all the digital input pins.
Independent PWM and PPM capability on all the digital output pins.
Eight 11-bit A/D converter inputs (plus one bit for sign).
Ethernet and ZigBee network connectivity.
Three serial ports:
Two 3-wire RS-232 serial ports or one 5-wire RS-232 serial port:
One serial port dedicated to programming/debugging.
Battery-backed real-time clock.
BL4S100 User’s Manual 5
Watchdog supervisor.
Four BL4S100 models are available. Their standard features are summarized in Table 1.
BL4S100 single-board computers are programmed over a standard PC USB port through a
programming cable supplied with the Tool Kit.
NOTE: BL4S100 Series single-board computers cannot be programmed via the RabbitLink.
Appendix A provides detailed specifications.
Table 1. BL4S100 Models
Feature BL4S100 BL4S110 BL4S150 BL4S160
Microprocessor Rabbit 4000 running at 40.00 MHz
Program Execution SRAM 512KB 1MB
Data SRAM 512KB
Serial Flash Memory
(program) 1MB 2MB
A/D Converter 12 bits
Ethernet Interface 10Base-T
ZigBee Interface ZigBee PRO
(802.15.4) ZigBee PRO
(802.15.4)
Visit the website for up-to-date information about additional add-ons and features as they
become available. The website also has the latest revision of this users manual.
Programming Getting Started Instrucfians Cable / Screwdriver a as Universal A C Adapter with Plugs Dema Board
BL4S100 User’s Manual 6
1.3 Development and Evaluation Tools
1.3.1 Tool Kit
A Tool Kit contains the hardware essentials you will need to use your own BL4S100 single-
board computer. These items are supplied in the Tool Kit.
Getting Started instructions.
Dynamic C CD-ROM, with complete product documentation on disk.
USB programming cable, used to connect your PC USB port to the BL4S100.
Universal AC adapter, 12 V DC, 1 A (includes Canada/Japan/U.S., Australia/N.Z.,
U.K., and European style plugs).
Demonstration Board with pushbutton switches and LEDs. The Demonstration Board
can be hooked up to the BL4S100 to demonstrate the I/O and capabilities of the
BL4S100.
DB9 to bare leads serial cable.
CAT 5/6 Ethernet crossover cable.
Screwdriver.
Rabbit 4000 Processor Easy Reference poster.
Registration card.
Figure 1. BL4S100 Tool Kit
set up.exe
BL4S100 User’s Manual 7
1.3.2 Software
The BL4S100 is programmed using version 10.44 or later of Rabbit’s Dynamic C. A com-
patible version is included on the Tool Kit CD-ROM. This version of Dynamic C includes the
popular µC/OS-II real-time operating system, point-to-point protocol (PPP), FAT file
system, RabbitWeb, and other select libraries.
Rabbit also offers for purchase the Rabbit Embedded Security Pack featuring the Secure
Sockets Layer (SSL) and a specific Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) library. In addi-
tion to the Web-based technical support included at no extra charge, a one-year telephone-
based technical support subscription is also available for purchase. Visit our website for
further information and complete documentation, or contact your Rabbit sales
representative or authorized distributor.
1.3.3 Optional Add-Ons
Rabbit has a plastic enclosure and a Mesh Network Add-On Kit available for the
BL4S100.
Visit our website at www.digi.com or contact your Rabbit sales representative or
authorized distributor for further information.
Mesh Network Add-On Kit (Part No. 101-1272)
Digi® XBee USB (used as ZigBee coordinator)
XBee Series 2 RF module
RF Interface module
The XBee Series 2 RF module is installed on the RF Interface module, which can be
connected via an RS-232 serial connection to a Windows PC for setup. The Mesh Net-
work Add-On Kit enables you to explore the wireless capabilities of BL4S100 models
that offer a ZigBee network interface.
Plastic enclosure (Part No. 181-0041)
Further details on the plastic enclosure are provided in
Appendix E.
GND
J7
20 11
10
D2
Q1
D3
Q2
D4
Q3
RP1
J4
RP2
D5
Q4
D6
Q5
D7
Q6
D8
Q7
D9
Q8
U2
J3
OUT2 OUT1 OUT0 IN3 IN2 IN1 IN0 +K GND
+5 V +K2 +K1 GND OUT7 OUT6 OUT5 OUT4 OUT3
BUTTON
DS1
DS2
R1
S2
S1
J5
RX TX/1W CTS RTS +5 V GND
RNET
J2 2
4
3
RNET
PWR
D1
J8
2
R41
R31
R43
R45
R40
R38R44
R33
U4
C13
R24
R30R25
R35
J6
C7
C11
2
JP1
C6
C10
J1
8
7
2
1
D10
D11
C2
C3
C4
R4
U1
R6
R23
R5
C5
R26 R34
R13
R14
R15
R16
R17
R18
R19
R20
R21
R22
R12
R7
R8
R9
R10
R11
D12 U7
D15 U8
D14
D13
20 11
10
C58 L1 J9
C69
C74
R69
R72
R73
R74
U18
J10
2
1
J11
2
1
AIN0 AIN1
AIN2 AIN3
R87
R89
R90
R93
AIN0 AIN1 AIN2 AIN3 AIN4 AIN5 AIN6 AIN7 AGND IN11 IN10 IN9 IN8 IN7 IN6 IN5 IN4 GND RST PWR
AGND
C65
C64
C68 R63
R65
L2
BT1
C86
C87
R86
U20
C96
C91
C92
C95
C97
C101
C102
C103
C104
C105
C106
C107
C108
R98
R99
R100
R101
R102
R103
R104
R105
R106
R107
R108
R109
R110
R111
R112
R113
ADC PROGRAMMER
GND
2
J12
J15
R115
RP5
RP3
R94 R91
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26
RP4
J13
2
RP6 1S3
J16
S4
C114
2
7
8
J14
R117
D27
DS3
DS4
J17 2
PWR
IN
L12
3
4
C93
D18
C112
R116
R118
L10 L11
C109
L8
C110
L9
L4
R88
C98
L5
C111L6
C99
L7
U21
C100
R95R96
R77
C94
R92
C113
R97
U19
R75
R85
C90
R76
C89
C88
U17
L3
C17
C18
C19
C20
C21
C22
C23
C24
C41
C44 R54
R55
C46
C49
C47
C50
U15
R62
R60
D17
C60
R66
C78
C80
C82
C81
C83
C84
4
3
1
2
Y4
R67
R68
R70
R71
R79
R80
R78
R81
R82
R83
R84
C70
C75
C72
C76
C73
C77
C71
C85 C79
U16
Y1
C55
Y2
C59
C66
1
R59
C38
C42
C43
C30
C33
C29
C32
C37
C52
R58
C51
C57
C67
C62
C63
C53
C54
R57
C61
4
1
3
R61
Y3
R64
U9
R47
U13
R46
R51
C27
U5
C34
C31
C28
R56 C45
C40
C39
U14
C56
U10
R53
Q9
R52
C35
C36
U12
C26
C25
U6
R48 R49
D16
U11
R28
R29
R50
C48
C1
R2
C16 C15C14
U3
C9
C12
C8
R27
R39
R42
R37
R32
R36
XBee
Series 2
CE
BL4S100 User’s Manual 8
1.4 CE Compliance
Equipment is generally divided into two classes.
These limits apply over the range of 30–230 MHz. The limits are 7 dB higher for frequen-
cies above 230 MHz. Although the test range goes to 1 GHz, the emissions from Rabbit-
based systems at frequencies above 300 MHz are generally well below background noise
levels.
The BL4S100 single-board computer has been tested and was found to
be in conformity with the following applicable immunity and emission
standards. The BL4S110, BL4S150, and BL4S160 single-board
computers are also CE qualified as they are sub-versions of the BL4S100
single-board computer. Boards that are CE-compliant have the CE mark.
Immunity
The BL4S100 series of single-board computers meets the following EN55024/1998
immunity standards.
EN61000-4-3 (Radiated Immunity)
EN61000-4-4 (EFT)
EN61000-4-6 (Conducted Immunity)
Additional shielding or filtering may be required for a heavy industrial environment.
Emissions
The BL4S100 series of single-board computers meets the following emission standards.
EN55022:1998 Class B
FCC Part 15 Class B
Your results may vary, depending on your application, so additional shielding or filtering
may be needed to maintain the Class B emission qualification.
CLASS A CLASS B
Digital equipment meant for light industrial use Digital equipment meant for home use
Less restrictive emissions requirement:
less than 40 dB µV/m at 10 m
(40 dB relative to 1 µV/m) or 300 µV/m
More restrictive emissions requirement:
30 dB µV/m at 10 m or 100 µV/m
BL4S100 User’s Manual 9
1.4.1 Design Guidelines
Note the following requirements for incorporating the BL4S100 series of single-board
computers into your application to comply with CE requirements.
General
The power supply provided with the Tool Kit is for development purposes only. It is the
customers responsibility to provide a CE-compliant power supply for the end-product
application.
When connecting the BL4S100 single-board computer to outdoor cables, the customer
is responsible for providing CE-approved surge/lighting protection.
Rabbit recommends placing digital I/O or analog cables that are 3 m or longer in a
metal conduit to assist in maintaining CE compliance and to conform to good cable
design practices.
When installing or servicing the BL4S100, it is the responsibility of the end-user to use
proper ESD precautions to prevent ESD damage to the BL4S100.
Safety
All inputs and outputs to and from the BL4S100 series of single-board computers must
not be connected to voltages exceeding SELV levels (42.4 V AC peak, or 60 V DC).
The lithium backup battery circuit on the BL4S100 single-board computer has been
designed to protect the battery from hazardous conditions such as reverse charging and
excessive current flows. Do not disable the safety features of the design.
1.4.2 Interfacing the BL4S100 to Other Devices
Since the BL4S100 series of single-board computers is designed to be connected to other
devices, good EMC practices should be followed to ensure compliance. CE compliance is
ultimately the responsibility of the integrator. Additional information, tips, and technical
assistance are available from your authorized Rabbit distributor, and are also available on
our website.
BL4S100 User’s Manual 10
2. GETTING STARTED
Chapter 2 explains how to connect the programming cable and power sup-
ply to the BL4S100.
BL4S100 User’s Manual 11
2.1 BL4S100 Connections
Step 1 — Connect Programming Cable
The programming cable connects the BL4S100 to the PC running Dynamic C to download
programs and to monitor the BL4S100 module during debugging.
Connect the 10-pin PROG connector of the programming cable to header J8 on the
BL4S100. Ensure that the colored edge lines up with pin 1 as shown. (Do not use the
DIAG connector, which is used for monitoring only.) Connect the other end of the pro-
gramming cable to an available USB port on your PC or workstation.
Figure 2. Programming Cable Connections
Your PC should recognize the new USB hardware, and the LEDs in the shrink-wrapped
area of the USB programming cable will flash — if you get an error message, you will
have to install USB drivers. Drivers for Windows XP are available in the Dynamic C
Drivers\Rabbit USB Programming Cable\WinXP_2K folder — double-click
DPInst.exe to install the USB drivers. Drivers for other operating systems are available
online at www.ftdichip.com/Drivers/VCP.htm.
GND
J7
20 11
10
D2
Q1
D3
Q2
D4
Q3
RP1
J4
RP2
D5
Q4
D6
Q5
D7
Q6
D8
Q7
D9
Q8
U2
J3
OUT2 OUT1 OUT0 IN3 IN2 IN1 IN0 +K GND
+5 V +K2 +K1 GND OUT7 OUT6 OUT5 OUT4 OUT3
BUTTON
DS1
DS2
R1
S2
S1
J5
RX TX/1W CTS RTS +5 V GND
RNET
J2 2
4
3
RNET
PWR
D1
J8
2
R41
R31
R43
R45
R40
R38R44
R33
U4
C13
R24
R30 R25
R35
J6
C7
C11
2
JP1
C6
C10
J1
8
7
2
1
D10
D11
C2
C3
C4
R4
U1
R6
R23
R5
C5
R26 R34
R13
R14
R15
R16
R17
R18
R19
R20
R21
R22
R12
R7
R8
R9
R10
R11
D12 U7
D15 U8
D14
D13
20 11
10
C58 L1 J9
C69
C74
R69
R72
R73
R74
U18
J10
2
1
J11
2
1
AIN0 AIN1
AIN2 AIN3
R87
R89
R90
R93
AIN0 AIN1 AIN2 AIN3 AIN4 AIN5 AIN6 AIN7 AGND IN11 IN10 IN9 IN8 IN7 IN6 IN5 IN4 GND RST PWR
AGND
C65
C64
C68 R63
R65
L2
BT1
C86
C87
R86
U20
C96
C91
C92
C95
C97
C101
C102
C103
C104
C105
C106
C107
C108
R98
R99
R100
R101
R102
R103
R104
R105
R106
R107
R108
R109
R110
R111
R112
R113
ADC PROGRAMMER
GND
2
J12
J15
R115
RP5
RP3
R94 R91
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26
RP4
J13
2
RP6 1S3
J16
S4
C114
2
7
8
J14
R117
D27
DS3
DS4
J17 2
PWR
IN
L12
3
4
C93
D18
C112
R116
R118
L10 L11
C109
L8
C110
L9
L4
R88
C98
L5
C111L6
C99
L7
U21
C100
R95R96
R77
C94
R92
C113
R97
U19
R75
R85
C90
R76
C89
C88
U17
L3
C17
C18
C19
C20
C21
C22
C23
C24
C41
C44 R54
R55
C46
C49
C47
C50
U15
R62
R60
D17
C60
R66
C78
C80
C82
C81
C83
C84
4
3
1
2
Y4
R67
R68
R70
R71
R79
R80
R78
R81
R82
R83
R84
C70
C75
C72
C76
C73
C77
C71
C85 C79
U16
Y1
C55
Y2
C59
C66
1
R59
C38
C42
C43
C30
C33
C29
C32
C37
C52
R58
C51
C57
C67
C62
C63
C53
C54
R57
C61
4
1
3
R61
Y3
R64
U9
R47
U13
R46
R51
C27
U5
C34
C31
C28
R56 C45
C40
C39
U14
C56
U10
R53
Q9
R52
C35
C36
U12
C26
C25
U6
R48 R49
D16
U11
R28
R29
R50
C48
C1
R2
C16 C15 C14
U3
C9
C12
C8
R27
R39
R42
R37
R32
R36
XBee
Series 2
Colored
edge
To
PC USB port
PROG
DIAG
Programming
Cable
PROG
J8
/’\ Remove slaloover, Insemah mm mm
BL4S100 User’s Manual 12
Step 2 — Connect Power Supply
Once all the other connections have been made, you can connect power to the BL4S100.
First, prepare the AC adapter for the country where it will be used by selecting the plug.
The Tool Kit presently includes Canada/Japan/U.S., Australia/N.Z., U.K., and European
style plugs. Snap in the top of the plug assembly into the slot at the top of the AC adapter
as shown in Figure 3, then press down on the spring-loaded clip below the plug assembly
to allow the plug assembly to click into place. Release the clip to secure the plug assembly
in the AC adapter.
Connect the power supply to header J17 on the BL4S100 as shown in Figure 3. Be sure to
match the latch mechanism with the top of the connector to header J17 on the BL4S100 as
shown. The Micro-Fit® connector will only fit one way.
Figure 3. Power Supply Connections
Plug in the AC adapter. The red LED next to the power connector at J17 should light up.
The BL4S100 is now ready to be used.
CAUTION: Unplug the power supply while you make or otherwise work with the connections
to the headers. This will protect your BL4S100 from inadvertent shorts or power spikes.
2.1.1 Hardware Reset
A hardware reset is done by unplugging the power supply, then plugging it back in, or by
pressing the RESET button located next to the Ethernet jack.
BL4S100 User’s Manual 13
2.2 Installing Dynamic C
If you have not yet installed Dynamic C version 10.44 (or a later version), do so now by
inserting the Dynamic C CD from the BL4S100 Tool Kit in your PC’s CD-ROM drive. If
autorun is enabled, the CD installation will begin automatically.
If autorun is disabled or the installation does not start, use the Windows Start | Run menu
or Windows Disk Explorer to launch setup.exe from the root folder of the CD-ROM.
The installation program will guide you through the installation process. Most steps of the
process are self-explanatory.
NOTE: If you have an earlier version of Dynamic C already installed, the default instal-
lation of the later version will be in a different folder, and a separate icon will appear on
your desktop.
The online documentation is installed along with Dynamic C, and an icon for the docu-
mentation menu is placed on the workstation’s desktop. Double-click this icon to reach the
menu. If the icon is missing, create a new desktop icon that points to default.htm in the
docs folder, found in the Dynamic C installation folder. The latest versions of all docu-
ments are always available for free, unregistered download from our websites as well.
The Dynamic C Users Manual provides detailed instructions for the installation of
Dynamic C and any future upgrades.
Once your installation is complete, you will have up to three icons on your PC desktop.
One icon is for Dynamic C, one opens the documentation menu, and the third is for the
Rabbit Field Utility, a tool used to download precompiled software to a target system.
If you have purchased any of the optional Dynamic C modules, install them after installing
Dynamic C. The modules may be installed in any order. You must install the modules in
the same directory where Dynamic C was installed.
BL4S100 User’s Manual 14
2.3 Starting Dynamic C
Once the BL4S100 is connected to your PC and to a power source, start Dynamic C by
double-clicking on the Dynamic C icon on your desktop or in your Start menu. Select
Store Program in Flash on the “Compiler” tab in the Dynamic C Options > Project
Options menu. Then click on the “Communications” tab and verify that Use USB to
Serial Converter is selected to support the USB programming cable. Click OK.
You may have to select the COM port assigned to the USB programming cable on your
PC. In Dynamic C, select Options > Project Options, then select this COM port on the
“Communications” tab, then click OK. You may type the COM port number followed by
Enter on your computer keyboard if the COM port number is outside the range on the
dropdown menu.
2.4 Run a Sample Program
You are now ready to test your set-up by running a sample program.
Use the File menu to open the sample program PONG.C, which is in the Dynamic C
SAMPLES folder. Press function key F9 to compile and run the program. The STDIO
window will open on your PC and will display a small square bouncing around in a box.
This program shows that the CPU is working. The sample program described in
Section 5.2.3, “Run the PINGME.C Demo,” tests the TCP/IP portion of the board.
2.4.1 Troubleshooting
If you receive the message No Rabbit Processor Detected, the programming cable
may be connected to the wrong COM port, a connection may be faulty, or the target sys-
tem may not be powered up. First, check to see that the red power LED next to header J5
is lit. If the LED is lit, check both ends of the programming cable to ensure that it is firmly
plugged into the PC and the programming header on the BL4S100 with the marked (col-
ored) edge of the programming cable towards pin 1 of the programming header.
If Dynamic C appears to compile the BIOS successfully, but you then receive a communi-
cation error message when you compile and load a sample program, it is possible that your
PC cannot handle the higher program-loading baud rate. Try changing the maximum
download rate to a slower baud rate as follows.
Locate the Serial Options dialog on the “Communications” tab in the Dynamic C
Options > Project Options menu. Select a slower Max download baud rate. Click OK
to save.
If a program compiles and loads, but then loses target communication before you can
begin debugging, it is possible that your PC cannot handle the default debugging baud
rate. Try lowering the debugging baud rate as follows.
Locate the Serial Options dialog on the “Communications” tab in the Dynamic C
Options > Project Options menu. Choose a lower debug baud rate. Click OK to save.
Press <Ctrl-Y> to force Dynamic C to recompile the BIOS. You should receive a Bios
compiled successfully message once this step is completed successfully.
BL4S100 User’s Manual 15
2.4.2 Run a ZigBee Sample Program (BL4S100/BL4S150 only)
This section explains how to run a sample program in which the BL4S100/BL4S150 is used
in its default setup as a router and the Digi XBee USB is used as the ZigBee coordinator.
1. Connect the Digi XBee USB acting as a ZigBee coordinator to an available USB port
on your PC or workstation. Your PC should recognize the new USB hardware.
2. Find the file AT_INTERACTIVE.C, which is in the Dynamic C SAMPLES\XBee folder.
To run the program, open it with the File menu, then compile and run it by pressing F9.
The Dynamic C STDIO window will open to display a list of AT commands. Type
MENU to redisplay the menu of commands.
Appendix F provides additional configuration information if you experience conflicts
while doing development simultaneously with more than one ZigBee coordinator, or if you
wish to upload new firmware.
Waiting to join network...
done
Cmd - Description
=====================
ATCH - Read the current channel. Will be zero if we
are not associated with a network.
ATID - Set or read the current PAN ID. If you set the ID you
must write it to non-volitile memory ("WR") and
then reset the network software ("NR").
ATOP - Read the operating PAN ID.
ATMY - Read the current network address. Will be 0xFFFE
if we are not associated with a network.
ATSH - Read the upper four bytes of the radio IEEE address.
ATSL - Read the lower four bytes of the radio IEEE address.
ATNI - Set or read the Node Identifier.
ATBH - Set or read the maximum number of Broadcast Hops.
ATNT - Set or read the Node Discovery timeout value (in 0.1s).
ATSC - Set or read the list of channels to scan. This
value is a bit-field list.
ATSD - Set or read the channel scan duration value.
ATNJ - Set or read the Node Joining Time value.
ATAI - Read the Association Indicator. A zero value
means we are associated with a network.
ATPL - Set or read the transmission power level.
ATVR - Read the radio software version number.
ATHV - Read the radio hardware version number.
MENU - Display this menu (not an AT command.)
Valid command formats (AT prefix is optional, CC is command):
[AT]CC 0xXXXXXX (where XXXXXX is an even number of hexidecimal characters)
[AT]CC YYYY (where YYYY is an integer, up to 32 bits)
[AT]NI "Node ID String" (where quotes contain string data)
Enter AT Command:
BL4S100 User’s Manual 16
2.5 Where Do I Go From Here?
NOTE: If you purchased your BL4S100 through a distributor or Rabbit partner, contact
the distributor or partner first for technical support.
If there are any problems at this point:
Use the Dynamic C Help menu to get further assistance with Dynamic C.
Check the Rabbit Technical Bulletin Board and forums at www.digi.com/support/ and
at www.digi.com/forum/support/rabbit.
Click tech.support@digi.com to send an email to Technical Support.
If the sample program ran fine, you are now ready to go on to explore other BL4S100
features and develop your own applications.
When you start to develop an application involving the analog inputs, run USERBLOCK_
READ_WRITE.C in the SAMPLES\UserBlock folder to save the factory calibration con-
stants before you run any other sample programs in case you inadvertently write over
them while running another sample program.
Chapter 3, “Subsystems,” provides a description of the BL4S100’s features, Chapter 4,
“Software,” describes the Dynamic C software libraries and introduces some sample
programs, and explains the TCP/IP features.
BL4S100 User’s Manual 17
3. SUBSYSTEMS
Chapter 3 describes the principal subsystems for the BL4S100.
•Digital I/O
Serial Communication
A/D Converter Inputs
• Memory
Figure 4 shows these Rabbit-based subsystems designed into the BL4S100.
Figure 4. BL4S100 Subsystems
BL4S100
RABBIT ®
4000
RS-232
Digital
Inputs
Digital
Outputs
Programming
Port
Ethernet A/D
Converter
Fast SRAM
(program)
Serial
Flash
Data
SRAM
RABBIT ®
RIO
ZigBee PRO
(802.15.4)
optional
Real-Time
Clock
Main
Clock
l—Il—I $$€®5§%®$ $®e§6®’4§fll $5§6§3 0 J3 J4 oooooooooo 5 WE cooooooooo J14 J1 0 J15 J16 s&s®3§%&m $®$§5®%§¢b I (<><><><><><>< |—l|—l="" eb="">
BL4S100 User’s Manual 18
3.1 BL4S100 Pinouts
The BL4S100 pinouts are shown in Figure 5.
Figure 5. BL4S100 Pinouts
3.1.1 Connectors
Standard BL4S100 models are equipped with an RJ-45 Ethernet jack, four 1 × 9 screw-
terminal headers and one 1 × 6 screw-terminal header for the I/O and RS-232 signals. The
polarized 2 × 2 Micro-Fit connector at J17 is for the power supply connection.
BL4S100 User’s Manual 19
3.2 Digital I/O
3.2.1 Digital Inputs
The BL4S100 has 12 digital inputs, IN0–IN11, each of which is protected over a range of
–36 V to +36 V. The inputs are factory-configured to be pulled up to +5 V, but they can
also be pulled up to +K or pulled down to 0 V by changing a jumper as shown in Figure 6.
Figure 6. BL4S100 Digital Inputs IN0–IN11 [Pulled Up to +5 V—Factory Default]
Table 2 summarizes the jumper settings.
CAUTION: Do not simultaneously jumper more than one setting when configuring
the pull-up or pull-down options.
Table 2. BL4S100 Digital Input Pull-Up/Pull-Down Jumper Settings
Pins Jumpered Pulled Up/Pulled Down
1–2 Inputs pulled up to +K
2–4 or 4–6 Inputs pulled down to GND
5–6 Inputs pulled up to +5 V
100 kW
27 kW
+K +5 V +3.3 V
IN0IN11
Rabbit® RIO
J13
BL4S100 User’s Manual 20
Individual digital input channels may be also used for counters, synching, interrupts, input
capture, or as quadrature decoder inputs. The use of these channels for interrupts, input
capture, and as quadrature decoders is described below.
Blocks of digital input pins are associated with counters/timers on the Rabbit RIO chip.
Table 3 provides complete details for these associations.
Appendix D provides further details on the blocks and pins associated with the Rabbit
RIO chip to facilitate configuring each block consistently and to identify misconfigured
pins when a software function call returns a Mode Conflict error code.
The actual switching threshold is approximately
1.40 V. Anything below this value is a logic 0,
and anything above 1.90 V is a logic 1. The
digital inputs are each fully protected over a
range of -36 V to +36 V, and can handle short
spikes of ±40 V.
NOTE: If the inputs are pulled up to +K, the
voltage range over which the digital inputs are
protected changes to +K – 36 V to +36 V.
Figure 7. BL4S100 Digital Input
Protected Range
CAUTION: Do not allow the voltage on a digital input pin to exceed ±36 V to
avoid damaging the input.
Table 3. Counter/Timer Associations for BL4S100 Digital Input Pins
Configurable I/O
Pin(s)
Counter/Timer
Blocks
Block Shared
With
IN0–IN2 0 XBee RF module
IN3–IN5 1 —
IN6–IN7 2 OUT0–OUT1
IN8–IN9 3 OUT2–OUT3
IN10 6 —
IN11 7 —
+40 V
+36 V
+3.3 V
40 V
Normal Switching
Levels
Spikes
Digital Input Voltage
Spikes
Spikes
Charm e/o
BL4S100 User’s Manual 21
Keep the following guidelines in mind when selecting special uses for the digital input pins.
Interrupts, event counters, and input capture are available on any digital input pin.
Each Quadrature Decoder channel requires at least two digital input pins associated
with the same counter/timer block; three digital input pins associated with the same
counter/timer block are needed if you need indexing. Quadrature Decoder channels are
configured using the setDecoder() function call.
Sample programs in the DIO subdirectory in SAMPLES\BL4S1xx show how to set up and
use digital inputs for interrupts, pulse capture, and quadrature decoders.
3.2.1.1 Interrupt, Counter, and Event Capture Setup
External interrupts on the BL4S100 digital input pins are configured using the setEx-
tInterrupt() function call. The interrupt can be set up to occur on a rising edge, a fall-
ing edge, or either edge.
The counter readings can be obtained via the getBegin() or getEnd() function calls.
An input channel may be set up to count
events, with the count incrementing or
decrementing, using the rising edge, fall-
ing edge, or either edge as triggers to start/
end the count. This feature is configured
using the setCounter() function call.
A more extensive use of the timing abilities
of the BL4S100 inputs can be realized
through the event capture function call,
setCapture(). Here the count of a par-
ticular clock cycle is noted at the start of the
event and at the end of the event so that the
time between them can be determined. This
can be set up on one or two input channels.
The event counter can be reset with the
resetCounter() function call.
Channel 0
Begin
Count
End
Count
Channel 1
Start
Event
End
Event
BL4S100 User’s Manual 22
3.2.2 Digital Outputs
The BL4S100 has eight digital outputs, OUT0–OUT7, which can each sink up to 200 mA.
Figure 8 shows a wiring diagram for using the sinking digital outputs.
Figure 8. BL4S100 Digital Outputs
OUT0–OUT3 are powered by +K1, and OUT4–OUT7 are powered by +K2. +K1 and
+K2 can each be up to 36 V. They don't have to be the same. All the sinking current, which
could be up to 1.6 A, is returned through the GND pin. Be sure to use a suitably sized
ground wire and keep the distance to the power supply as short as possible.
All the digital outputs sink actively. They can be used as low-side drivers, or as an H-bridge
driver. When the BL4S100 is first powered up or reset, all the outputs are disabled, that is
at a high-impedance state.
Individual digital output channels may be used for PWM/PPM outputs.The use of these
channels for PWM/PPM is described in Section 3.2.2.1.
For the H bridge, which is shown in Figure 9,
Ka and Kb should be the same. This is most
easily accomplished by using outputs from the
same bank on one connector.
Figure 9. H Bridge
+K1 or +K2
SINKING OUTPUT
Rabbit® RIO
470 W
OUT0OUT7
+Ka +Kb
LOAD
A
A
B
B
PULL-UP
RESISTORS
BL4S100 User’s Manual 23
Blocks of digital output pins are associated with counters/timers on the Rabbit RIO chip.
Table 4 provides complete details for these associations.
Appendix D provides further details on the blocks and pins associated with the Rabbit
RIO chip to facilitate configuring each block consistently and to identify misconfigured
pins when a software function call returns a Mode Conflict error code.
Keep the following guidelines in mind when selecting special uses for the digital output
pins.
When using digital output pins for PWM/PPM outputs, the output pins can only share
the same RIO block if they are using the same period or frequency.
The PWM.C and the PPM.C sample programs in the DIO subdirectory in SAMPLES\
BL4S1xx show how to set up and use the PWM/PPM outputs.
Table 4. Counter/Timer Associations for BL4S100 Digital Output Pins
Configurable I/O
Pin(s)
Counter/Timer
Blocks Block Shared With
OUT0–OUT1 2 IN6–IN7
OUT2–OUT3 3 IN8–IN9
OUT4–OUT5 4 RabbitNet
(reserved for future use)
OUT6–OUT7 5 A/D converter
BL4S100 User’s Manual 24
3.2.2.1 PWM/PPM Outputs Setup
PWM and PPM outputs on the BL4S100 are configured using the setPWM() and
setPPM() function calls.
A PWM output is described as noninverted
when it starts high, remains high for a duty
cycle that is a fraction of the period, then
goes low for the remainder of the period.
Similarly, an inverted PWM output starts
low, remains low for a duty cycle that is a
fraction of the period, then goes high for
the remainder of the period.
A PWM output is normally set up to start
when triggered by an event, and may be
set up so that the leading and trailing edges
of several PWM outputs are aligned as
long as the all the PWM outputs are on the
same block of a particular Rabbit RIO
chip.
A PPM ouput is similar to a PWM output,
except it is shifted by an offset relative to
the event that triggered the start of the
PPM output.
A PPM output is either inverted or nonin-
verted, based on whether it starts high or
low, and may be set up so that their lead-
ing and trailing edges of several PPM out-
puts are aligned as long as the all the PPM
outputs are on the same block of a particu-
lar Rabbit RIO chip
Period
Duty
Cycle
Inverted
Noninverted
PWM
OUTPUT
Period
Duty
Cycle
Shifted
PPM
OUTPUT
Offset
BL4S100 User’s Manual 25
3.3 Serial Communication
The BL4S100 has two RS-232 serial ports, which can be configured as one RS-232 serial
channel (with RTS/CTS) or as two RS-232 (3-wire) channels using the serMode() soft-
ware function call. Table 5 summarizes the options.
The BL4S100 also has one CMOS serial channel that serves as the programming port.
All three serial ports operate in an asynchronous mode. An asynchronous port can handle
7 or 8 data bits. A 9th bit address scheme, where an additional bit is sent to mark the first
byte of a message, is also supported. Serial Port A, the programming port, can be operated
alternately in the clocked serial mode. In this mode, a clock line synchronously clocks the
data in or out. Either of the two communicating devices can supply the clock. The BL4S100
boards supports standard asynchronous baud rates up to 115,200 bps.
3.3.1 RS-232
The BL4S100 RS-232 serial communication is supported by an RS-232 transceiver. This
transceiver provides the voltage output, slew rate, and input voltage immunity required to
meet the RS-232 serial communication protocol. Basically, the chip translates the Rabbit
microprocessors CMOS signals to RS-232 signal levels. Note that the polarity is reversed
in an RS-232 circuit so that a +3.3 V output becomes approximately -10 V and 0 V is out-
put as +10 V. The RS-232 transceiver also provides the proper line loading for reliable
communication.
RS-232 can be used effectively at the BL4S100’s maximum baud rate for distances of up
to 15 m.
3.3.2 Programming Port
The BL4S100 has a 10-pin programming header. The programming port uses the Rabbit
4000 Serial Port A for communication, and is used for the following operations.
Programming/debugging
Cloning
The programming port is used to start the BL4S100 in a mode where the BL4S100 will
download a program and then execute the program. The programming port transmits
information to and from a PC while a program is being debugged.
The Rabbit 4000 startup-mode pins (SMODE0, SMODE1) are presented to the program-
ming port so that an externally connected device can force the BL4S100 to start up in an
Table 5. Serial Communication Configurations
Mode
Serial Port
D F
0 RS-232, 3-wire RS-232, 3-wire
1 RS-232, 5-wire CTS/RTS
f fl+m
BL4S100 User’s Manual 26
external bootstrap mode. The BL4S100 can be reset from the programming port via the
/RESET_IN line.
The Rabbit microprocessor status pin is also presented to the programming port. The status
pin is an output that can be used to send a general digital signal.
NOTE: Refer to the Rabbit 4000 Microprocessor Users Manual for more information
related to the bootstrap mode.
3.3.3 Ethernet Port
Figure 10 shows the pinout for the Ethernet port (J4). Note that there are two standards for
numbering the pins on this connector—the convention used here, and numbering in reverse
to that shown. Regardless of the numbering convention followed, the pin positions relative
to the spring tab position (located at the bottom of the RJ-45 jack in Figure 10) are always
absolute, and the RJ-45 connector will work properly with off-the-shelf Ethernet cables.
Figure 10. RJ-45 Ethernet Port Pinout
Two LEDs on the RJ-45 Ethernet jack indicate an Ethernet link (green LNK) and Ethernet
activity (yellow ACT).
The grounded RJ-45 connector is shielded to minimize EMI effects to/from the Ethernet
signals.
ETHERNET
RJ-45 Plug
1. E_Tx+
2. E_Tx
3. E_Rx+
6. E_Rx
18
RJ-45 Jack
LW L
BL4S100 User’s Manual 27
3.4 A/D Converter Inputs
The single A/D converter chip used in the BL4S100 has a resolution of 12 bits (11 bits for
the value and one bit for the polarity)
. The A/D converter chip has a programmable-gain
amplifier. Each external input has circuitry that provides scaling and filtering. All 8 external
inputs are scaled and filtered to provide the user with an input impedance of 1 M and a
variety of single-ended unipolar, and differential bipolar ranges as shown in Table 6.
Figure 11 shows a pair of A/D converter input circuits. The resistors form an approx. 10:1
attenuator, and the capacitors filter noise pulses from the A/D converter inputs.
Figure 11. Buffered A/D Converter Inputs
The A/D converter chip can only accept positive voltages. By pairing the analog inputs,
differential bipolar measurements are possible, and can be configured for each channel pair
with the opmode parameter in the anaInConfig() software function call. The available
voltage ranges are listed in Table 6.
ADC
953 kW
10 pF
AIN0
AGND
AIN1
10 pF
105 kW
105 kW
953 kW
Apply jumpers . J 1 1 4/ O O H) 00 O
BL4S100 User’s Manual 28
In the differential mode, each individual channel is limited to half the total voltage—for
example, the range for a gain code of 1 is ±20 V, but each channel is limited to 0–20 V.
Note that while the differential bipolar mode can return a negative value, this negative
value can only indicate negative with respect to the two differential voltages since the A/D
converter cannot handle a voltage below -0.2 V.
The A/D converter inputs are factory-calibrated, and the calibration constants are stored in
the user block.
Table 6. A/D Converter Input Voltage Ranges
Amplifier
Gain
Voltage Range
Single-Ended
Unipolar
Differential
Bipolar
1 0–20 V ± 20 V
2 0–10 V ± 10 V
4 0–5 V ± 5 V
5 0–4 V ± 4 V
8*0–2.5 V ± 2.5 V
10 0–2 V ± 2 V
16 0–1.25 V ± 1.25 V
20 0–1 V ± 1 V
* 4–20 mA operation is available with an ampli-
fier gain of 8
When using channels AIN0–AIN3 for current
measurements, remember to set the corre-
sponding jumper(s) on headers J10 and J11.
The current measurements are realized by actu-
ally measuring the voltage drop across a 100
resistor.
Figure 12. Analog Current Measurements
100 W
J11
AIN0
AIN1
Apply jumpers
for factory-default
current measurements
J10
AIN2
AIN3
BL4S100 User’s Manual 29
3.4.1 A/D Converter Calibration
When you start to develop your application, run USERBLOCK_READ_WRITE.C in the
SAMPLES\UserBlock folder to save the factory calibration constants in case you inad-
vertently write over them while running the sample programs.
To get the best results from the A/D converter, it is necessary to calibrate each mode
(single-ended, differential, and current) for each of its gains. It is imperative that you cali-
brate each of the A/D converter inputs in the same manner as they are to be used in the
application. For example, if you will be performing floating differential measurements or
differential measurements using a common analog ground, then calibrate the A/D con-
verter in the corresponding manner. The calibration table in software only holds calibra-
tion constants based on mode, channel, and gain. Other factors affecting the calibration must
be taken into account by calibrating using the same mode and gain setup as in the intended use.
Sample programs are provided to illustrate how to read and calibrate the various A/D
inputs for the three operating modes.
These sample programs are found in the ADC subdirectory in SAMPLES\BL4S1xx. See
Section 4.2.3 for more information on these sample programs and how to use them.
Mode Read Calibrate
Single-Ended, unipolar ADC_RD_SE_UNIPOLAR.C ADC_CAL_SE_UNIPOLAR.C
Differential, bipolar ADC_RD_DIFF.C ADC_CAL_DIFF.C
4–20 mA ADC_RD_MA.C ADC_CAL_MA.C
BL4S100 User’s Manual 30
3.5 USB Programming Cable
The USB programming cable is used to connect the serial programming port of the
BL4S100 to a PC USB port. The programming cable converts the voltage levels used by
the PC USB port to the CMOS voltage levels used by the Rabbit microprocessor.
When the PROG connector on the programming cable is connected to the programming
header on the BL4S100, programs can be downloaded and debugged over the serial interface.
The DIAG connector of the programming cable may be used on the programming header on
the BL4S100 with the BL4S100 operating in the Run Mode. This allows the programming
port to be used as a regular serial port.
3.5.1 Changing Between Program Mode and Run Mode
The BL4S100 is automatically in Program Mode when the PROG connector on the pro-
gramming cable is attached, and is automatically in Run Mode when reset with no program-
ming cable is attached or the DIAG connector is attached. When the Rabbit microprocessor
is reset, the operating mode is determined by the status of the SMODE pins. When the pro-
gramming cable’s PROG connector is attached, the SMODE pins are pulled high, placing
the Rabbit microprocessor in the Program Mode. When the programming cable’s PROG
connector is not attached, the SMODE0 pin is pulled low and the SMODE1 pin is high so
that the Rabbit 4000 powers up in the clocked serial bootstrap mode to load the program
from the serial flash when the BL4S100 is operating in the Run Mode.
Figure 13. BL4S100 Program Mode and Run Mode Setup
A program “runs” in either mode, but can only be downloaded and debugged when the
BL4S100 is in the Program Mode.
Refer to the Rabbit 4000 Microprocessor Users Manual for more information on the pro-
gramming port and the programming cable.
GND
J7
20 11
10
D2
Q1
D3
Q2
D4
Q3
RP1
J4
RP2
D5
Q4
D6
Q5
D7
Q6
D8
Q7
D9
Q8
U2
J3
OUT2 OUT1 OUT0 IN3 IN2 IN1 IN0 +K GND
+5 V +K2 +K1 GND OUT7 OUT6 OUT5 OUT4 OUT3
BUTTON
DS1
DS2
R1
S2
S1
J5
RX TX/1W CTS RTS +5 V GND
RNET
J2 2
4
3
RNET
PWR
D1
J8
2
R41
R31
R43
R45
R40
R38R44
R33
U4
C13
R24
R30 R25
R35
J6
C7
C11
2
JP1
C6
C10
J1
8
7
2
1
D10
D11
C2
C3
C4
R4
U1
R6
R23
R5
C5
R26 R34
R13
R14
R15
R16
R17
R18
R19
R20
R21
R22
R12
R7
R8
R9
R10
R11
D12 U7
D15 U8
D14
D13
20 11
10
C58 L1 J9
C69
C74
R69
R72
R73
R74
U18
J10
2
1
J11
2
1
AIN0 AIN1
AIN2 AIN3
R87
R89
R90
R93
AIN0 AIN1 AIN2 AIN3 AIN4 AIN5 AIN6 AIN7 AGND IN11 IN10 IN9 IN8 IN7 IN6 IN5 IN4 GND RST PWR
AGND
C65
C64
C68 R63
R65
L2
BT1
C86
C87
R86
U20
C96
C91
C92
C95
C97
C101
C102
C103
C104
C105
C106
C107
C108
R98
R99
R100
R101
R102
R103
R104
R105
R106
R107
R108
R109
R110
R111
R112
R113
ADC PROGRAMMER
GND
2
J12
J15
R115
RP5
RP3
R94 R91
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26
RP4
J13
2
RP6 1S3
J16
S4
C114
2
7
8
J14
R117
D27
DS3
DS4
J17 2
PWR
IN
L12
3
4
C93
D18
C112
R116
R118
L10 L11
C109
L8
C110
L9
L4
R88
C98
L5
C111L6
C99
L7
U21
C100
R95R96
R77
C94
R92
C113
R97
U19
R75
R85
C90
R76
C89
C88
U17
L3
C17
C18
C19
C20
C21
C22
C23
C24
C41
C44 R54
R55
C46
C49
C47
C50
U15
R62
R60
D17
C60
R66
C78
C80
C82
C81
C83
C84
4
3
1
2
Y4
R67
R68
R70
R71
R79
R80
R78
R81
R82
R83
R84
C70
C75
C72
C76
C73
C77
C71
C85 C79
U16
Y1
C55
Y2
C59
C66
1
R59
C38
C42
C43
C30
C33
C29
C32
C37
C52
R58
C51
C57
C67
C62
C63
C53
C54
R57
C61
4
1
3
R61
Y3
R64
U9
R47
U13
R46
R51
C27
U5
C34
C31
C28
R56 C45
C40
C39
U14
C56
U10
R53
Q9
R52
C35
C36
U12
C26
C25
U6
R48 R49
D16
U11
R28
R29
R50
C48
C1
R2
C16 C15 C14
U3
C9
C12
C8
R27
R39
R42
R37
R32
R36
XBee
Series 2
Power
RESET BL4S100 when changing mode:
Cycle power off/on or press RESET
after removing or attaching programming cable.
Program Mode
Run Mode
RESET
PROG
DIAG
Colored
edge
To
PC USB port
PROG
DIAG
Programming
Cable
BL4S100 User’s Manual 31
3.6 Other Hardware
3.6.1 Clock Doubler
The BL4S100 takes advantage of the Rabbit microprocessors internal clock doubler. A
built-in clock doubler allows half-frequency crystals to be used to reduce radiated emissions.
The clock doubler may be disabled if the higher clock speeds are not required. Disabling
the clock doubler will reduce power consumption and further reduce radiated emissions.
The clock doubler is disabled with a simple configuration macro as shown below.
3.6.2 Spectrum Spreader
The Rabbit microprocessors features a spectrum spreader, which help to mitigate EMI
problems. By default, the spectrum spreader is on automatically, but it may also be turned
off or set to a stronger setting. The means for doing so is through a simple configuration
macro as shown below.
NOTE: Refer to the Rabbit 4000 Microprocessor Users Manual for more information
on the spectrum-spreading settings and the maximum clock speed.
1. Select the “Defines” tab from the Dynamic C Options > Project Options menu.
2. Add the line CLOCK_DOUBLED=0 to always disable the clock doubler.
The clock doubler is enabled by default, and usually no entry is needed. If you need to
specify that the clock doubler is always enabled, add the line CLOCK_DOUBLED=1 to
always enable the clock doubler.
3. Click OK to save the macro. The clock doubler will now remain off or on according to
your setting whenever you are using the project file where you defined the macro.
1. Select the “Defines” tab from the Dynamic C Options > Project Options menu.
2. Normal spreading is the default, and usually no entry is needed. If you need to specify nor-
mal spreading, add the line
ENABLE_SPREADER=1
For strong spreading, add the line
ENABLE_SPREADER=2
To disable the spectrum spreader, add the line
ENABLE_SPREADER=0
NOTE: The strong spectrum-spreading setting is not recommended since it may limit
the maximum clock speed or the maximum baud rate. It is unlikely that the strong set-
ting will be used in a real application.
3. Click OK to save the macro. The spectrum spreader will be set according to the macro
value whenever a program is compiled using this project file.
BL4S100 User’s Manual 32
3.7 Memory
3.7.1 SRAM
All BL4S100 boards have 512KB of battery-backed data SRAM, and 512KB–1MB of fast
program execution SRAM.
3.7.2 Flash Memory
BL4S100 boards have 1MB—2MB of serial flash memory.
Writing to arbitrary flash memory addresses at run time is also discouraged. Instead,
define a “user block” area to store persistent data. The functions writeUserBlock()
and readUserBlock() are provided for this.
3.7.3 VBAT RAM Memory
The tamper detection feature of the Rabbit microprocessor can be used to detect any
attempt to enter the bootstrap mode. When such an attempt is detected, the VBAT RAM
memory in the Rabbit microprocessor is erased. The serial bootloader on the BL4S100
boards uses the bootstrap mode to load the SRAM, which erases the VBAT RAM memory
on any reset, and so it cannot be used for tamper detection.
BL4S100 User’s Manual 33
4. SOFTWARE
Dynamic C is an integrated development system for writing embedded
software. It runs on an IBM-compatible PC and is designed for use with
single-board computers and other devices based on the Rabbit micropro-
cessor.
Chapter 4 provides the libraries, function calls, and sample programs
related to the BL4S100
4.1 Running Dynamic C
Since the BL4S100 has a serial flash memory, all software development must be done in
the static SRAM. The flash memory and SRAM options are selected with the Options >
Program Options > Compiler menu. Select Store Program in Flash on the “Compiler”
tab for the program to run normally.
For debugging purposes, you may select Store Program in RAM on the “Compiler” tab
so that download speed is as fast as possible. Note that programs stored in RAM will be
lost when the BL4S100 is reset, so this option should be used only for debugging.
Developing software with Dynamic C is simple. Users can write, compile, and test C and
assembly code without leaving the Dynamic C development environment. Debugging
occurs while the application runs on the target. Alternatively, users can compile a program
to an image file for later loading. Dynamic C runs on PCs under Windows NT and later—
see Rabbit’s Technical Note TN257, Running Dynamic C® With Windows Vista®, for
additional information if you are using a Dynamic C under Windows Vista. Programs can
be downloaded at baud rates of up to 460,800 bps after the program compiles.
BL4S100 User’s Manual 34
Dynamic C has a number of standard features:
Full-feature source and/or assembly-level debugger, no in-circuit emulator required.
Royalty-free TCP/IP stack with source code and most common protocols.
Hundreds of functions in source-code libraries and sample programs:
Exceptionally fast support for floating-point arithmetic and transcendental functions.
RS-232 and RS-485 serial communication.
Analog and digital I/O drivers.
I2C, SPI, GPS, file system.
LCD display and keypad drivers.
Powerful language extensions for cooperative or preemptive multitasking
Loader utility program to load binary images into Rabbit targets in the absence of
Dynamic C.
Provision for customers to create their own source code libraries and augment on-line
help by creating “function description” block comments using a special format for
library functions.
Standard debugging features:
Breakpoints—Set breakpoints that can disable interrupts.
Single-stepping—Step into or over functions at a source or machine code level, µC/OS-II aware.
Code disassembly—The disassembly window displays addresses, opcodes, mnemonics, and
machine cycle times. Switch between debugging at machine-code level and source-code level by
simply opening or closing the disassembly window.
Watch expressions—Watch expressions are compiled when defined, so complex expressions
including function calls may be placed into watch expressions. Watch expressions can be updated
with or without stopping program execution.
Register window—All processor registers and flags are displayed. The contents of general registers
may be modified in the window by the user.
Stack window—shows the contents of the top of the stack.
Hex memory dump—displays the contents of memory at any address.
STDIO window—printf outputs to this window and keyboard input on the host PC can be
detected for debugging purposes. printf output may also be sent to a serial port or file.
BL4S100 User’s Manual 35
4.1.1 Upgrading Dynamic C
4.1.1.1 Patches and Updates
Dynamic C patches that focus on bug fixes and updates are available from time to time.
Check the website at www.digi.com/support/ for the latest patches, workarounds, and
updates.
The default installation of a patch or update is to install the file in a directory (folder)
different from that of the original Dynamic C installation. Rabbit recommends using a
different directory so that you can verify the operation of the patch or update without over-
writing the existing Dynamic C installation. If you have made any changes to the BIOS or
to libraries, or if you have programs in the old directory (folder), make these same changes
to the BIOS or libraries in the new directory containing the patch. Do not simply copy
over an entire file since you may overwrite an update; of course, you may copy over any
programs you have written. Once you are sure the new patch or update works entirely to
your satisfaction, you may retire the existing installation, but keep it available to handle
legacy applications.
4.1.2 Add-On Modules
Starting with Dynamic C version 10.40, Dynamic C includes the popular µC/OS-II real-
time operating system, point-to-point protocol (PPP), FAT file system, RabbitWeb, and
other select libraries. Rabbit also offers for purchase the Rabbit Embedded Security Pack
featuring the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and a specific Advanced Encryption Standard
(AES) library.
In addition to the Web-based technical support included at no extra charge, a one-year
telephone-based technical support subscription is also available for purchase.
Visit our website at www.digi.com for further information and complete documentation.
BL4S100 User’s Manual 36
4.2 Sample Programs
Sample programs are provided in the Dynamic C Samples folder. The sample program
PONG.C demonstrates the output to the STDIO window.
The various directories in the Samples folder contain specific sample programs that illus-
trate the use of the corresponding Dynamic C libraries.
The SAMPLES\BL4S1xx folder provides sample programs specific to the BL4S100. Each
sample program has comments that describe the purpose and function of the program. Fol-
low the instructions at the beginning of the sample program.
To run a sample program, open it with the File menu (if it is not still open), then compile
and run it by pressing F9. The BL4S100 must be in Program mode (see Section 3.5,
“USB Programming Cable,”) and must be connected to a PC using the programming cable
as described in Section 2.1, “BL4S100 Connections.” See Appendix C for information on
the power-supply connections to the Demonstration Board.
Complete information on Dynamic C is provided in the Dynamic C Users Manual.
TCP/IP specific functions are described in the Dynamic C TCP/IP Users Manual, which
is included in the online documentation set. Information on using the TCP/IP features and
sample programs is provided in Chapter 5, “Using the Ethernet TCP/IP Features.”
ZigBee specific functions are described in An Introduction to ZigBee, which is included
in the online documentation set. Information on using the TCP/IP features and sample pro-
grams is provided in Chapter 6, “Using the ZigBee Features.”
m! mu LEZZ LEE] DIGITAL INPUTS INO—IN11 » DERS J3 & J4 BL4S100 "I . "m ii iii?“ $2“!
BL4S100 User’s Manual 37
4.2.1 Digital I/O
The following sample programs are found in the SAMPLES\BL4S1xx\DIO subdirectory.
Figure 14 shows the signal connections for the sample programs that illustrate the use of
the digital inputs.
Figure 14. Digital Inputs Signal Connections
DIGIN.C—Demonstrates the use of the digital inputs. Using the Demonstration Board,
you can see an input channel toggle from HIGH to LOW in the Dynamic C STDIO
window when you press a pushbutton on the Demonstration Board.
DIGIN_BANK.C—Demonstrates the use of digInBank() to read digital inputs. Using
the Demonstration Board, you can see an input channel toggle from HIGH to LOW in
the Dynamic C STDIO window when you press a pushbutton on the Demonstration
Board. The banking functions allow I/O banks to be input or output more efficiently.
DIGITAL INPUTS IN0IN11
HEADERS J3 & J4
BL4S100
CONNECT TO
BL4S100
HEADER J4
J3 J4
GND
J7
20 11
10
D2
Q1
D3
Q2
D4
Q3
RP1
J4
RP2
D5
Q4
D6
Q5
D7
Q6
D8
Q7
D9
Q8
U2
J3
OUT2 OUT1 OUT0 IN3 IN2 IN1 IN0 +K GND
+5 V +K2 +K1 GND OUT7 OUT6 OUT5 OUT4 OUT3
BUTTON
DS1
DS2
R1
S2
S1
J5
RX TX/1W CTS RTS +5 V GND
RNET
J2 2
4
3
RNET
PWR
D1
J8
2
R41
R31
R43
R45
R40
R38R44
R33
U4
C13
R24
R30 R25
R35
J6
C7
C11
2
JP1
C6
C10
J1
8
7
2
1
D10
D11
C2
C3
C4
R4
U1
R6
R23
R5
C5
R26 R34
R13
R14
R15
R16
R17
R18
R19
R20
R21
R22
R12
R7
R8
R9
R10
R11
D12 U7
D15 U8
D14
D13
20 11
10
C58 L1 J9
C69
C74
R69
R72
R73
R74
U18
J10
2
1
J11
2
1
AIN0 AIN1
AIN2 AIN3
R87
R89
R90
R93
AIN0 AIN1 AIN2 AIN3 AIN4 AIN5 AIN6 AIN7 AGND IN11 IN10 IN9 IN8 IN7 IN6 IN5 IN4 GND RST PWR
AGND
C65
C64
C68 R63
R65
L2
BT1
C86
C87
R86
U20
C96
C91
C92
C95
C97
C101
C102
C103
C104
C105
C106
C107
C108
R98
R99
R100
R101
R102
R103
R104
R105
R106
R107
R108
R109
R110
R111
R112
R113
ADC PROGRAMMER
GND
2
J12
J15
R115
RP5
RP3
R94 R91
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26
RP4
J13
2
RP6 1S3
J16
S4
C114
2
7
8
J14
R117
D27
DS3
DS4
J17 2
PWR
IN
L12
3
4
C93
D18
C112
R116
R118
L10 L11
C109
L8
C110
L9
L4
R88
C98
L5
C111L6
C99
L7
U21
C100
R95R96
R77
C94
R92
C113
R97
U19
R75
R85
C90
R76
C89
C88
U17
L3
C17
C18
C19
C20
C21
C22
C23
C24
C41
C44 R54
R55
C46
C49
C47
C50
U15
R62
R60
D17
C60
R66
C78
C80
C82
C81
C83
C84
4
3
1
2
Y4
R67
R68
R70
R71
R79
R80
R78
R81
R82
R83
R84
C70
C75
C72
C76
C73
C77
C71
C85 C79
U16
Y1
C55
Y2
C59
C66
1
R59
C38
C42
C43
C30
C33
C29
C32
C37
C52
R58
C51
C57
C67
C62
C63
C53
C54
R57
C61
4
1
3
R61
Y3
R64
U9
R47
U13
R46
R51
C27
U5
C34
C31
C28
R56 C45
C40
C39
U14
C56
U10
R53
Q9
R52
C35
C36
U12
C26
C25
U6
R48 R49
D16
U11
R28
R29
R50
C48
C1
R2
C16 C15 C14
U3
C9
C12
C8
R27
R39
R42
R37
R32
R36
XBee
Series 2
DEMO BOARD
POWER
JP15
JP1 JP2
5N1: L m: we mu Y i g ‘DDE‘ DUDE! EDDDD m-nun-V' ‘ ~ AHD
BL4S100 User’s Manual 38
Figure 15 shows the signal connections for the sample programs that illustrate the use of
the digital outputs.
Figure 15. Digital Outputs Signal Connections
DIGOUT.C—Demonstrates the use of the sinking digital outputs. Using the Demonstra-
tion Board, you can see an LED toggle on/off via a sinking output that you selected via
the Dynamic C STDIO window.
DIGOUT_BANK.C—Demonstrates the use of digOutBank() to control the sinking
digital outputs. Using the Demonstration Board, you can see an LED toggle on/off via a
sinking output that you selected via the Dynamic C STDIO window. The banking func-
tions allow I/O banks to be input or output more efficiently.
DIGITAL OUTPUTS
OUT0OUT3
HEADERS J3 & J4
BL4S100
J3 J4
GND
J7
20 11
10
D2
Q1
D3
Q2
D4
Q3
RP1
J4
RP2
D5
Q4
D6
Q5
D7
Q6
D8
Q7
D9
Q8
U2
J3
OUT2 OUT1 OUT0 IN3 IN2 IN1 IN0 +K GND
+5 V +K2 +K1 GND OUT7 OUT6 OUT5 OUT4 OUT3
BUTTON
DS1
DS2
R1
S2
S1
J5
RX TX/1W CTS RTS +5 V GND
RNET
J2 2
4
3
RNET
PWR
D1
J8
2
R41
R31
R43
R45
R40
R38R44
R33
U4
C13
R24
R30 R25
R35
J6
C7
C11
2
JP1
C6
C10
J1
8
7
2
1
D10
D11
C2
C3
C4
R4
U1
R6
R23
R5
C5
R26 R34
R13
R14
R15
R16
R17
R18
R19
R20
R21
R22
R12
R7
R8
R9
R10
R11
D12 U7
D15 U8
D14
D13
20 11
10
C58 L1 J9
C69
C74
R69
R72
R73
R74
U18
J10
2
1
J11
2
1
AIN0 AIN1
AIN2 AIN3
R87
R89
R90
R93
AIN0 AIN1 AIN2 AIN3 AIN4 AIN5 AIN6 AIN7 AGND IN11 IN10 IN9 IN8 IN7 IN6 IN5 IN4 GND RST PWR
AGND
C65
C64
C68 R63
R65
L2
BT1
C86
C87
R86
U20
C96
C91
C92
C95
C97
C101
C102
C103
C104
C105
C106
C107
C108
R98
R99
R100
R101
R102
R103
R104
R105
R106
R107
R108
R109
R110
R111
R112
R113
ADC PROGRAMMER
GND
2
J12
J15
R115
RP5
RP3
R94 R91
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26
RP4
J13
2
RP6 1S3
J16
S4
C114
2
7
8
J14
R117
D27
DS3
DS4
J17 2
PWR
IN
L12
3
4
C93
D18
C112
R116
R118
L10 L11
C109
L8
C110
L9
L4
R88
C98
L5
C111L6
C99
L7
U21
C100
R95R96
R77
C94
R92
C113
R97
U19
R75
R85
C90
R76
C89
C88
U17
L3
C17
C18
C19
C20
C21
C22
C23
C24
C41
C44 R54
R55
C46
C49
C47
C50
U15
R62
R60
D17
C60
R66
C78
C80
C82
C81
C83
C84
4
3
1
2
Y4
R67
R68
R70
R71
R79
R80
R78
R81
R82
R83
R84
C70
C75
C72
C76
C73
C77
C71
C85 C79
U16
Y1
C55
Y2
C59
C66
1
R59
C38
C42
C43
C30
C33
C29
C32
C37
C52
R58
C51
C57
C67
C62
C63
C53
C54
R57
C61
4
1
3
R61
Y3
R64
U9
R47
U13
R46
R51
C27
U5
C34
C31
C28
R56 C45
C40
C39
U14
C56
U10
R53
Q9
R52
C35
C36
U12
C26
C25
U6
R48 R49
D16
U11
R28
R29
R50
C48
C1
R2
C16 C15 C14
U3
C9
C12
C8
R27
R39
R42
R37
R32
R36
XBee
Series 2
DEMO BOARD
POWER
to GND
on
Header J4
JP15
OUT0
OUT1
OUT2
OUT3
JP1 JP2
$§9$5§¢42$0
BL4S100 User’s Manual 39
INTERRUPTS.C—Demonstrates the use of the Rabbit RIO interrupt service capabilities.
Set up the Demonstration Board as shown in Figure 14 with IN0 connected to SW1.
The sample program sets up two interrupt sources, an external interrupt tied to pushbutton
switch SW1, and a rollover interrupt tied to a timer that is producing a PWM output.
The Dynamic C STDIO window will show a count of rollovers that have occurred since
the PWM signal was started. The window will also display Button Pressed each time
the pushbutton switch is pressed. Each time the button is pressed, the timeout timer that
removes the message is reset, so you can keep the message on the screen indefinitely by
pressing the button repeatedly.
PPM.C—Demonstrates the use of up to eight PPM channels on the digital output pins
on headers J3 and J4. The PPM signals are set for a frequency of 200 Hz, with the duty
cycle adjustable from 0 to 100% and an offset adjustable from 0 to 100% by the user.
These pins can be connected to an oscilloscope to view the waveform being generated.
The overall frequency can be adjusted in the #define PPM_FREQ line. Follow these
instructions when running this sample program.
1. The digital outputs on the BL4S100 do not have an internal pull-up resistor and will not register on
the oscilloscope without a pull-up resistor. The Demonstration Board has pull-up resistors—
connect OUT0–OUT3 on the BL4S100 to SW1–SW4 on header J1 of the Demonstration Board.
2. Connect the oscilloscope probe to digital output pins OUT0–OUT3 on headers J3 or J4. Remember
to connect the oscilloscope ground to GND on header J4.
Once you compile and run the sample program, change the duty cycle and offsets for a
given PPM channel via the Dynamic C STDIO window and watch the change in wave-
forms on the oscilloscope. Signals on OUT0 and OUT1 will all be synchronized with
each other as they share the same overall counter block that sets the cycle frequency.
The same is true for PPM signals on OUT2 and OUT3 (and the remaining digital outputs
when you connect them to J1 on the Demonstration Board instead of those already
connected). The two blocks may have a phase shift from each other, but will run at the
same frequency.
PULSE_CAPTURE.C—Demonstrates the use of two input capture inputs tied to PPM
channels on the digital I/O pins on header J3. The input capture feature allows the begin
and end positions of a pulse to be measured in a given time window. We take advantage
of the counter synchronization feature of the underlying Rabbit RIO chip to create cap-
ture windows and pulse modulation windows that are synchronized. This guarantees
that we always catch the begin edge first on a quickly repeating waveform. This was
done to create an interactive element to this sample program, but capturing real-world
repetitive signals will usually not have this advantage. Follow the instructions below
when running this sample program.
1. Connect I/O pins IN0 and OUT0 together.
2. Connect I/O pins IN3 and OUT2 together.
3. Connect the oscilloscope ground to GND on header J3.
4. Use the oscilloscope probes on the IN0 and the OUT0 pair or the
IN3 and OUT2 pair to view the PPM signals.
J3
Oscilloscope
GND
OUT2 OUT1 OUT0 IN3 IN2 IN1 IN0 +K GND
$§9$3§9353w1
BL4S100 User’s Manual 40
Once the connections have been made, compile and run this sample program. Change
the offset and duty cycle for a given PPM channel via the Dynamic C STDIO window
and watch the change to the begin and end counts measured on the input capture inputs.
The PPM frequency can be changed in the #define PPM_FREQ line.
Rabbit recommends that you run and understand both the INTERRUPTS.C and the PULSE_
CAPTURE.C sample programs before looking at PULSE_CAPTURE_IRQ.C since PULSE_CAP-
TURE_IRQ.C uses concepts covered in the simpler sample programs.
PULSE_CAPTURE_IRQ.C—Demonstrates the use of an advanced pulse capture
method using RIO interrupts.
IN0 is configured as the pulse capture input, and OUT0–
OUT7 are configured as PWM outputs of varying fre-
quencies and duty cycles that provide signals to test the
capture with. Connect IN0 and OUT0 together.
If an external signal source is available, connect it to
IN0 for capture.
If an external signal source is not available, connect IN0 on the BL4S100 to SW1.
Once you compile and run this sample program, press any key on your PC keyboard to
pause or unpause the display—the capture will continue in the background. Change the
IN0 connection to any of OUT0–OUT7 or an external source to capture a different signal.
This sample program will continuously capture single pulses in an interrupt service
request for display
PWM.C—Demonstrates the use of the eight PWM channels on digital output pins
OUT0–OUT7. The PWM signals are set for a frequency of 200 Hz with the duty cycle
adjustable from 0 to 100% by the user. These pins can be connected to an oscilloscope
to view the waveform being generated. The overall frequency can be adjusted in the
#define PWM_FREQ line. Follow these instructions when running this sample program.
1. The digital outputs on the BL4S100 do not have an internal pull-up resistor and will not register on
the oscilloscope without a pull-up resistor. The Demonstration Board has pull-up resistors—
connect OUT0–OUT3 on the BL4S100 to SW1–SW4 on header J1 of the Demonstration Board.
2. Connect the oscilloscope probe to digital output pins OUT0–OUT3 on headers J3 or J4. Remember
to connect the oscilloscope ground to GND on header J4.
Once you compile and run the sample program, change the duty cycle for a given PWM
output channel via the Dynamic C STDIO window and watch the change in waveforms
on the oscilloscope. Signals on the same RIO counter block (OUT0 and OUT1 for
example) will all be synchronized with each other. Different blocks may have a phase
shift from each other, but will run at the same frequency.
Global synchronization can be used to synchronize different block on the RIO, but this
is not demonstrated in this sample program.
J3
OUT2 OUT1 OUT0 IN3 IN2 IN1 IN0 +K GND
DEMO BOARD
SW1
-nxm —m.-nnn mu mu Law CONNECT TO BL4S100 HEADER J4 JP1 JP2
BL4S100 User’s Manual 41
QUADRATURE_DECODER.C—Demonstrates the use of quadrature decoders on the
BL4S100. See Figure 16 for hookup instructions of the digital I/O pins on headers J3
and J4 with the Demonstration Board.
Figure 16. Quadrature Decoder Signal Connections
Once the connections have been made, compile and run this sample program. Press
button SW1 on the Demonstration Board to decrement the quadrature counter, or press
button SW2 on the Demonstration Board to increment the quadrature counter. The
counter will continue to increment or decrement as you hold down the corresponding
pushbutton. Press button SW3 on the Demonstration Board to reset the quadrature
counter.
DIGITAL I/O
HEADER J3
BL4S100
J3 J4
GND
J7
20 11
10
D2
Q1
D3
Q2
D4
Q3
RP1
J4
RP2
D5
Q4
D6
Q5
D7
Q6
D8
Q7
D9
Q8
U2
J3
OUT2 OUT1 OUT0 IN3 IN2 IN1 IN0 +K GND
+5 V +K2 +K1 GND OUT7 OUT6 OUT5 OUT4 OUT3
BUTTON
DS1
DS2
R1
S2
S1
J5
RX TX/1W CTS RTS +5 V GND
RNET
J2 2
4
3
RNET
PWR
D1
J8
2
R41
R31
R43
R45
R40
R38R44
R33
U4
C13
R24
R30 R25
R35
J6
C7
C11
2
JP1
C6
C10
J1
8
7
2
1
D10
D11
C2
C3
C4
R4
U1
R6
R23
R5
C5
R26 R34
R13
R14
R15
R16
R17
R18
R19
R20
R21
R22
R12
R7
R8
R9
R10
R11
D12 U7
D15 U8
D14
D13
20 11
10
C58 L1 J9
C69
C74
R69
R72
R73
R74
U18
J10
2
1
J11
2
1
AIN0 AIN1
AIN2 AIN3
R87
R89
R90
R93
AIN0 AIN1 AIN2 AIN3 AIN4 AIN5 AIN6 AIN7 AGND IN11 IN10 IN9 IN8 IN7 IN6 IN5 IN4 GND RST PWR
AGND
C65
C64
C68 R63
R65
L2
BT1
C86
C87
R86
U20
C96
C91
C92
C95
C97
C101
C102
C103
C104
C105
C106
C107
C108
R98
R99
R100
R101
R102
R103
R104
R105
R106
R107
R108
R109
R110
R111
R112
R113
ADC PROGRAMMER
GND
2
J12
J15
R115
RP5
RP3
R94 R91
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26
RP4
J13
2
RP6 1S3
J16
S4
C114
2
7
8
J14
R117
D27
DS3
DS4
J17 2
PWR
IN
L12
3
4
C93
D18
C112
R116
R118
L10 L11
C109
L8
C110
L9
L4
R88
C98
L5
C111L6
C99
L7
U21
C100
R95R96
R77
C94
R92
C113
R97
U19
R75
R85
C90
R76
C89
C88
U17
L3
C17
C18
C19
C20
C21
C22
C23
C24
C41
C44 R54
R55
C46
C49
C47
C50
U15
R62
R60
D17
C60
R66
C78
C80
C82
C81
C83
C84
4
3
1
2
Y4
R67
R68
R70
R71
R79
R80
R78
R81
R82
R83
R84
C70
C75
C72
C76
C73
C77
C71
C85 C79
U16
Y1
C55
Y2
C59
C66
1
R59
C38
C42
C43
C30
C33
C29
C32
C37
C52
R58
C51
C57
C67
C62
C63
C53
C54
R57
C61
4
1
3
R61
Y3
R64
U9
R47
U13
R46
R51
C27
U5
C34
C31
C28
R56 C45
C40
C39
U14
C56
U10
R53
Q9
R52
C35
C36
U12
C26
C25
U6
R48 R49
D16
U11
R28
R29
R50
C48
C1
R2
C16 C15 C14
U3
C9
C12
C8
R27
R39
R42
R37
R32
R36
XBee
Series 2
DEMO BOARD
POWER
CONNECT TO
BL4S100
HEADER J4
JP15
IN0 + OUT0
IN1 + OUT1
JP1 JP2
IN4
IN3
IN2
GND to GND
on Header J4
BL4S100 User’s Manual 42
PPM_QUADRATURE_DECODER.C—Demonstrates the use of two PWM and two PPM
output channels connected back to four digital inputs to simulate two Quadrature
Decoders feeding signals into the BL4S100. The PWM and PPM outputs are adjusted
through a menu system to simulate the movement of a Quadrature Decoder. The results
of the Quadrature Decoder inputs are displayed continuously to show the effects of the
PWM and PPM outputs.
The high-speed Quadrature Decoder counts the number of
rollovers that occur (one per 1000 counts). The low-speed
Quadrature Decoder displays the current count in the
register.
Once the connections are made as shown, and you compile
and run this sample program, change the frequency/
direction for a given Quadrature Decoder via the Dynamic C
STDIO window and watch the register counts on the low-
speed channel and the register rollovers on the high-speed
channel.
J3
OUT2 OUT1 OUT0 IN3 IN2 IN1 IN0 +K GND
IN11 IN10 IN9 IN8 IN7 IN6 IN5 IN4 GND
+5 V +K2 +K1 GND OUT7 OUT6 OUT5 OUT4 OUT3
J4
J16
§G§¢0§$
BL4S100 User’s Manual 43
4.2.2 Serial Communication
The following sample programs are found in the SAMPLES\BL4S1xx\RS232 subdirectory.
PARITY.CThis sample program repeatedly sends byte values 0–127 from Serial Port D
to Serial Port F. The program will cycle through parity types on Serial Port D. Serial
Port F will always be checking parity, so parity errors should occur during most
sequences. The results are displayed in the Dynamic C STDIO window.
Connect Tx/1-W to CTS (RxF) on header J5 before compiling and
running this sample program. You may wish to do <Ctrl-Q> to stop
the program to see the data, which go by rather quickly.
NOTE: For the sequence that does yield parity errors, the errors won't
occur for each byte received. This is because certain byte patterns along with the stop bit will
appear to generate the correct parity for the UART.
SIMPLE3WIRE.C—This program demonstrates basic RS-232
serial communication using the Dynamic C STDIO window. Fol-
low these instructions before running this sample program.
Connect Tx/1-W to CTS (RxF), then connect Rx to RTS (TxF)
before compiling and running this sample program.
SIMPLE5WIRE.C—This program demonstrates 5-wire RS-232 serial communication
using the Dynamic C STDIO window. Follow these instructions before running this
sample program.
Before you compile and run this sample program, connect Tx/1-W
to Rx, then connect RTS to CTS.
To test flow control, disconnect RTS from CTS while running this
program. Characters should stop printing in the Dynamic C STDIO
window and should resume when RTS and CTS are connected again.
COMPUTER_PARITY.C—This sample program demonstrates using parity over a simple
three-wire RS-232 connection. Parity is selected for the BL4S100 and for the serial ter-
minal emulation program. Characters typed in either the Dynamic C STDIO window or
in the serial terminal emulation program are echoed in both displays. Parity errors are
counted and displayed by the Rabbit microprocessor on the BL4S100.
Before you compile and run this sample program, use the
long serial cable (Part No. 540-0094) to connect Tx (brown
wire), Rx (red wire) and GND (black wire) on header J5 to
a PC COM port.
Open a Hyperterminal session (Start > Accessories >
Communications). Select the PC COM port the cable is
connected to and set the default serial parameters:
Bits per second: 115200
Data bits: 8
Parity: None
J5
RX TX/1W CTS RTS +5 V GND
J5
RX TX/1W CTS RTS +5 V GND
J5
RX TX/1W CTS RTS +5 V GND
J5
RX TX/1W CTS RTS +5 V GND
Rx
Tx
GND
BL4S100 User’s Manual 44
Stop bits: 1
Flow control: None
Once you compile and run this program, configure the serial port using the following
menu options in the Dynamic C STDIO window.
Type in the Hyperterminal window to send characters to the sample program. The char-
acters typed will be echoed in the terminal emulation program and will be displayed on
the top of the Dynamic C STDIO window with a message displaying whether there was
an error or not. There may be some differences for special characters such as new lines
(enter key), delete, backspace, and others. Each character sent will also increment
either the successful or the error counter, depending on the parity of both the BL4S100
and the terminal emulation program.
COMPUTER3WIRE.C—This sample program demonstrates basic initialization for a sim-
ple three-wire RS-232 connection. Characters typed in either the Dynamic C STDIO
window or in a serial terminal emulation program are echoed in both displays.
The setup and run instructions are the same as for the COMPUTER_PARITY.C sample
program.
COMPUTER5WIRE.C—This sample program demonstrates basic initialization for a sim-
ple five-wire RS-232 connection. Characters typed in either the Dynamic C STDIO
window or in a serial terminal emulation program are echoed in both displays.
The setup and run instructions are the same as for the COMPUTER_PARITY.C sample
program.
Menu
q - Quit
s - Send "Sample Text"
r - Reset Counters
n - Set No Parity
e - Set Even Parity
o - Set Odd Parity
BL4S100 User’s Manual 45
4.2.3 A/D Converter Inputs
The following sample programs are found in the SAMPLES\BL4S1xx\ADC subdirectory.
You will need a separate power supply and a multimeter to use with these sample programs.
NOTE: The calibration sample programs will overwrite the calibration constants set at
the factory. Before you run these sample programs, run USERBLOCK_READ_
WRITE.C in the SAMPLES\UserBlock folder to save the factory calibration con-
stants in case you inadvertently write over them while running other sample programs.
NOTE: For best results use a multimeter with a resolution of at least 4½ digits.
ADC_CAL_DIFF.CDemonstrates how to recalibrate a differential A/D converter
channel using two measured voltages to generate two coefficients, gain and offset,
which are rewritten into the user block. The voltage that is being monitored is
displayed continuously.
Once you compile and run this sample program, connect the power supply across a
differential channel pair, then follow the instructions in the Dynamic C STDIO window.
ADC_CAL_MA.CDemonstrates how to recalibrate a milli-amp A/D converter chan-
nel using two measured currents to generate two coefficients, gain and offset,
which are rewritten into the reserved user block. The current that is being moni-
tored is displayed continuously.
Before you compile and run this sample program, jumper pins 1–2 and 5–6 on headers
J10 and J11. Then connect a current meter in series with the power supply connected to
one of pins AIN0–AIN3 and AGND, then compile and run the sample program, and
follow the instructions in the Dynamic C STDIO window.
ADC_CAL_SE_UNIPOLAR.CDemonstrates how to recalibrate a single-ended uni-
polar A/D converter channel using two measured voltages to generate two coeffi-
cients, gain and offset, which are rewritten into the reserved user block. The voltage
that is being monitored is displayed continuously.
Before you compile and run this sample program, connect the power supply (which
should be OFF) between the pin (AIN0–AIN7) of the channel you are calibrating and
AGND, then compile and run the sample program, and follow the instructions in the
Dynamic C STDIO window.
ADC_AVERAGING_SE_UNIPOLAR.C—Demonstrates how to read and display the aver-
age voltage of each of the single-ended analog input channels using a sliding window.
The voltage is calculated from coefficients read from the display—the two calibration
coefficients, gain and offset, in the Dynamic C STDIO window for each channel, and
mode of operation.
Before you compile and run this sample program, connect the power supply (which
should be OFF) between the pin (AIN0–AIN7) of an analog input channel and AGND,
then compile and run the sample program, and follow the instructions in the Dynamic C
STDIO window.
BL4S100 User’s Manual 46
ADC_RD_CALDATA.C—Demonstrates how to display the two calibration coefficients,
gain and offset, in the Dynamic C STDIO window for each channel and mode of
operation.
ADC_RD_DIFF.C—Demonstrates how to read and display voltage and equivalent val-
ues for a differential A/D converter channel using calibration coefficients previously
stored in the user block. The user selects to display either the raw data or the voltage
equivalent.
Once you compile and run this sample program, connect the power supply across a
differential channel pair, then follow the instructions in the Dynamic C STDIO window.
ADC_RD_MA.C—Demonstrates how to read and display voltage and equivalent values
for a milli-amp A/D converter channel using calibration coefficients previously stored
in the user block.
Before you compile and run this sample program, jumper pins 1–2 and 5–6 on headers
J10 and J11. Then connect a current meter in series with the power supply connected to
one of pins AIN0–AIN3 and AGND, then compile and run the sample program, and
follow the instructions in the Dynamic C STDIO window as you vary the output from
the power supply.
ADC_RD_SE_UNIPOLAR.C—Demonstrates how to read and display the voltage of all
single-ended analog input channels using calibration coefficients previously stored in
the user block.
Before you compile and run this sample program, connect the power supply (which
should be OFF) between a pin (AIN0–AIN7) and AGND, then compile and run the
sample program, and follow the instructions in the Dynamic C STDIO window. The
voltage readings will be displayed for all the channels measured to that point.
4.2.4 Real-Time Clock
If you plan to use the real-time clock functionality in your application, you will need to set
the real-time clock. You may set the real-time clock using the SETRTCKB.C sample pro-
gram from the Dynamic C SAMPLES\RTCLOCK folder. The RTC_TEST.C sample pro-
gram in the Dynamic C SAMPLES\RTCLOCK folder provides additional examples of how
to read and set the real-time clock
4.2.5 TCP/IP Sample Programs
TCP/IP sample programs are described in Chapter 5.
4.2.6 ZigBee Sample Programs
ZigBee sample programs are described in Chapter 6.
BL4S100 User’s Manual 47
4.3 BL4S100 Libraries
Two library directories provide libraries of function calls that are used to develop applica-
tions for the BL4S100.
BL4S1xx—libraries associated with features specific to the BL4S100. The functions in
the BL4S1xx.LIB library are described in Section 4.4, “BL4S100 Function Calls.”
TCPIP—libraries specific to using TCP/IP functions on the BL4S100. Further informa-
tion about TCP/IP is provided in Chapter 5, “Using the Ethernet TCP/IP Features.”
ZigBee—libraries specific to using ZigBee functions on the BL4S100. Further infor-
mation about ZigBee is provided in Chapter 6, “Using the ZigBee Features.”
BL4S100 User’s Manual 48
4.4 BL4S100 Function Calls
4.4.1 Board Initialization
brdInit
void brdInit (void);
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Call this function at the beginning of your program. This function initializes Parallel
Ports A–E, the Rabbit RIO chip, and the A/D converter.
The ports are initialized according to Table A-3 in Appendix A.
BL4S100 User’s Manual 49
4.4.2 Digital I/O
setDigIn
int setDigIn(int channel);
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Sets an input channel to be a general digital input.
PARAMETERS
channel digital input channel, 0–11 (pins IN0–IN11)
RETURN VALUE
0 — success.
-EINVAL — invalid parameter value.
SEE ALSO
brdInit, digIn, digInBank
digIn
int digIn(int channel);
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Reads the state of a digital input channel.
PARAMETERS
channel digital input channel, 0–11 (pins IN0–IN11)
RETURN VALUE
The logic state of the specified channel.
0 — logic low
1 — logic high
-EINVAL — channel value is out of range.
-EPERM:— channel functionality does not permit this operation.
SEE ALSO
brdInit, setDigIn, digInBank
BL4S100 User’s Manual 50
digInBank
int digInBank(int bank);
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Reads the state of the 12 digital input channels in banks of up to 8 input channels.
PARAMETER
bank digital input bank pins:
0 — IN0–IN7
1 — IN8–IN11
RETURN VALUE
Data read from the bank of digital inputs.
-EINVAL — invalid parameter value.
SEE ALSO
brdInit, digIn, setDigIn
Data Bits Bank 0 Bank 1
LSB D0 IN0 IN8
D1 IN1 IN9
D2 IN2 IN10
D3 IN3 IN11
D4 IN4
not used
D5 IN5
D6 IN6
MSB D7 IN7
BL4S100 User’s Manual 51
setExtInterrupt
int setExtInterrupt(int channel, char edge, int handle);
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Sets the specified channel to be an interrupt. The interrupt can be configured as a rising
edge, falling edge, or either edge.
PARAMETERS
channel digital input channel to be configured as an interrupt channel,
0–11 (pins IN0–IN11)
edge macro to set edge of the interrupt:
BL_IRQ_RISE — interrupt event on rising edge
BL_IRQ_FALL — interrupt event on falling edge
BL_IRQ_BOTH — interrupt events on both edges
handle handle for the ISR handler to service this interrupt
RETURN VALUE
0 — success.
-EINVAL — invalid parameter value.
-EPERM — pin type does not permit this function.
-EACCES — resource needed by this function is not available.
-EFAULT — internal data fault detected.
positive number — Mode Conflict — the positive number is a bitmap that corresponds
to the pins on a particular block of a RIO chip that have not been configured to support
this function call. Appendix D provides the details of the pin and block associations to
allow you to identify the channels that need to be reconfigured to support this function
call.
SEE ALSO
brdInit, digIn, setDigIn
BL4S100 User’s Manual 52
setDecoder
int setDecoder(int channel_a, int channel_b, int channel_index,
char index_polarity);
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Sets up Quadrature Decoder functionality on the specified channels. The Quadrature
Decoder may optionally use an index channel.
PARAMETERS
channel_a channel to use as Input A (also known as in-phase or I),
0–11 (pins IN0–IN11)
channel_b channel to use as Input B (also known as quadrature or Q),
0–11 (pins IN0–IN11)
channel_index channel to use as index input (-1 if not used),
0–11 (pins IN0–IN11)
NOTE: The Quadrature Decoder count may still be reset by existing or new synch signals
set up on the same block of a particular RIO chip.
index_polarity polarity of the index channel
(not used when channel_index set to -1)
0 — index on low level
non-zero — index on high level
RETURN VALUE
0 — success.
-EINVAL — invalid parameter value.
-EACCESS— resource needed by this function is not available.
SEE ALSO
brdInit, getCounter, resetCounter
BL4S100 User’s Manual 53
setCounter
int setCounter(int channel, int mode, int edge, word options);
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Sets up the channel as a counter input, with selectable modes and edge settings. The
counter will increment or decrement on each selected edge event. Use getCounter()
to read the current count and use resetCounter() to force a reset of the counter.
PARAMETERS
channel channel to use for the up count input, 0–11 (pins IN0–IN11)
mode macro to set the mode of the counter:
BL_UP_COUNT — continuous up count mode
BL_DOWN_COUNT — up/down count mode (uses 2 pins)
BL_MATCH_ENABLE — continuous up count mode with count
stopping on any match event
edge edge setting macro for the up count event:
BL_EDGE_RISE — up count on rising edge
BL_EDGE_FALL — up count on falling edge
BL_EDGE_BOTH — up count on either edge
options options based on mode (N/A if the continuous up mode is selected):
BL_EDGE_RISE — down count on rising edge
BL_EDGE_FALL — down count on falling edge
BL_EDGE_BOTH — down count on either edge
If the up/down mode is selected, options has down count channel
and event edge settings (these settings cannot be on the same pin
as the up count) ORed together. The low 4 bits are the channel num-
ber for the down count input
If the BL_MATCH_ENABLE mode is selected, options has the
match count to stop at (other match registers on the block are set
to max.).
BL4S100 User’s Manual 54
setCounter (continued)
RETURN VALUE
0 — success.
-EINVAL — invalid parameter value or pin use.
-EPERM — pin type does not permit this function.
-EACCESS— resource needed by this function is not available.
-EFAULT — internal data fault detected.
positive number — Mode Conflict — the positive number is a bitmap that corresponds
to the pins on a particular block of a RIO chip that have not been configured to support
this function call. Appendix D provides the details of the pin and block associations to
allow you to identify the channels that need to be reconfigured to support this function
call.
SEE ALSO
brdInit, getCounter, resetCounter
BL4S100 User’s Manual 55
setCapture
int setCapture(int channel, int mode, int edge, word options);
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Sets up the channel as an event capture input, with selectable modes and edge settings.
The counter will run from a gated main or prescaled clock signal based on the run cri-
teria of the selected mode, and begin/end events can be set to capture the count at the
time of these events. Optionally, a second channel can be set (which shares the same
RIO channel input block as channel) for two-signal begin/end event detection. Use
getBegin() and getEnd() to read the captured count values and use resetCount-
er() to force a reset of the counter.
PARAMETERS
channel channel to use for the begin event input for all modes except BL_
CNT_TIL_END, then it specifies the end event input.,
0–11 (pins IN0–IN11)
mode mode macro for the counter/timer:
BL_CNT_RUN — continuous count mode
BL_CNT_BEGIN_END — start count on begin event, continue to
count until end event detected
BL_CNT_TIL_END — count until end event detected
BL_CNT_ON_BEGIN — count while begin signal is active
NOTE: If an end event occurs before the begin event, the count will begin then end
immediately on the begin event, and the end count will be 1. The begin count will be 0
or 1 based on the edge that triggered the event (0 = rising, 1 = falling).
edge edge/state macro setting for the begin event for all modes except
BL_CNT_TIL_END, then it specifies the end event:
BL_EVENT_RISE — begin event on rising edge
BL_EVENT_FALL — begin event on falling edge
BL_EVENT_BOTH — begin event on any edge
The following two settings are only for the BL_CNT_ON_BEGIN
mode:
BL_BEGIN_HIGH — begin active while signal is high
BL_BEGIN_LOW — begin active while signal is low
BL4S100 User’s Manual 56
setCapture (continued)
options options based on mode:
BL_CNT_TIL_END — begin input and edge can be selected
all others modes — end input and edge can be selected.
For all modes, the prescale clock and save limit flags can be used
(OR in).
For input and edge selection, use:
low 5 bits for channel to use for begin/end input
BL_SAME_CHANNELbegin and end both from same channel
BL_EVENT_RISE — begin/end event on rising edge
BL_EVENT_FALL — begin/end event on falling edge
BL_EVENT_BOTH — begin/end event on any edge
For clock and limit options use:
BL_PRESCALE — use prescaled clock
BL_SAVE_LIMIT — save current limit register value (other-
wise limit set to 0xFFFF)
RETURN VALUE
0 — success.
-EINVAL — invalid parameter value.
-EPERM — pin type does not permit this function.
-EACCESS— resource needed by this function is not available.
-EFAULT — internal data fault detected.
positive number — Mode Conflict — the positive number is a bitmap that corresponds
to the pins on a particular block of a RIO chip that have not been configured to support
this function call. Appendix D provides the details of the pin and block associations to
allow you to identify the channels that need to be reconfigured to support this function
call.
SEE ALSO
brdInit, getBegin, getEnd, getCounter, resetCounter
BL4S100 User’s Manual 57
getCounter
int getCounter(int channel, word *count);
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Reads the current count of the counter register within the counter block hosting the
given channel.
PARAMETERS
channel digital input channel that uses the desired counter block,
0–11 (pins IN0–IN11)
count pointer to word variable to place count register reading
RETURN VALUE
0 — success.
-EINVAL — invalid parameter value.
SEE ALSO
brdInit, setCounter, setDecoder, setCapture, resetCounter
getBegin
int getBegin(int channel, word *begin);
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Reads the current value of the begin register within the counter block hosting the given
channel.
PARAMETERS
channel digital input channel that uses the desired counter block,
0–11 (pins IN0–IN11)
begin pointer to word variable to place begin register reading
RETURN VALUE
0 — success.
-EINVAL — invalid parameter value.
-EPERM — pin type does not permit this function.
SEE ALSO
brdInit, setCapture, resetCounter, getEnd
BL4S100 User’s Manual 58
getEnd
int getEnd(int channel, word *end);
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Reads the current value of the end register within the counter block hosting the given
channel.
PARAMETERS
channel digital input channel that uses the desired counter block,
0–11 (pins IN0–IN11)
begin pointer to word variable to place end register reading
RETURN VALUE
0 — success.
-EINVAL — invalid parameter value.
-EPERM — pin type does not permit this function.
SEE ALSO
brdInit, setCapture, resetCounter, getBegin
resetCounter
int resetCounter(int channel);
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Resets the current count of the counter register within the counter block hosting the
given channel.
PARAMETER
channel digital input channel that uses the desired counter block,
0–11 (pins IN0–IN11)
RETURN VALUE
0 — success.
-EINVAL — invalid parameter value.
-EPERM — pin type does not permit this function.
SEE ALSO
brdInit, getCounter, setDecoder
BL4S100 User’s Manual 59
setLimit
int setLimit(int channel, word limit);
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Sets the value of the limit register within the counter block hosting the given channel.
This new value will take effect on the next counter overflow or by resetting the counter
via the resetCounter() function call.
PARAMETERS
channel digital input channel that uses the desired counter block,
0–11 (pins IN0–IN11)
limit new value for the limit register
RETURN VALUE
0 — success.
-EINVAL — invalid parameter value.
-EPERM — pin type does not permit this function.
SEE ALSO
brdInit, setCapture, resetCounter
BL4S100 User’s Manual 60
setSyncIn
int setSyncIn(int channel, int source, int edge);
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Sets the synch for the block the digital input channel is associated with.
Note that when more than one block is synchronized to the same synch signal (global
or external), each block has its own independent edge-detection circuit. These circuits
will synch to the edge within plus or minus one count of the block’s current clock
source (main or prescale). This means synchronized blocks may have a small offset
when compared to each other.
PARAMETERS
channel digital input channel that is on the block that will have its synch
set, 0–11 (pins IN0–IN11)
source source of the synch signal.
-1 to use the RIO chip's Global Synch signal or
input-capable channel to use as an external synch signal
edge edge of the synch signal.
BL_EDGE_RISE — synchronize event on rising edge
BL_EDGE_FALL — synchronize event on falling edge
BL_EDGE_BOTH — synchronize events on both edges
0 — disable the synch on this block (if the source of the external
synch is given, it will be set to a digital input)
RETURN VALUE
0 — success.
-EINVAL — invalid parameter value.
-EPERM — pin type does not permit this function.
-EACCES — resource needed by this function is not available.
-EFAULT — internal data fault detected.
SEE ALSO
brdInit, setSyncOut
BL4S100 User’s Manual 61
globalSync
int globalSync(void);
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Sends a single pulse to the global synch inputs of all RIO chips.
Note that when more than one block is synchronized to the same synch signal (global
or external), each block has its own independent edge-detection circuit. These circuits
will synch to the edge within plus or minus one count of the block’s current clock
source (main or prescale). This means synchronized blocks may have a small offset
when compared to each other.
RETURN VALUE
0 — success.
-EPERMbrdInit() was not run before calling this function.
SEE ALSO
brdInit
BL4S100 User’s Manual 62
setDigOut
int setDigOut(int channel, int state);
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Configures the output channel as a simple digital output. The output state of the chan-
nel is also initialized to logic 0 or logic 1 based on the state parameter. The digOut
function should be used to control the output state after configuration as it is more effi-
cient. This function is non-reentrant.
PARAMETERS
channel digital output channel, 0–7 (OUT0–OUT7)
state set output to one of the following states:
0 — connects the load to GND
1 — puts the output in a high-impedance state
RETURN VALUE
0 — success.
-EINVAL — invalid parameter value.
SEE ALSO
brdInit, digOut, digOutBank
BL4S100 User’s Manual 63
digOut
void digOut(int channel, int state);
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Sets the state of a digital output channel to a logic 0 or a logic 1. This function will only
allow control of pins that are configured by the setDigOut() function call.
PARAMETERS
channel digital output channel, 0–7 (OUT0–OUT7)
state set output to one of the following states:
0 — connects the load to GND
1 — puts the output in a high-impedance state.
RETURN VALUE
0 — success.
-EINVAL — invalid parameter value.
-EPERM — pin function was not set up as a digital output
SEE ALSO
brdInit, setDigOut, digOutBank
BL4S100 User’s Manual 64
digOutBank
int digOutBank(char bank, char data);
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Sets the state (logic 0 or logic 1) of a bank of 8 digital output pins to the states contained
in the data parameter. This function only updates the channels that are configured to
be sinking digital outputs by the setDigOut() function call.
PARAMETERS
bank digital output bank pins:
0 — OUT0–OUT7
data data value to be written to the specified digital output bank; the
data format and bitwise value are as follows:
Bitwise value:
0 — connects the load to GND
1 — puts the output in a high-impedance state.
RETURN VALUE
0 — success.
-EINVAL — invalid parameter value or board not initialized.
SEE ALSO
brdInit, digOut, setDigOut
Data Bits Bank 0
LSB D0 OUT0
D1 OUT1
D2 OUT2
D3 OUT3
D4 OUT4
D5 OUT5
D6 OUT6
MSB D7 OUT7
BL4S100 User’s Manual 65
setPWM
int setPWM(int channel, float frequency, float duty, int invert,
int bind);
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Sets up a PWM output on the selected digital output channel with the specified frequency
and duty cycle. The PWM output can be inverted. The PWM channel duty cycle can be
bound to a PWM/PPM on another channel on the same RIO block so that they share an
edge.
PARAMETERS
channel digital output channel being set up for PWM, 0–7 (OUT0–OUT7)
frequency PWM frequency in Hz (should be from 2 Hz to 50 kHz); use -1 to
preserve the existing frequency on the RIO block
duty PWM duty cycle (should be from 0 to 100%); use -1 and bind
parameter to use bound edge to set the duty cycle
invert whether the PWM output is inverted; the PWM output normally
starts with the output high and inverted starts with the output low.
0 — noninverted
1 — inverted
bind use BL_BIND_LEAD or BL_BIND_TRAIL ORed with another
digital output channel hosted by the same block to enable binding
for the leading of the PWM output on this channel. Bindings allow
PWM and PPM outputs to align their leading and trailing edges.
BL4S100 User’s Manual 66
setPWM (continued)
RETURN VALUE
0 — success.
-EINVAL — invalid parameter value.
-EPERM — pin type does not permit this function.
-EACCES — resource needed by this function is not available.
-EFAULT — internal data fault detected.
positive number — Mode Conflict — the positive number is a bitmap that corresponds
to the pins on a particular block of a RIO chip that have not been configured to support
this function call. Appendix D provides the details of the pin and block associations to
allow you to identify the channels that need to be reconfigured to support this function
call.
SEE ALSO
brdInit, setFreq, setDuty, setSyncIn, setSyncOut, pulseEnable,
pulseDisable, setPPM
BL4S100 User’s Manual 67
setPPM
int setPPM(int channel, float frequency, float offset,
float duty, char invert, int bind_offset, int bind_duty);
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Sets up a PPM output on the selected digital output channel with the specified
frequency and duty cycle. The PPM output of the PPM can be inverted. The offset and
duty of the PPM can be bound to a PWM/PPM on another channel on the same RIO
block so that they share an edge.
PARAMETERS
channel digital output channel being set up for PWM, 0–7 (OUT0–OUT7)
frequency PPM frequency in Hz (should be from 2 Hz to 50 kHz); use -1 to
preserve the existing frequency on the RIO block
offset PPM offset (should be from 0 to 100%); use -1 and bind_offset
parameter to use bound edge to set the offset
NOTE: A zero offset will produce the smallest offset possible, which is one count. If you
must have a zero offset, use setPWM() instead of setPPM().
duty PPM duty cycle (should be from 0 to 100%); use -1 and bind_
duty parameter to use bound edge to set the duty cycle
NOTE: PPM will not wrap around the PPM period. If offset is set to 25%, the 75 to
100% duty cycle will have the same effect as offset = 25%, duty = 75%. The same
waveform as a wrapped PPM can be created using an inverted PPM
invert whether the PPM output is inverted; the PPM output normally
starts with the output low, goes high at the offset, and stays high
for the remainder of the duty cycle; inverted will start with the out-
put high, goes low at the offset, and stays low for the duration of
the duty cycle.
0 — noninverted
1 — inverted
bind_offset use BL_BIND_LEAD or BL_BIND_TRAIL ORed with another
digital output channel hosted by the same block to enable binding
for the leading edge of the PPM output on this channel. Bindings al-
low PWM and PPM outputs to align their leading and trailing edges.
bind_duty use BL_BIND_LEAD or BL_BIND_TRAIL ORed with another
digital output channel hosted by the same block to enable binding
for the trailing edge of the PPM output on this channel. Bindings
allow PWM and PPM outputs to align their leading and trailing
edges
BL4S100 User’s Manual 68
setPPM (continued)
RETURN VALUE
0 — success.
-EINVAL — invalid parameter value.
-EPERM — pin type does not permit this function.
-EACCES — resource needed by this function is not available.
-EFAULT — internal data fault detected.
positive number — Mode Conflict — the positive number is a bitmap that corresponds
to the pins on a particular block of a RIO chip that have not been configured to support
this function call. Appendix D provides the details of the pin and block associations to
allow you to identify the channels that need to be reconfigured to support this function
call.
SEE ALSO
brdInit, setFreq, setOffset, setDuty, setSyncIn, setSyncOut, pulseEnable,
pulseDisable, setPWM
BL4S100 User’s Manual 69
setFreq
int setFreq(int channel, float frequency);
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Sets the frequency of all the PWM or PPM outputs on the same block as the channel.
Will preserve the duty cycle and offset percentages for all of the channels on the same
block.
Repeated calls to this function by itself may cause the duty cycle and offset values to
drift. If this drift is of concern, call setOffset() and setDuty() to reset the duty
cycle and offset to the desired value.
PARAMETERS
channel all digital output channels on the same RIO chip and block as this
channel (0–7, OUT0–OUT7) will have their frequency set. Duty
cycle and offset percentages will be maintained.
frequency frequency of the PWM and PPM outputs (should be from 2 Hz to
50 kHz). Use -1 to preserve the existing frequency on the RIO
block.
RETURN VALUE
0 — success.
-EINVAL — invalid parameter value.
SEE ALSO
brdInit, setPWM, setPPM, setOffset, setDuty, setSyncIn, setSyncOut,
pulseEnable, pulseDisable
BL4S100 User’s Manual 70
setDuty
int setDuty(int channel, float duty);
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Sets the duty cycle of the PWM or PPM output on a digital output channel. Will affect
any PWM/PPM that has been bound to this channel’s PWM/PPM.
PARAMETERS
channel digital output channel that is getting its duty cycle set,
0–7 (OUT0–OUT7)
duty duty cycle of the PWM/PPM output (should be from 0 to 100%)
RETURN VALUE
0 — success.
-EINVAL — invalid parameter value.
-EPERM — channel function does not permit this operation.
SEE ALSO
brdInit, setPWM, setPPM, setOffset, setFreq, setSyncIn, setSyncOut,
pulseEnable, pulseDisable
BL4S100 User’s Manual 71
setOffset
int setOffset(int channel, float offset);
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Sets the offset of a PPM output on a digital output channel. This function call will not
affect the position of the trailing edge of the PPM output and so will change the duty
cycle percentage of the PPM output. If the offset is set past the current position of the
trailing edge of the PPM output (set by the duty cycle), the PPM output will start at the
offset and will wrap around to the position of what was the trailing edge.
PARAMETERS
channel digital output channel that is getting its offset set,
0–7 (OUT0–OUT79)
offset PPM offset (should be from 0 to 100%)
NOTE: A zero offset will produce the smallest offset possible, which is one count. If you
must have a zero offset, use setPWM() instead of setOffset().
RETURN VALUE
0 — success.
-EINVAL — invalid parameter value.
-EPERM — channel function does not permit this operation.
SEE ALSO
brdInit, setPWM, setPPM, setFreq, setDuty, setSyncIn, setSyncOut,
pulseEnable, pulseDisable
BL4S100 User’s Manual 72
pulseDisable
int pulseDisable(int channel, int state);
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Disables a PWM/PPM output and sets the output to state. The pin can be restored to
the same PWM/PPM operation as before by calling pulseEnable().
PARAMETERS
channel digital output channel that is getting its PWM/PPM disabled,
0–7 (OUT0–OUT7)
state state that the digital output will be set to (0 or 1)
RETURN VALUE
0 — success.
-EINVAL — invalid parameter value.
-EPERM — channel function does not permit this operation.
SEE ALSO
brdInit, setPWM, setPPM, pulseEnable
pulseEnable
int pulseEnable(int channel);
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Enables a disabled PWM/PPM output. The pin is restored to the same PWM/PPM
operation it had before being disabled.
PARAMETER
channel digital output channel that is getting its PWM/PPM enabled,
0–7 (OUT0–OUT7)
RETURN VALUE
0 — success.
-EINVAL — invalid parameter value.
-EPERM — channel function does not permit this operation.
SEE ALSO
brdInit, setPWM, setPPM, pulseDisable
BL4S100 User’s Manual 73
setSyncOut
int setSyncOut(int channel, int source, int edge);
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Sets the synch for the block the digital output channel is associated with.
Note that when more than one block is synchronized to the same synch signal (global
or external), each block has its own independent edge-detection circuit. These circuits
will synch to the edge within plus or minus one count of the block’s current clock
source (main or prescale). This means synchronized blocks may have a small offset
when compared to each other.
PARAMETERS
channel digital output channel that is on the block that will have its synch
set, 0–7 (OUT0–OUT7)
source source of the synch signal.
-1 to use the RIO chip's Global Synch signal or
input-capable channel to use as an external synch signal
edge edge of the synch signal.
BL_EDGE_RISE — synchronize event on rising edge
BL_EDGE_FALL — synchronize event on falling edge
BL_EDGE_BOTH — synchronize events on both edges
0 — disable the synch on this block (if the source of the external
synch is given, it will be set to a digital input)
RETURN VALUE
0 — success.
-EINVAL — invalid parameter value.
-EPERM — pin type does not permit this function.
-EACCES — resource needed by this function is not available.
-EFAULT — internal data fault detected.
SEE ALSO
brdInit, setSyncIn
BL4S100 User’s Manual 74
getMatch
int getMatch(int channel, int source);
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Returns the block match register use for the given channel. May optionally be filtered
to specific sources by the source parameter.
PARAMETERS
channel digital output channel about which to get match information,
0–7 (OUT0–OUT7)
source source filter:
BL_TRAIL_ONLY will filter only the Trail match register
BL_LEAD_ONLY will filter only the Lead match register
Note that counters will only use the Trail match register.
RETURN VALUE
Bit flags showing match use on success:
BL_IER_MATCH0 bit set if using Match Register 0
BL_IER_MATCH1 bit set if using Match Register 1
BL_IER_MATCH2 bit set if using Match Register 2
BL_IER_MATCH3 bit set if using Match Register 3
or
-EINVAL — invalid channel value.
SEE ALSO
brdInit, setPWM, setPPM, setCounter
BL4S100 User’s Manual 75
4.4.3 Rabbit RIO Interrupt Handlers
addISRIn
int addISRIn(int channel, int ier, void (*handler)());
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Adds an interrupt handler for the interrupts specified in the ier parameter for the given
RIO block hosting the given configurable I/O pin. The interrupt service routine (ISR) is
always disabled when created. Call enableISR() to enable the interrupt service
routine. The ISR handler function is responsible for clearing the interrupt(s) within the
hosting RIO block when called.
PARAMETERS
channel digital input channel to bind to ISR, 0–11 (IN0–IN11)
ier bit mask of interrupt(s) this handler services
BL_IER_DQE — decrement/quadrature/end
BL_IER_IIB — increment/inphase/begin
BL_IER_ROLL_D — counter rollover on decrement
BL_IER_ROLL_I — counter rollover on increment
BL_IER_MATCH3 — Match 3 condition
BL_IER_MATCH2 — Match 2 condition
BL_IER_MATCH1 — Match 1 condition
BL_IER_MATCH0 — Match 0 condition
handler pointer to the interrupt service function
RETURN VALUE
Success — returns the handler ID number (0..RSB_MAX_ISR-1).
-EINVAL— Invalid parameter given.
-ENOSPC — No more room in ISR table (increase RSB_MAX_ISR).
SEE ALSO
addISROut, tickISR, enableISR, setIER
BL4S100 User’s Manual 76
addISROut
int addISROut(int channel, int ier, void (*handler)());
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Adds an interrupt handler for the interrupts specified in the ier parameter for the given
RIO block hosting the given digital output pin. The interrupt service routine (ISR) is al-
ways disabled when created. Call enableISR() to enable the ISR. The ISR handler
given is responsible for clearing the interrupt(s) within the hosting RIO block.
PARAMETERS
channel digital output channel to bind to ISR, 0–7 (OUT0–OUT7)
ier bit mask of interrupt(s) this handler services:
BL_IER_DQE — decrement/quadrature/end
BL_IER_IIB — increment/inphase/begin
BL_IER_ROLL_D — counter rollover on decrement
BL_IER_ROLL_I — counter rollover on increment
BL_IER_MATCH3 — Match 3 condition
BL_IER_MATCH2 — Match 2 condition
BL_IER_MATCH1 — Match 1 condition
BL_IER_MATCH0 — Match 0 condition
handler pointer to the interrupt service function
RETURN VALUE
Success — returns the handler ID number (0..RSB_MAX_ISR-1).
-EINVAL— Invalid parameter given.
-ENOSPC — No more room in ISR table (increase RSB_MAX_ISR).
SEE ALSO
addISRIn, tickISR, enableISR, setIER
BL4S100 User’s Manual 77
setIER
int setIER(int isr_handle, int ier);
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Sets the Interrupt Enable Register (IER) mask for an interrupt handler. Note that the in-
terrupt handler must be currently disabled to set the IER value. Disabling the ISR can
be done by calling enableISR() with a zero for the enable parameter.
PARAMETERS
isr_handle index to the desired ISR
ier bit mask of interrupts this handler services (bit positions match
RIO Interrupt Enable and Status registers)
RETURN VALUE
0 — success
-EINVAL— Invalid parameter given.
-EPERM — Handler is enabled, can't change IER.
SEE ALSO
addISRIn, addISROut, enableISR, tickISR
BL4S100 User’s Manual 78
enableISR
int enableISR(int isr_handle, int enable)
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Enables or disables an interrupt handler.
PARAMETERS
isr_handle index to the desired ISR
enable non-zero enables the ISR,
zero disables the ISR
RETURN VALUE
0 — success.
-EINVAL— invalid parameter given.
SEE ALSO
addISRIn, addISROut, setIER, tickISR
tickISR
void tickISR(void)
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Polls the RIO chip(s) for ISR events if interrupts are not being used. Any enabled ISR
events will be passed to the appropriate ISR handler.
RETURN VALUE
None.
SEE ALSO
addISRIn, addISROut, enableISR, setIER
BL4S100 User’s Manual 79
4.4.4 Serial Communication
Library files included with Dynamic C provide a full range of serial communications sup-
port. The RS232.LIB library provides a set of circular-buffer-based serial functions. The
PACKET.LIB library provides packet-based serial functions where packets can be delim-
ited by the 9th bit, by transmission gaps, or with user-defined special characters. Both
libraries provide blocking functions, which do not return until they are finished transmit-
ting or receiving, and nonblocking functions, which must be called repeatedly until they
are finished. For more information, see the Dynamic C Users Manual and Technical Note
213, Rabbit Serial Port Software.
Use the following function calls with the BL4S100.
serMode
int serMode(int mode);
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
This function call sets the serial interfaces used by your application program. Call this
function after executing serXopen() and before using any other serial port function
calls.
PARAMETER
mode the defined serial port configuration
RETURN VALUE
0 if valid mode selected, -EINVAL if not.
Mode Serial Port D Serial Port F
0 RS-232, 3-wire RS-232, 3-wire
1 RS-232, 5-wire RTS/CTS
BL4S100 User’s Manual 80
4.4.5 A/D Converter Inputs
anaInConfig
void anaInConfig(int channel, int opmode);
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Configures an A/D converter input channel for a given mode of operation. This function
must be called before accessing the A/D converter chip.
The channel pairs for the differential mode are listed below.
AIN0 and AIN1
AIN2 and AIN3
AIN4 and AIN5
AIN6 and AIN7
The modes of operation are as follows:
Single-ended unipolar 0–20 V
Differential bipolar ±20 V
4-20 mA operation
NOTE: When a pin in a differential pair is reconfigured as a nondifferential pin, the
remaining paired pin is also reconfigured.
PARAMETERS
channel analog input channel, 0–7 (AIN0–AIN7)
opmode selects the mode of operation for the A/D converter channel pair.
The values are as follows:
SE0_MODE — single-ended unipolar (0–20 V)
DIFF_MODE — differential bipolar (±20 V)
mAMP_MODE — 4–20 mA operation
RETURN VALUE:
0 — success.
-EINVAL — invalid parameter.
SEE ALSO
brdInit, anaInCalib, anaIn, anaInVolts, anaInmAmps, anaInDiff
BL4S100 User’s Manual 81
anaInCalib
int anaInCalib(int channel, int opmode, int gaincode,
int value1, float volts1, int value2, float volts2);
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Calibrates the response of a given A/D converter channel as a linear function using the
two conversion points provided. Gain and offset constants are calculated and placed
into the user block in the flash memory.
NOTE: The 10 and 90% points of the maximum voltage range are recommended when
calibrating a channel.
PARAMETERS
channel analog input channel number (0 to 7) corresponding to AIN0–AIN7
opmode the mode of operation for the specified channel. Use one of the
following macros to set the mode for the channel being configured.
SE0_mode = single-ended unipolar (0–20 V)
DIFF_MODE = differential bipolar (±20 V)
mAMP_mode = 4–20 mA
channel Single-Ended Differential 4–20 mA
0 +AIN0 +AIN0 -AIN1 +AIN0
1 +AIN1 +AIN1
2 +AIN2 +AIN2 -AIN3 +AIN2
3 +AIN3 +AIN3
4 +AIN4 +AIN4 -AIN5
5+AIN5 —
6 +AIN6 +AIN6 -AIN7
7+AIN7 —
BL4S100 User’s Manual 82
anaInCalib (continued)
gaincode the gain code of 0 to 7 (use the gain code macro mAMP_GAINCODE
for 4–20 mA operation)
value1 the first A/D converter value
volts1 the voltage corresponding to the first A/D converter value
value2 the second A/D converter value
volts2 the voltage corresponding to the second A/D converter value
RETURN VALUE
0 — success.
-EINVAL — invalid parameter.
-ERR_ANA_CALIB — error writing calibration constants.
SEE ALSO
brdInit, anaInConfig, anaIn, anaInmAmps, anaInDiff, anaInVolts
Gain Code Macro
Voltage Range
Single-Ended
Unipolar
Differential
Bipolar
0GAIN_X1 0–20 V ±20 V
1GAIN_X2 0–10 V ±10 V
2GAIN_X4 0–5 V ±5 V
3GAIN_X5 0–4 V ±4 V
4GAIN_X8 0–2.5 V ±2.5 V
5GAIN_X10 0–2 V ±2 V
6GAIN_X16 0–1.25 V ±1.25 V
7GAIN_X20 0–1 V ±1 V
BL4S100 User’s Manual 83
anaIn
int anaIn(int channel, int gaincode);
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Reads the state of an A/D converter input channel.
PARAMETERS
channel analog input channel number (0 to 7) corresponding to AIN0–AIN7
gaincode the gain code of 0 to 7 (use a gain code of 4 for 4–20 mA operation)
channel Single-Ended Differential 4–20 mA
0 +AIN0 +AIN0 -AIN1 +AIN0
1 +AIN1 +AIN1
2 +AIN2 +AIN2 -AIN3 +AIN2
3 +AIN3 +AIN3
4 +AIN4 +AIN4 -AIN5
5+AIN5 —
6 +AIN6 +AIN6 -AIN7
7+AIN7 —
Gain Code Macro
Value Range Voltage
Range
Single-Ended
Unipolar
Differential
Bipolar
0GAIN_X1 0–20 V ± 20 V 0–20 V
1GAIN_X2 0–10 V ± 10 V 0–10 V
2GAIN_X4 0–5 V ± 5 V 0–5 V
3GAIN_X5 0–4 V ± 4 V 0–4 V
4GAIN_X8 0–2.5 V ± 2.5 V 0–2.5 V
5GAIN_X10 0–2 V ± 2 V 0–2 V
6GAIN_X16 0–1.25 V ± 1.25 V 0–1.25 V
7GAIN_X20 0–1 V ± 1 V 0–1 V
BL4S100 User’s Manual 84
anaIn (continued)
RETURN VALUE
A value corresponding to the voltage on the analog input channel:
0–2047 for 11-bit A/D conversions,
or a value of BL_ERRCODESTART or less to indicate an error condition:
A/D converter operation errors (will not create run-time error):
BL_TIMEOUT
BL_OVERFLOW
BL_WRONG_MODE
System errors (can create run-time error unless disabled):
-ERR_ANA_CALIB — fault detected in reading calibration factor
-ERR_ANA_INVAL — invalid parameter value.
SEE ALSO
brdInit, anaInConfig, anaInCalib, anaInmAmps, anaInDiff, anaInVolts
BL4S100 User’s Manual 85
anaInVolts
float anaInVolts(int channel, int gaincode);
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Reads the state of a single-ended A/D converter input channel and uses the previously
set calibration constants to convert it to volts. The voltage ranges given in the table
below are nominal ranges that will be returned. However, values outside these ranges
can often be seen before the return of a BL_OVERFLOW error.
If the gain code for a given channel has changed from the previous cycle, the user block
will be read to get the calibration constants for the new gain value.
PARAMETERS
channel analog input channel number (0 to 7) corresponding to AIN0–AIN7
gaincode the gain code of 0 to 7; the table below applies for single-ended
modes only
Gain Code Macro
Value Range Voltage
Range
Single-Ended
Unipolar
Differential
Bipolar
0GAIN_X1 0–20 V ± 20 V 0–20 V
1GAIN_X2 0–10 V ± 10 V 0–10 V
2GAIN_X4 0–5 V ± 5 V 0–5 V
3GAIN_X5 0–4 V ± 4 V 0–4 V
4GAIN_X8 0–2.5 V ± 2.5 V 0–2.5 V
5GAIN_X10 0–2 V ± 2 V 0–2 V
6GAIN_X16 0–1.25 V ± 1.25 V 0–1.25 V
7GAIN_X20 0–1 V ± 1 V 0–1 V
BL4S100 User’s Manual 86
anaInVolts (continued)
RETURN VALUE
A voltage on the analog input channel, or a value of BL_ERRCODESTART or less to in-
dicate an error condition:
A/D converter operation errors (will not create run-time error):
BL_NOT_CALA/D converter is not calibrated for this channel/gain.
BL_OVERFLOWA/D converter overflow.
BL_TIMEOUTA/D converter timeout.
BL_WRONG_MODEA/D converter is in wrong mode (run anaInConfig()).
System errors (can create run-time error unless disabled):
-ERR_ANA_CALIB — fault detected in reading calibration facto.r
-ERR_ANA_INVAL — invalid parameter value.
SEE ALSO
brdInit, anaInConfig, anaIn, anaInmAmps, anaInDiff, anaInCalib
BL4S100 User’s Manual 87
anaInDiff
float anaInDiff(int channel, int gaincode);
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Reads the state of a differential A/D converter input channel and uses the previously set
calibration constants to convert it to volts. Voltage ranges given in the table below are
the nominal ranges that will be returned. However, values outside these ranges can of-
ten be seen before the return of a BL_OVERFLOW error.
If the gain code for a given channel has changed from the previous cycle, the user block
will be read to get the calibration constants for the new gain value.
PARAMETERS
channel the analog input channel number (0, 2, 4, 6) as shown below
gaincode the gain code of 0 to 7
channel Differential Inputs
0 +AIN0 -AIN1
2 +AIN2 -AIN3
4 +AIN4 -AIN5
6 +AIN6 -AIN7
Gain Code Macro Actual Gain Differential
Voltage Range
Actual
Voltage Range
0GAIN_X1 ×1 ± 20 V 0–20 V
1GAIN_X2 ×2 ± 10 V 0–10 V
2GAIN_X4 ×4 ± 5 V 0–5 V
3GAIN_X5 ×5 ± 4 V 0–4 V
4GAIN_X8 ×8 ± 2.5 V 0–2.5 V
5GAIN_X10 ×10 ± 2 V 0–2 V
6GAIN_X16 ×16 ± 1.25 V 0–1.25 V
7GAIN_X20 ×20 ± 1 V 0–1 V
BL4S100 User’s Manual 88
anaInDiff (continued)
RETURN VALUE
A voltage on the analog input channel, or a value of BL_ERRCODESTART or less to
indicate an error condition:
A/D converter operation errors (will not create run-time error):
BL_NOT_CALA/D converter is not calibrated for this channel/gain.
BL_OVERFLOWA/D converter overflow.
BL_TIMEOUTA/D converter timeout.
BL_WRONG_MODEA/D converter is in wrong mode (run anaInConfig()).
System errors (can create run-time error unless disabled):
-ERR_ANA_CALIB — fault detected in reading calibration factor.
-ERR_ANA_INVAL — invalid parameter value.
SEE ALSO
brdInit, anaInConfig, anaIn, anaInmAmps, anaInVolts, anaInCalib
BL4S100 User’s Manual 89
anaInmAmps
float anaInmAmps(int channel);
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Reads the state of a single-ended A/D converter input channel and uses the previously
set calibration constants to convert it to a floating-point current value in milli amps. The
nominal range is 0 mA to 20 mA, although it is possible to receive values outside this
range before a BL_OVERFLOW error is returned.
PARAMETER
channel A/D converter input channel (0–3 corresponding to AIN0–AIN3)
RETURN VALUE
A current value corresponding to the current on the analog input channel, or a value of
BL_ERRCODESTART or less to indicate an error condition:
A/D converter operation errors (will not create run-time error):
BL_NOT_CALA/D converter is not calibrated for this channel/gain.
BL_OVERFLOWA/D converter overflow.
BL_TIMEOUTA/D converter timeou.t
BL_WRONG_MODEA/D converter is in wrong mode (run anaInConfig()).
System errors (can create run-time error unless disabled):
-ERR_ANA_CALIB — fault detected in reading calibration factor.
-ERR_ANA_INVAL — invalid parameter value.
SEE ALSO
brdInit, anaInConfig, anaIn, anaInDiff, anaInVolts, anaInCalib
BL4S100 User’s Manual 90
anaInRdCalib
anaInRdCalib(int channel, int opmode, int gaincode,
calib_t *pcal_data)
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Reads the calibration constants, gain and offset, from the user block on the flask.
PARAMETER
channel analog input channel number (0 to 7) corresponding to AIN0–AIN7
opmode select the mode of operation for the A/D converter channel calibra-
tion data being read. Use one of the following macros.
SE0_mode = single-ended unipolar (0–20 V)
DIFF_MODE = differential bipolar (±20 V)
mAMP_mode = 4–20 mA
gaincode the gain code of 0 to 7 (use the gain code macro mAMP_GAINCODE
for 4–20 mA operation)
pcal_data calibration structure pointer to gain and offset values
channel Single-Ended Differential 4–20 mA
0 +AIN0 +AIN0 -AIN1 +AIN0
1 +AIN1 +AIN1
2 +AIN2 +AIN2 -AIN3 +AIN2
3 +AIN3 +AIN3
4 +AIN4 +AIN4 -AIN5
5+AIN5 —
6 +AIN6 +AIN6 -AIN7
7+AIN7 —
Gain Code Macro
Voltage Range
Single-Ended
Unipolar
Differential
Bipolar
0GAIN_X1 0–20 V ±20 V
1GAIN_X2 0–10 V ±10 V
2GAIN_X4 0–5 V ±5 V
3GAIN_X5 0–4 V ±4 V
4GAIN_X8 0–2.5 V ±2.5 V
5GAIN_X10 0–2 V ±2 V
6GAIN_X16 0–1.25 V ±1.25 V
7GAIN_X20 0–1 V ±1 V
BL4S100 User’s Manual 91
anaInRdCalib (continued)
RETURN VALUE
0 — success.
-1 — invalid address or range.
-2 — no valid user block found (block version 3 or later)
-3 — flash read error
-EINVAL — invalid parameter
SEE ALSO
anaInCalib, _anaInAddr
BL4S100 User’s Manual 92
anaInDriver
int anaInDriver(char cmd);
FUNCTION DESCRIPTION
Low-level driver to read the ADS7870 A/D converter chip. Reads the voltage of an an-
alog input channel by serial clocking an 8-bit command to the ADS7870 by its Direct
Mode method. anaInConfig() uses the Register Mode method. This function call
assumes that Mode2 (least significant byte first) and the A/D converter oscillator have
been enabled.
See anaInConfig() for additional setup information.
After the last data bit is transferred, the conversion begins immediately. An exception
error will occur if Direct Mode bit D7 is not set.
PARAMETER
cmd The cmd parameter contains a gain code and channel code, and the
MSB is set high for direct-mode access. The format is as follows:
Use the following calculation and tables to determine cmd:
cmd = 0x80 | (gain_code<<4) + channel_code
D7 D6–D4 D3–D0
1 gain_code channel_code
gain_code Multiplier
01
12
24
35
48
510
616
720
BL4S100 User’s Manual 93
anaInDriver (continued)
RETURN VALUE
A value corresponding to the voltage on the analog input channel, which will be either
in the range [-2048,2047], or an error code of BL_ERRCODESTART or less as follows:
BL_TIMEOUT — conversion incomplete, busy bit timeout
BL_OVERFLOW — overflow or out of range
System errors (can create run-time error unless disabled):
-ERR_ANA_INVAL — invalid parameter value
SEE ALSO
anaInConfig, anaIn, brdInit
channel_code Differential
Input Lines channel_code Single-Ended
Input Lines
mA
Input Lines
0 +AIN0 -AIN1 8 +AIN0 +AIN0
1 +AIN2 -AIN3 9 +AIN1 +AIN1
2 +AIN4 -AIN5 10 +AIN2 +AIN2
3 +AIN6 -AIN7 11 +AIN3 +AIN3
4 Reserved 12 +AIN4 Reserved
5 Reserved 13 +AIN5 Reserved
6 Reserved 14 +AIN6 Reserved
7 Reserved 15 +AIN7 Reserved
BL4S100 User’s Manual 94
4.4.6 SRAM Use
The BL4S100 has a battery-backed data SRAM and a program-execution SRAM.
Dynamic C provides the
protected
keyword to identify variables that are to be placed
into the battery-backed SRAM. The compiler generates code that maintains two copies of
each protected variable in the battery-backed SRAM. The compiler also generates a flag to
indicate which copy of the protected variable is valid at the current time. This flag is also
stored in the battery-backed SRAM. When a protected variable is updated, the “inactive”
copy is modified, and is made “active” only when the update is 100% complete. This
assures the integrity of the data in case a reset or a power failure occurs during the update
process. At power-on the application program uses the active copy of the variable pointed
to by its associated flag.
The sample code below shows how a protected variable is defined and how its value can
be restored.
protected nf_device nandFlash;
int main() {
...
_sysIsSoftReset(); // restore any protected variables
The
bbram
keyword may also be used instead if there is a need to store a variable in bat-
tery-backed SRAM without affecting the performance of the application program. Data
integrity is not assured when a reset or power failure occurs during the update process.
Additional information on
bbram
and
protected
variables is available in the Dynamic C
Users Manual.
BL4S100 User’s Manual 95
5. USING THE ETHERNET TCP/IP
FEATURES
Chapter 5 discusses using the Ethernet TCP/IP features on the BL4S100
boards.
5.1 TCP/IP Connections
Before proceeding you will need to have the following items.
If you don’t have Ethernet access, you will need at least a 10Base-T Ethernet card
(available from your favorite computer supplier) installed in a PC.
Two RJ-45 straight-through CAT 5/6 Ethernet cables and a hub, or an RJ-45 crossover
CAT 5/6 Ethernet cable.
The CAT 5/6 Ethernet cables and Ethernet hub are available from Rabbit in a TCP/IP tool
kit. More information is available at www.digi.com.
1. Connect the AC adapter and the programming cable as shown in Chapter 2, “Getting
Started.”
2. Ethernet Connections
If you do not have access to an Ethernet network, use a crossover CAT 5/6 Ethernet cable
to connect the BL4S100 to a PC that at least has a 10Base-T Ethernet card.
If you have Ethernet access, use a straight-through CAT 5/6 Ethernet cable to establish an
Ethernet connection to the BL4S100 from an Ethernet hub. These connections are shown in
Figure 17.
BL4S100 User’s Manual 96
Figure 17. Ethernet Connections
The PC running Dynamic C through the serial programming port on the BL4S100 does
not need to be the PC with the Ethernet card.
3. Apply Power
Plug in the AC adapter. The BL4S100 is now ready to be used.
NOTE: A hardware RESET is accomplished by unplugging the AC adapter, then plug-
ging it back in, or by pressing the RESET button located next to the Ethernet jack.
When working with the BL4S100, the green LNK light is on when a program is running
and the board is properly connected either to an Ethernet hub or to an active Ethernet card.
The orange ACT light flashes each time a packet is received.
BL4S100
Users PC
Crossover
CAT 5/6 Ethernet
cable
Direct Connection
(network of 2 computers)
BL4S100
Hub
CAT 5/6
Ethernet
To additional
network
elements
Direct Connection Using a Hub
Board Board
cables
BL4S100 User’s Manual 97
5.2 TCP/IP Sample Programs
We have provided a number of sample programs demonstrating various uses of TCP/IP for
networking embedded systems. These programs require that you connect your PC and the
BL4S100 together on the same network. This network can be a local private network (pre-
ferred for initial experimentation and debugging), or a connection via the Internet.
5.2.1 How to Set IP Addresses in the Sample Programs
With the introduction of Dynamic C 7.30 we have taken steps to make it easier to run
many of our sample programs. You will see a TCPCONFIG macro. This macro tells Dynamic
C to select your configuration from a list of default configurations. You will have three
choices when you encounter a sample program with the TCPCONFIG macro.
1. You can replace the TCPCONFIG macro with individual MY_IP_ADDRESS, MY_NETMASK,
MY_GATEWAY, and MY_NAMESERVER macros in each program.
2. You can leave TCPCONFIG at the usual default of 1, which will set the IP configurations to
10.10.6.100, the netmask to 255.255.255.0, and the nameserver and gateway to 10.10.6.1. If you
would like to change the default values, for example, to use an IP address of 10.1.1.2 for
the BL4S100 board, and 10.1.1.1 for your PC, you can edit the values in the section that
directly follows the “General Configuration” comment in the TCP_CONFIG.LIB library. You
will find this library in the LIB\TCPIP directory.
3. You can create a CUSTOM_CONFIG.LIB library and use a TCPCONFIG value greater than 100.
Instructions for doing this are at the beginning of the TCP_CONFIG.LIB library in the
LIB\TCPIP directory.
There are some other “standard” configurations for TCPCONFIG that let you select different
features such as DHCP. Their values are documented at the top of the TCP_CONFIG.LIB
library in the LIB\TCPIP directory. More information is available in the Dynamic C TCP/IP
Users Manual.
BL4S100 User’s Manual 98
5.2.2 How to Set Up your Computer for Direct Connect
Follow these instructions to set up your PC or notebook. Check with your administrator if
you are unable to change the settings as described here since you may need administrator
privileges. The instructions are specifically for Windows 2000, but the interface is similar
for other versions of Windows.
TIP: If you are using a PC that is already on a network, you will disconnect the PC from
that network to run these sample programs. Write down the existing settings before
changing them to facilitate restoring them when you are finished with the sample pro-
grams and reconnect your PC to the network.
1. Go to the control panel (Start > Settings > Control Panel), and then double-click the
Network icon.
2. Select the network interface card used for the Ethernet interface you intend to use (e.g.,
TCP/IP Xircom Credit Card Network Adapter) and click on the “Properties” button.
Depending on which version of Windows your PC is running, you may have to select
the “Local Area Connection” first, and then click on the “Properties” button to bring up
the Ethernet interface dialog. Then “Configure” your interface card for a “10Base-T
Half-Duplex” or an “Auto-Negotiation” connection on the “Advanced” tab.
NOTE: Your network interface card will likely have a different name.
3. Now select the IP Address tab, and check Specify an IP Address, or select TCP/IP and
click on “Properties” to assign an IP address to your computer (this will disable “obtain
an IP address automatically”):
IP Address : 10.10.6.101
Netmask : 255.255.255.0
Default gateway : 10.10.6.1
4. Click <OK> or <Close> to exit the various dialog boxes.
BL4S100
User’s PC
crossover
CAT 5/6 Ethernet
cable
IP 10.10.6.101
Netmask
255.255.255.0
Direct Connection PC to BL4S100
Board
BL4S100 User’s Manual 99
5.2.3 Run the PINGME.C Demo
Connect the crossover cable from your computers Ethernet port to the BL4S100’s RJ-45
Ethernet connector. Open this sample program from the SAMPLES\TCPIP\ICMP folder, compile
the program, and start it running under Dynamic C. When the program starts running, the
green LNK light on the BL4S100 should be on to indicate an Ethernet connection is made.
(Note: If the LNK light does not light, you may not have a crossover cable, or if you are
using a hub perhaps the power is off on the hub.)
The next step is to ping the board from your PC. This can be done by bringing up the MS-
DOS window and running the ping program:
ping 10.10.6.100
or by Start > Run
and typing the command
ping 10.10.6.100
Notice that the orange ACT light flashes on the BL4S100 Ethernet jack while the ping is
taking place, and indicates the transfer of data. The ping routine will ping the board four
times and write a summary message on the screen describing the operation.
L 1 u w.» -m up: mu- 7 DIGITAL INPUTS IND—IN“ » DERS J B 451 .... VJ
BL4S100 User’s Manual 100
5.2.4 Running More Demo Programs With a Direct Connection
The following sample programs are found in the SAMPLES\BL4S1xx\TCPIP folder.
Figure 18 shows the signal connections for the sample programs that illustrate the use of
TCP/IP.
Figure 18. TCP/IP Sample Programs Demonstration Board Connections
PINGLED.C—Demonstrates ICMP by pinging a remote host. The sample program will
flash LED1 and LED2 on the Demonstration Board when a ping is sent and received.
RWEB_DIGITAL_OUTPUTS.C—Demonstrates using the digOut() function call to control the
sinking digital outputs on the BL4S100 to toggle the LEDs on the Demonstration Board
on/off.
Once the sample program is compiled and running, open your PC Web browser. As
long as you have not modified the TCPCONFIG 1 macro in the sample program, enter the
following server address in your Web browser to bring up the Web page served by the
sample program.
http://10.10.6.100
DIGITAL INPUTS IN0IN11
HEADERS J3 & J4
BL4S100
CONNECT TO
BL4S100
HEADER J4
J3 J4
GND
J7
20 11
10
D2
Q1
D3
Q2
D4
Q3
RP1
J4
RP2
D5
Q4
D6
Q5
D7
Q6
D8
Q7
D9
Q8
U2
J3
OUT2 OUT1 OUT0 IN3 IN2 IN1 IN0 +K GND
+5 V +K2 +K1 GND OUT7 OUT6 OUT5 OUT4 OUT3
BUTTON
DS1
DS2
R1
S2
S1
J5
RX TX/1W CTS RTS +5 V GND
RNET
J2 2
4
3
RNET
PWR
D1
J8
2
R41
R31
R43
R45
R40
R38R44
R33
U4
C13
R24
R30 R25
R35
J6
C7
C11
2
JP1
C6
C10
J1
8
7
2
1
D10
D11
C2
C3
C4
R4
U1
R6
R23
R5
C5
R26 R34
R13
R14
R15
R16
R17
R18
R19
R20
R21
R22
R12
R7
R8
R9
R10
R11
D12 U7
D15 U8
D14
D13
20 11
10
C58 L1 J9
C69
C74
R69
R72
R73
R74
U18
J10
2
1
J11
2
1
AIN0 AIN1
AIN2 AIN3
R87
R89
R90
R93
AIN0 AIN1 AIN2 AIN3 AIN4 AIN5 AIN6 AIN7 AGND IN11 IN10 IN9 IN8 IN7 IN6 IN5 IN4 GND RST PWR
AGND
C65
C64
C68 R63
R65
L2
BT1
C86
C87
R86
U20
C96
C91
C92
C95
C97
C101
C102
C103
C104
C105
C106
C107
C108
R98
R99
R100
R101
R102
R103
R104
R105
R106
R107
R108
R109
R110
R111
R112
R113
ADC PROGRAMMER
GND
2
J12
J15
R115
RP5
RP3
R94 R91
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26
RP4
J13
2
RP6 1S3
J16
S4
C114
2
7
8
J14
R117
D27
DS3
DS4
J17 2
PWR
IN
L12
3
4
C93
D18
C112
R116
R118
L10 L11
C109
L8
C110
L9
L4
R88
C98
L5
C111L6
C99
L7
U21
C100
R95R96
R77
C94
R92
C113
R97
U19
R75
R85
C90
R76
C89
C88
U17
L3
C17
C18
C19
C20
C21
C22
C23
C24
C41
C44 R54
R55
C46
C49
C47
C50
U15
R62
R60
D17
C60
R66
C78
C80
C82
C81
C83
C84
4
3
1
2
Y4
R67
R68
R70
R71
R79
R80
R78
R81
R82
R83
R84
C70
C75
C72
C76
C73
C77
C71
C85 C79
U16
Y1
C55
Y2
C59
C66
1
R59
C38
C42
C43
C30
C33
C29
C32
C37
C52
R58
C51
C57
C67
C62
C63
C53
C54
R57
C61
4
1
3
R61
Y3
R64
U9
R47
U13
R46
R51
C27
U5
C34
C31
C28
R56 C45
C40
C39
U14
C56
U10
R53
Q9
R52
C35
C36
U12
C26
C25
U6
R48 R49
D16
U11
R28
R29
R50
C48
C1
R2
C16 C15 C14
U3
C9
C12
C8
R27
R39
R42
R37
R32
R36
XBee
Series 2
DEMO BOARD
POWER
DIGITAL OUTPUTS
OUT0OUT3
HEADERS J3 & J4
BL4S100
J15 J16
GND to GND on Header J4
JP15
JP1 JP2
OUT0
OUT1
OUT2
OUT3
BL4S100 User’s Manual 101
RWEB_IO_SAMPLE.C—Demonstrates using RabbitWeb to display the status of multiple I/O
lines (analog and digital) in a Web browser, and allows the user to change the digital
outputs by clicking the buttons on the page.
The sample program uses an IFRAME (invisible frame) to refresh the I/O readings
every two seconds. Since the Web browser does not have to re-render the entire page,
updates are quick and flicker free.
Once the sample program is compiled and running, open your PC Web browser. As
long as you have not modified the TCPCONFIG 1 macro in the sample program, enter the
following server address in your Web browser to bring up the Web page served by the
sample program.
http://10.10.6.100
Now use a wire to touch +5 V from header J4 on the BL4S100 to the various digital and
analog inputs on header J3, J15, and J16
SMTP.C—Uses the SMTP library to send an e-mail when a pushbutton switch on the
Demonstration Board is pressed.
TELNET.C—Allows you to communicate with the BL4S100 using the Telnet protocol.
This program takes anything that comes in on a port and sends it out Serial Port D and
displays the content in the Dynamic C STDIO window. It uses a digital input to indicate
that the TCP/IP connection should be closed and a digital output to toggle an LED to
indicate that there is an active connection.
Once the sample program is compiled and running, start the Telnet program on your PC
(Start > Run telnet 10.10.6.100). As long as you have not modified the TCPCONFIG 1 macro in
the sample program, the IP address is 10.10.6.100 as shown; otherwise use the TCP/IP
settings you entered in the TCP_CONFIG.LIB library. Each character you type will be
printed in Dynamic C's STDIO window, indicating that the board is receiving the char-
acters typed via TCP/IP.
BL4S100 User’s Manual 102
5.3 Where Do I Go From Here?
NOTE: If you purchased your BL4S100 through a distributor or Rabbit partner, contact
the distributor or partner first for technical support.
If there are any problems at this point:
Use the Dynamic C Help menu to get further assistance with Dynamic C.
Check the Rabbit Technical Bulletin Board and forums at www.digi.com/support/ and
at www.digi.com/support/forum/rabbit.
Click tech.support@digi.com to send an email to Technical Support.
If the sample programs ran fine, you are now ready to go on.
Additional sample programs are described in the Dynamic C TCP/IP Users Manual.
Refer to the Dynamic C TCP/IP Users Manual to develop your own applications. An
Introduction to TCP/IP provides background information on TCP/IP, and is available on
our website.
BL4S100 User’s Manual 103
6. USING THE ZIGBEE FEATURES
Chapter 6 discusses using the Zigbee features on the BL4S100 and the
BL4S150 models. This networking feature is not available on other
BL4S100 models.
6.1 Introduction to the ZigBee Protocol
The ZigBee PRO specification was ratified in April, 2007, and covers high-level commu-
nication protocols for small, low-power digital modems based on the IEEE 802.15.4 stan-
dard for wireless personal area networks (WPANs). The XBee RF module used by the
BL4S100 and the BL4S150 operates in the 2.4 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical
(ISM) radio band in most jurisdictions worldwide.
The ZigBee protocol is ideal for embedded-system applications that are characterized by
low data rates and low power consumption. A network of devices using the ZigBee proto-
col works via a self-organizing mesh network that can be used for industrial control,
embedded sensors, data collection, home security, and building automation. The power
consumption of the individual device could be met for a year or longer using the originally
installed battery.
A ZigBee device can be set up in one of three ways.
As a coordinator: The coordinator serves as the root of the network tree. Each network
can only have one coordinator. The coordinator stores information about the network
and provides the repository for security keys. The coordinator starts a ZigBee network
and then acts as a router once that network is started.
As a router. Routers pass data from other devices.
As an end device. End devices contain just enough functionality to talk to their parent
node (either the coordinator or a router), and cannot relay data from other devices.
BL4S100 User’s Manual 104
An Introduction to ZigBee provides background information on the ZigBee protocol, and
is available on the CD and on our website.
6.2 ZigBee Sample Programs
In order to run the sample programs discussed in this chapter and elsewhere in this manual,
1. Dynamic C must be installed and running on your PC.
2. The programming cable must connect the programming header on the BL4S100 or the
BL4S150 to your PC.
3. Power must be applied to the BL4S100/Bl4S150.
4. The Digi XBee USB used as the ZigBee coordinator must be connected to an available
USB port on your PC if you are exercising the ZigBee protocol.
Refer to Chapter 2, “Getting Started,” if you need further information on these steps.
NOTE: The Digi XBee USB device is an optional accessory and is not a part of the stan-
dard BL4S200 Tool Kit. See section F.2 Digi XBee USB Configuration for more infor-
mation on the Digi XBee USB device.
To run a sample program, open it with the File menu (if it is not still open), then compile
and run it by pressing F9.
Each sample program has comments that describe the purpose and function of the pro-
gram. Follow the instructions at the beginning of the sample program.
The sample programs in the Dynamic C
SAMPLES\XBee
folders illustrate the use of the
ZigBee function calls.
The XBee RF module used by the BL4S100 and the
BL4S150 presently supports using them in a mesh network.
BL4S100 and the BL4S150 boards are preconfigured with
ZB router firmware; coordinator and end-device firmware
are included in the Dynamic C installation along with a
sample program to allow you to download the firmware.
The firmware used with the XBee RF modules on the
BL4S100 and the BL4S150 is based on the API com-
mand set. Figure 19. Mesh Network
a GITAL our»: 75 5 oumiour . g ‘ EADE 13 a , / ' ‘ W ‘3‘ a 0 s JP1 JP2
BL4S100 User’s Manual 105
6.2.1 Setting Up the Digi XBee USB Coordinator
1. Connect the Digi XBee USB acting as a ZigBee coordinator to an available USB port
on your PC or workstation. Your PC should recognize the new USB hardware.
2. Connect the Demonstration Board to the BL4S100 as shown below.
3. Compile and run the XBEE_GPIO_SERVER.C sample program in the Dynamic C
SAMPLES\BL4S1xx\XBee
folder.
4. Open the ZigBee Utility by double-clicking XBEE_GPIO_GUI.exe in the Dynamic C
Utilities\XBee GPIO GUI folder — if you have problems launching the ZigBee
Utility, install a .Net Framework by double-clicking dotnetfx.exe in the Dynamic C
Utilities\dotnetfx folder. You may add a shortcut to the ZigBee Utility on your
desktop.
DIGITAL OUTPUTS
OUT0OUT3
HEADERS J3 & J4
BL4S100
J3 J4
GND
J7
20 11
10
D2
Q1
D3
Q2
D4
Q3
RP1
J4
RP2
D5
Q4
D6
Q5
D7
Q6
D8
Q7
D9
Q8
U2
J3
OUT2 OUT1 OUT0 IN3 IN2 IN1 IN0 +K GND
+5 V +K2 +K1 GND OUT7 OUT6 OUT5 OUT4 OUT3
BUTTON
DS1
DS2
R1
S2
S1
J5
RX TX/1W CTS RTS +5 V GND
RNET
J2 2
4
3
RNET
PWR
D1
J8
2
R41
R31
R43
R45
R40
R38R44
R33
U4
C13
R24
R30 R25
R35
J6
C7
C11
2
JP1
C6
C10
J1
8
7
2
1
D10
D11
C2
C3
C4
R4
U1
R6
R23
R5
C5
R26 R34
R13
R14
R15
R16
R17
R18
R19
R20
R21
R22
R12
R7
R8
R9
R10
R11
D12 U7
D15 U8
D14
D13
20 11
10
C58 L1 J9
C69
C74
R69
R72
R73
R74
U18
J10
2
1
J11
2
1
AIN0 AIN1
AIN2 AIN3
R87
R89
R90
R93
AIN0 AIN1 AIN2 AIN3 AIN4 AIN5 AIN6 AIN7 AGND IN11 IN10 IN9 IN8 IN7 IN6 IN5 IN4 GND RST PWR
AGND
C65
C64
C68 R63
R65
L2
BT1
C86
C87
R86
U20
C96
C91
C92
C95
C97
C101
C102
C103
C104
C105
C106
C107
C108
R98
R99
R100
R101
R102
R103
R104
R105
R106
R107
R108
R109
R110
R111
R112
R113
ADC PROGRAMMER
GND
2
J12
J15
R115
RP5
RP3
R94 R91
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26
RP4
J13
2
RP6 1S3
J16
S4
C114
2
7
8
J14
R117
D27
DS3
DS4
J17 2
PWR
IN
L12
3
4
C93
D18
C112
R116
R118
L10 L11
C109
L8
C110
L9
L4
R88
C98
L5
C111L6
C99
L7
U21
C100
R95R96
R77
C94
R92
C113
R97
U19
R75
R85
C90
R76
C89
C88
U17
L3
C17
C18
C19
C20
C21
C22
C23
C24
C41
C44 R54
R55
C46
C49
C47
C50
U15
R62
R60
D17
C60
R66
C78
C80
C82
C81
C83
C84
4
3
1
2
Y4
R67
R68
R70
R71
R79
R80
R78
R81
R82
R83
R84
C70
C75
C72
C76
C73
C77
C71
C85 C79
U16
Y1
C55
Y2
C59
C66
1
R59
C38
C42
C43
C30
C33
C29
C32
C37
C52
R58
C51
C57
C67
C62
C63
C53
C54
R57
C61
4
1
3
R61
Y3
R64
U9
R47
U13
R46
R51
C27
U5
C34
C31
C28
R56 C45
C40
C39
U14
C56
U10
R53
Q9
R52
C35
C36
U12
C26
C25
U6
R48 R49
D16
U11
R28
R29
R50
C48
C1
R2
C16 C15 C14
U3
C9
C12
C8
R27
R39
R42
R37
R32
R36
XBee
Series 2
DEMO BOARD
POWER
IN3
IN2
IN1
IN0
Header J3
BL4S100
to GND
on
Header J4
JP15
OUT0
OUT1
OUT2
OUT3
JP1 JP2
BL4S100 User’s Manual 106
5. Confirm the following hardware setup is displayed on the “PC Settings” tab.
Now select the COM port the Digi XBee USB is connected to, and click the “Open
Com Port” button. The message “Radio Found” is displayed to indicate that you
selected the correct COM port. The ZigBee parameters (firmware version, operating
channel, PAN ID) for the Digi XBee USB will be displayed in the “Radio Parameters”
box. Go to Control Panel > System > Hardware > Device Manager > Ports on your
PC if you need help in identifying the USB COM port.
6. Any ZigBee devices discovered will be displayed in the “Devices Discovered” window
to the right.
If the utility times out and no ZigBee devices are displayed, you will have to reconfig-
ure the Digi XBee USB and recompile the sample program once you make sure the
BL4S100/BL4S150 is powered up. The timeout may occur if you are doing develop-
ment simultaneously with more than one ZigBee coordinator. Appendix F explains the
steps to reconfigure the Digi XBee USB.
115200 baud
Hardware flow control
8 data bits
No parity
1 stop bit
.u—q- Dawn pm... —_ mum: 1»!an m . .mw.w.7 —, x.“ m ”but,“ 'It-dmfi,rn; [m.mm...[a,~ j w mumafll Tum]wurwa-TmniqumaJ—mm: b. m. “w. Wm was w _
BL4S100 User’s Manual 107
7. Select a device with your mouse pointer and click on the selected device to select that
device. This device will now be displayed in the “Selected Device” area.
8. You are now ready to interface with the BL4S100/BL4S150 via the ZigBee protocol.
Try pinging the selected device by clicking the “Send Ping” button.
6.2.2 Setting up Sample Programs
The sample programs are set up so that the BL4S100/Bl4S150 you are using is a ZigBee
router, coordinator, or end device. Uncomment the line corresponding to the role the
BL4S100/Bl4S150 will have once it is running the sample program. The default in the
sample programs is for the BL4S100/Bl4S150 to be a router.
// Set XBEE_ROLE to NODE_TYPE_COORD, NODE_TYPE_ROUTER or NODE_TYPE_ENDDEV
// to match your XBee's firmware.
#define XBEE_ROLE NODE_TYPE_ROUTER
NOTE: Remember that the firmware loaded to the XBee RF module is different depend-
ing on whether the BL4S100/BL4S150 is a router (default), an end device, or a coordi-
nator. See Appendix F, “Additional Configuration Instructions,” for information
on how to download firmware to the BL4S100/BL4S150 to set it up as a coordina-
tor or to resume its original configuration as a router.
There are several macros that may be changed to facilitate your setup. The macros can
be included as part of the program code, or they may be put into the Program Options
“Defines” on the “Defines” tab in the Options > Program Options menu.
BL4S100 User’s Manual 108
Channel mask — defaults to 0x1FFE, i.e., all 16 possible channels via the macro in the
Dynamic C
LIB\Rabbit4000
\XBee\XBee_Firmware\XBEE_API.LIB library. If
you want to limit the channels used, all devices on your network should use the same
channel mask.
#define DEFAULT_CHANNELS XBEE_DEFAULT_CHANNELS
Extended PAN ID — the 64-bit network ID. Defaults to DEFAULT_PANID if set in the
Dynamic C
LIB\Rabbit4000
\XBee\XBEE_API.LIB library, otherwise defaults to
0x0123456789abcdef to match the default used on the Digi XBee USB.
If set to 0x00, tells coordinators to “select a random extended PAN ID,” and tells routers
and end devices to “join any network.”
Change the extended PAN ID if you are developing simultaneously with more than one
ZigBee coordinator.
#define DEFAULT_EXTPANID "0x0123456789abcdef"
Node ID — the ID of your particular node via the macro in the Dynamic C
LIB\Rab-
bit4000
\XBee\XBee_Firmware\XBEE_API.LIB library. Each node should have a
unique identifier.
#define NODEID_STR "RabbitXBee"
The XBee sample programs in the Dynamic C
SAMPLES\XBee
folder illustrate the use of
the XBee function calls.
AT_INTERACTIVE.C—This sample program shows how to set up and use AT
commands with the XBee RF module.
The program will print out a list of AT commands in the Dynamic C STDIO window.
You may type in either “ATxx” or just the “xx” part of the command.
Use just the AT command to read any of the values.
Use [AT]xx yyyy (where the y is an integer up to 32 bits) to set any of the “set or read” values.
(Note that this works for NI, the node identifier, where the data will be a Node ID.string in quotes
— [AT]NI "Node ID string” where the quotes contain the string data)
Type “menu” to redisplay the menu of commands.
Press F4 to exit and close the STDIO window.
AT_RUNONCE.C—This sample program uses many of the most important and useful
AT commands. Several commands can either set a parameter or read it. This sample
program simply reads the parameters and displays the results.
Compile and run this sample program. The program will display the results in the
Dynamic C STDIO window.
BL4S100 User’s Manual 109
The XBee sample programs in the Dynamic C
SAMPLES\BL4S1xx\XBee
folder illustrate
the use of the XBee function calls.
SLEEP.C—This sample program demonstrates having the XBee RF module wake the
Rabbit up upon receipt of a packet.
It also demonstrates conditional use of TCP/IP networking in low-power modes. The
sample program illustrates how to respond to TCP/IP ping packets and also demon-
strates pinging a remote host. It prints a message in the Dynamic C STDIO window
when the ping response arrives here.
Once the sample program is compiled and running, open your PC Web browser. As
long as you have not modified the TCPCONFIG 1 macro in the sample program, enter
the following server address in your Web browser to bring up the Web page served by
the sample program.
http://10.10.6.100
If PING_WHO is not defined, then it pings the default gateway.
For this sample, the XBEE_ROLE macro must be defined as NODE_TYPE_ENDDEV since
routers and coordinators cannot sleep.
XBEE_GPIO_SERVER.C—This sample program shows how to set up and use endpoints
and clusters. It is meant to be run with the Windows GUI client (installed in Dynamic C’s
Utilities directory) and a Digi USB XBee coordinator or with the GPIO client
sample program (SAMPLES/XBEE/XBEE_GPIO_CLIENT.C) running on an RCM4510W
RabbitCore module or on a single-board computer with an XBee RF module.
Connect the BL4S100/BL4S150 to the Demonstration Board as explained in Section 6.2.1.
Then compile and run this sample program on the BL4S100/BL4S150. Run the Windows
GUI client (XBEE_GPIO_GUI.exe in the Dynamic C Utilities\XBee GPIO GUI
folder) on your PC. Configure the GUI client to connect to the Digi USB XBee coordi-
nator and scan for devices. Make sure the BL4S100/BL4S150 and the Digi USB XBee
coordinator are configured with the same PAN ID.
If you run the XBEE_GPIO_CLIENT.C sample program on another board with an XBee
RF module, set the PAN IDs to match between the client and the server sample programs.
Now select the GPIO server and use the GUI interface on the PC, or the command-line
client on another XBee-equipped board to view the server's inputs and change its outputs.
For example, you can toggle the LEDs on the Demonstration Board on/off.
XBEE_WEB_GATEWAY.C—This sample program shows how to interact with nodes on a
wireless ZigBee network through a Web interface.
Before you compile and run this sample program, set up a ZigBee network based on
boards with the XBee RF module. The sample program provides configuration recom-
mendations for RF Interface Boards from the Mesh Network Add-On Kit and other
boards. Use the XCTU utility to configure these boards as end devices with the same
PAN ID.
BL4S100 User’s Manual 110
Once the sample program is compiled and running, open your PC Web browser. As
long as you have not modified the TCPCONFIG 1 macro in the sample program, enter
the following server address in your Web browser to bring up the Web page served by
the sample program.
http://10.10.6.100
The Web browser will display the network and the individual boards on the network.
You can use the Web browser to control the boards. Note that the XB24-ZB_2x40
firmware allows you to set digital outputs on all node types, but analog and digital
inputs can only be read on end devices.
BL4S100 User’s Manual 111
6.3 Dynamic C Function Calls
Function calls for use with the XBee RF modules are in the Dynamic C
LIB\Rabbit4000\
XBee\XBEE_API.LIB library. These ZigBee specific function calls are described in An
Introduction to ZigBee, which is included in the online documentation set.
6.4 Where Do I Go From Here?
NOTE: If you purchased your BL4S100/BL4S150 through a distributor or through a
Rabbit partner, contact the distributor or partner first for technical support.
If there are any problems at this point:
Use the Dynamic C Help menu to get further assistance with Dynamic C.
Check the Rabbit Technical Bulletin Board and forums at www.digi.com/support/ and
at www.digi.com/support/forum/rabbit.
Click tech.support@digi.com to send an email to Technical Support.
If the sample programs ran fine, you are now ready to go on.
An Introduction to ZigBee provides background information on the ZigBee protocol, and
is available on the CD and on our website.
Digi’s XBee™ Series 2 OEM RF Modules provides complete information for the XBee
RF module used on the BL4S100/BL4S150, provides background information on the
ZigBee PRO protocol, and is available at https://www.digi.com/resources/documentation/
digidocs/PDFs/90000976.pdf.
BL4S100 User’s Manual 112
APPENDIX A. SPECIFICATIONS
Appendix A provides the specifications for the BL4S100.
BL4S100 User’s Manual 113
A.1 Electrical and Mechanical Specifications
Figure A-1 shows the mechanical dimensions for the BL4S100.
Figure A-1. BL4S100 Dimensions
NOTE: All measurements are in inches followed by millimeters enclosed in parentheses.
All dimensions have a manufacturing tolerance of ±0.01" (0.25 mm).
GND
J7
20 11
10
D2
Q1
D3
Q2
D4
Q3
RP1
J4
RP2
D5
Q4
D6
Q5
D7
Q6
D8
Q7
D9
Q8
U2
J3
OUT2 OUT1 OUT0 IN3 IN2 IN1 IN0 +K GND
+5 V +K2 +K1 GND OUT7 OUT6 OUT5 OUT4 OUT3
BUTTON
DS1
DS2
R1
S2
S1
J5
RX TX/1W CTS RTS +5 V GND
RNET
J2 2
4
3
RNET
PWR
D1
J8
2
R41
R31
R43
R45
R40
R38R44
R33
U4
C13
R24
R30 R25
R35
J6
C7
C11
2
JP1
C6
C10
J1
8
7
2
1
D10
D11
C2
C3
C4
R4
U1
R6
R23
R5
C5
R26 R34
R13
R14
R15
R16
R17
R18
R19
R20
R21
R22
R12
R7
R8
R9
R10
R11
D12 U7
D15 U8
D14
D13
20 11
10
C58 L1 J9
C69
C74
R69
R72
R73
R74
U18
J10
2
1
J11
2
1
AIN0 AIN1
AIN2 AIN3
R87
R89
R90
R93
AIN0 AIN1 AIN2 AIN3 AIN4 AIN5 AIN6 AIN7 AGND IN11 IN10 IN9 IN8 IN7 IN6 IN5 IN4 GND RST PWR
AGND
C65
C64
C68 R63
R65
L2
BT1
C86
C87
R86
U20
C96
C91
C92
C95
C97
C101
C102
C103
C104
C105
C106
C107
C108
R98
R99
R100
R101
R102
R103
R104
R105
R106
R107
R108
R109
R110
R111
R112
R113
ADC PROGRAMMER
GND
2
J12
J15
R115
RP5
RP3
R94 R91
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26
RP4
J13
2
RP6 1S3
J16
S4
C114
2
7
8
J14
R117
D27
DS3
DS4
J17 2
PWR
IN
L12
3
4
C93
D18
C112
R116
R118
L10 L11
C109
L8
C110
L9
L4
R88
C98
L5
C111L6
C99
L7
U21
C100
R95R96
R77
C94
R92
C113
R97
U19
R75
R85
C90
R76
C89
C88
U17
L3
C17
C18
C19
C20
C21
C22
C23
C24
C41
C44 R54
R55
C46
C49
C47
C50
U15
R62
R60
D17
C60
R66
C78
C80
C82
C81
C83
C84
4
3
1
2
Y4
R67
R68
R70
R71
R79
R80
R78
R81
R82
R83
R84
C70
C75
C72
C76
C73
C77
C71
C85 C79
U16
Y1
C55
Y2
C59
C66
1
R59
C38
C42
C43
C30
C33
C29
C32
C37
C52
R58
C51
C57
C67
C62
C63
C53
C54
R57
C61
4
1
3
R61
Y3
R64
U9
R47
U13
R46
R51
C27
U5
C34
C31
C28
R56 C45
C40
C39
U14
C56
U10
R53
Q9
R52
C35
C36
U12
C26
C25
U6
R48 R49
D16
U11
R28
R29
R50
C48
C1
R2
C16 C15 C14
U3
C9
C12
C8
R27
R39
R42
R37
R32
R36
XBee
Series 2
1
3
4
2
RJ-45 jack extends
0.12" (3.1 mm)
past edge of
board
5.00
(127)
0.48
(12.2)
0.17
(4.3)
0.375
(9.5)
0.375
(9.5)
0.495
(12.6) 0.495
(12.6)
0.498
(12.7)
5.75
(146)
× 4
0.125 dia
(3.2)
0.497
(12.6)
0.375
(9.5)
0.375
(9.5)
3.00
(76)
3.75
(96)
Micro-Fit® connector
extends 0.11" (2.7 mm)
past edge of
board
0.060
(1.53)
0.25
(6.3)
0.04
(1.0)
0.64
(16.3)
3.33
(84.6) 0.38
(9.7)
5.75
(146)
0.64
(16)
BL4S100 User’s Manual 114
Table A-1 lists the electrical, mechanical, and environmental specifications for the BL4S100.
Table A-1. BL4S100 Specifications
Feature BL4S100 BL4S110 BL4S150 BL4S160
Microprocessor Rabbit 4000 at 40.00 MHz
Ethernet Interface 10Base-T
ZigBee Interface ZigBee PRO
(802.15.4) ZigBee PRO
(802.15.4)
Serial Flash Memory (program) 1MB 2MB
Program Execution SRAM 512KB 1MB
Data SRAM 512KB
Backup Battery Panasonic CR2032 or equivalent 3 V lithium coin type,
235 mA·h standard, socket-mounted
Digital Inputs 12: protected to ±36 V DC,
switching threshold 1.4 V/1.9 V typical
Digital Outputs 8: sink up to 200 mA each, 36 V DC max.
Analog Inputs
Eight 11-bit res. channels, software-selectable ranges
unipolar/differential bipolar: 1, 2, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 V DC;
4 channels can be hardware-configured for 4–20 mA;
1 M input impedanceup to 4,100 samples/s
Serial Ports
3 serial ports:
two RS-232 or one RS-232 (with CTS/RTS)
one serial port dedicated for programming/debug
Serial Rate Max. asynchronous rate = 250kbps,
Max. synchronous rate = 1 MB/s
Hardware Connectors
Micro-Fit connector:
one polarized 2 × 2 with 3 mm pitch (power)
Screw-terminal connectors (accept up to 14 AWG/1.5 mm2 wire):
four 1 × 9 (I/O), one 1 × 6 (serial)
Programming port:
2 × 5 IDC, 1.27 mm pitch
Ethernet Network Connector One RJ-45 Ethernet
Real-Time Clock Yes
Timers Ten 8-bit timers (6 cascadable, 3 reserved for internal peripherals),
one 10-bit timer with 2 match registers
Watchdog/Supervisor Yes
Power 9–36 V DC, 2 W max.
Operating Temperature -40°C to +85°C
Humidity 5–95%, noncondensing
BL4S100 User’s Manual 115
A.1.1 Exclusion Zone
It is recommended that you allow for an “exclusion zone” of 0.25" (6 mm) around the
BL4S100 in all directions when the BL4S100 is incorporated into an assembly that
includes other components. This “exclusion zone” that you keep free of other components
and boards will allow for sufficient air flow, and will help to minimize any electrical or
EMI interference between adjacent boards. An “exclusion zone” of 0.12" (3 mm) is rec-
ommended below the BL4S100 shows this “exclusion zone.”
Figure A-2. BL4S100 “Exclusion Zone”
A.1.2 Headers
The BL4S100 has a 3 mm Micro-Fit connectors at J17 for power-supply connections.
There are four 1 × 9 screw-terminal headers for the various analog inputs and digital I/O.
One 1 × 6 screw-terminal header handles to RS-232 signals.
Board Size 3.75" × 5.75" × 0.64"
(96 mm × 146 mm × 16 mm)
ZigBee RF Module
RF Module Digi XBee Series 2
Compliance ZigBee PRO (802.15.4)
Table A-1. BL4S100 Specifications (continued)
Feature BL4S100 BL4S110 BL4S150 BL4S160
1
3
4
2
0.25
(6) 0.25
(6)
0.25
(6)
Exclusion
Zone
0.12
(3)
0.60
(15)
5.75
(146)
S§O®G$fl$0 i®9§5§8®0 ®9R6§§ O -Ele III 0 in e§s§e§a$¢ sws&e&a&o
BL4S100 User’s Manual 116
A.2 Jumper Configurations
Figure A-3 shows the header locations used to configure the various BL4S100 options via
jumpers.
Figure A-3. Location of BL4S100 Configurable Positions
Table A-2 lists the configuration options.
Table A-2. BL4S100 Jumper Configurations
Header Description Pins Connected Factory
Default
JP1
Serial Communication
Configuration Options
(not stuffed)
None J1 is configured for RS-232 ×
1–2 J1 is configured for RabbitNet
2–3 J1 configured for 1-Wire serial
J6
Serial Communication
Configuration Options
(not stuffed)
None J1 is configured for RS-232 or
RabbitNet ×
1–3
4–6
J1 is configured for alternate 1-Wire
serial pinout
2–4 J1 is configured for Digi 1-Wire serial
pinout
XBee
Series 2
Battery
JP1
J11
J10
J6
J13
BL4S100 User’s Manual 117
The location at J1 provides a stuffing option to support an RJ-45 jack instead of the screw-
terminal header at J5. This option is reserved for future use.
J10 A/D Converter Voltage/Current
Measurement Options
None Voltage Option ×
1–2 AIN2 4–20 mA option
5–6 AIN3 4–20 mA option
J11 A/D Converter Voltage/Current
Measurement Options
None Voltage Option ×
1–2 AIN0 4–20 mA option
5–6 AIN1 4–20 mA option
J13 Digital Inputs (IN0–IN11) Pull-
Up Options
1–2 Inputs pulled up to +K
4–6 Inputs pulled down to GND
5–6 Inputs pulled up to +5 V ×
Table A-2. BL4S100 Jumper Configurations (continued)
Header Description Pins Connected Factory
Default
BL4S100 User’s Manual 118
A.3 Use of Rabbit Microprocessor Parallel Ports
Table A-3 lists the Rabbit microprocessor parallel ports and their use in the BL4S100
boards.
Table A-3. Use of Rabbit Microprocessor Parallel Ports
Port I/O Signal Initial State
PA0–PA7 I/O Rabbit RIO D0–D7 Bus data line
PB0 Output PB0/SCLKB Inactive high
PB1 Input PB1/SCLKA Driven by U12
PB2 Output Rabbit RIO PI
Bus address line
PB3–PB5 Output Rabbit RIO CH0–CHA2
PB6 Output Rabbit RIO /CS
PB7 Output Rabbit RIO G//B
PC0 Output TXD
Serial Port D
Inactive high
PC1 Input RXD Pulled up
PC2 Output TXC (A/D converter)
Serial Port C
Inactive high
PC3 Input RXC (A/D converter) Pulled up
PC4 Output TXB (serial flash)
Serial Port B
Inactive high
PC5 Input RXB (serial flash) Pulled up
PC6 Output TXA programming port
Serial Port A
Low
PC7 Input RXA programming port Pulled up
PD0 Output RabbitNet CLK Clock signal
PD1 Input XBee 1-button
PD2 Output SCLKC (A/D converter)
PD3 Input XBee reduce power
PD4 Output Rabbit RIO GS Low
PD5 Input XBee /CTS
PD6 Output TXE (XBee Tx)
Serial Port E
Inactive high
PD7 Input RXE (XBee Rx) Pulled up
PE0 Output A20 Bus address line
PE1 Input RIO interrupt input Pulled up
PE2 Output TXF (RTS)
Serial Port F
Low
PE3 Input RXF (CTS) Inactive high
BL4S100 User’s Manual 119
PE4 Output Serial Flash /CS Inactive high
PE5 Output Ethernet LINK Inactive high (LED off)
PE6 Output XBee /RTS Low
PE7 Output Ethernet ACT Inactive high (LED off)
BUFEN Output /CS (A/D converter) Inactive high
CLK Output CLK to Rabbit RIO CPU clock
Table A-3. Use of Rabbit Microprocessor Parallel Ports (continued)
Port I/O Signal Initial State
BL4S100 User’s Manual 120
APPENDIX B. POWER SUPPLY
Appendix B describes the power circuitry provided on the
BL4S100.
B.1 Power Supplies
Power is supplied to the BL4S100 boards via the Micro-Fit connector at J17. The
BL4S100 is protected against reverse polarity by a diode at D27 as shown in Figure B-1.
Figure B-1. BL4S100 Power Supply
The input voltage range is from 9 V to 36 V. A switching power regulator is used to provide
+5 V for the BL4S100 logic circuits. In turn, the regulated +5 V DC power supply is used
to drive regulated +1.8 V and +3.3 V power supplies.
The digital ground and the analog ground share a single split ground plane on the board,
with the analog ground connected at a single point to the digital ground by a 0 resistor
(R63). This is done to minimize digital noise in the analog circuits and to eliminate the
possibility of ground loops. External connections to analog ground are made on a screw-
terminal header at J15.
LINEAR POWER
REGULATOR
POWER
IN
J17
C25
10 µF
LM1117T
U10
+3.3 V
3
1
2
1
3B240
D27
47 µF
C56
330 µF
+5 V
L3
C93
150 µH
D18
B240
SWITCHING POWER REGULATOR
U17
LM2576
RAW
14
2C48
10 µF
LINEAR POWER
REGULATOR
C79
10 µF
+1.8 V
TPS76918
U16
1
2
5
(235mA~h)/(25}LA) = 1‘] years‘
BL4S100 User’s Manual 121
B.2 Batteries and External Battery Connections
The SRAM and the real-time clock on the BL4S100 modules have battery backup. Power
to the SRAM and the real-time clock (VRAM) is provided by two different sources,
depending on whether the main part of the BL4S100 is powered or not. When the BL4S100
is powered normally, and the +3.3 V supply is within operating limits, the SRAM and the
real-time clock are powered from the +3.3 V supply. If power to the board is lost or falls
below 2.93 V, the VRAM and real-time clock power will come from the battery. The reset
generator circuit controls the source of power by way of its /RESET output signal.
A replaceable 235 mA·h lithium battery provides power to the real-time clock and SRAM
when external power is removed from the circuit board. The drain on the battery is typi-
cally less than 15-25µA but could be as much as 50µA when there is no external power
applied to the BL4S100, and so the expected typical shelf life of the battery is
The actual battery life in your application will depend on the current drawn by components
not on the BL4S100 and on the storage capacity of the battery. The BL4S100 does not
drain the battery while it is powered up normally.
B.2.1 Replacing the Backup Battery
The battery is user-replaceable, and is fitted in a battery holder. To replace the battery, lift
up on the spring clip and slide out the old battery. Use only a Panasonic CR2032 or equiv-
alent replacement battery, and insert it into the battery holder with the + side facing up.
NOTE: The SRAM contents and the real-time clock settings will be lost if the battery is
replaced with no power applied to the BL4S100. Exercise care if you replace the battery
while external power is applied to the BL4S100.
Cycle the main power off/on after you install a backup battery for the first time, and when-
ever you replace the battery. This step will minimize the current drawn by the real-time
clock oscillator circuit from the backup battery should the BL4S100 experience a loss of
main power.
Rabbit’s Technical Note TN235, External 32.768 kHz Oscillator Circuits, provides addi-
tional information about the current draw by the real-time clock oscillator circuit.
CAUTION: There is an explosion danger if the battery is short-circuited, recharged,
or replaced incorrectly. Replace the battery only with the same type or an equivalent
type recommended by the battery manufacturer. Dispose of used batteries according
to the battery manufacturers instructions.
235mA·h25µA1.1 years.=
BL4S100 User’s Manual 122
APPENDIX C. DEMONSTRATION BOARD
Appendix C explains how to use the Demonstration Board with
the BL4S100 sample programs.
m f m ‘ mu mu m. L m“ m m .-m:|n-nDD-1Un. LED: LED] WEI; 'mn um'LEnLEu 'mn memm m “E E m J MPERVHNK my mwmauwu
BL4S100 User’s Manual 123
C.1 Connecting Demonstration Board
Before running sample programs based on the Demonstration Board, you will have to con-
nect the Demonstration Board
from the BL4S100 Tool Kit to the BL4S100 board. Proceed
as follows.
1. Use wires to connect screw-terminal header J3 on the Demonstration
Board to header
J4 on the BL4S100. The connections are shown in Figure C-1
, with the green wire to
GND and the blue wire to +V.
2. Make sure that your
BL4S100
is connected to your PC via the programming cable and
that the power supply is connected to the
BL4S100
and plugged in as described in
Chapter 2, “Getting Started.”
Figure C-1. Power Supply Connections Between BL4S10 and Demonstration Board
CAUTION: If you are using your own power supply with the Demonstration Board,
note that the maximum power supply input voltage the Demonstration Board can
handle is + 12 V DC. Do not use a higher power supply voltage.
J3 J4
GND
J7
20 11
10
D2
Q1
D3
Q2
D4
Q3
RP1
J4
RP2
D5
Q4
D6
Q5
D7
Q6
D8
Q7
D9
Q8
U2
J3
OUT2 OUT1 OUT0 IN3 IN2 IN1 IN0 +K GND
+5 V +K2 +K1 GND OUT7 OUT6 OUT5 OUT4 OUT3
BUTTON
DS1
DS2
R1
S2
S1
J5
RX TX/1W CTS RTS +5 V GND
RNET
J2 2
4
3
RNET
PWR
D1
J8
2
R41
R31
R43
R45
R40
R38R44
R33
U4
C13
R24
R30 R25
R35
J6
C7
C11
2
JP1
C6
C10
J1
8
7
2
1
D10
D11
C2
C3
C4
R4
U1
R6
R23
R5
C5
R26 R34
R13
R14
R15
R16
R17
R18
R19
R20
R21
R22
R12
R7
R8
R9
R10
R11
D12 U7
D15 U8
D14
D13
20 11
10
C58 L1 J9
C69
C74
R69
R72
R73
R74
U18
J10
2
1
J11
2
1
AIN0 AIN1
AIN2 AIN3
R87
R89
R90
R93
AIN0 AIN1 AIN2 AIN3 AIN4 AIN5 AIN6 AIN7 AGND IN11 IN10 IN9 IN8 IN7 IN6 IN5 IN4 GND RST PWR
AGND
C65
C64
C68 R63
R65
L2
BT1
C86
C87
R86
U20
C96
C91
C92
C95
C97
C101
C102
C103
C104
C105
C106
C107
C108
R98
R99
R100
R101
R102
R103
R104
R105
R106
R107
R108
R109
R110
R111
R112
R113
ADC PROGRAMMER
GND
2
J12
J15
R115
RP5
RP3
R94 R91
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26
RP4
J13
2
RP6 1S3
J16
S4
C114
2
7
8
J14
R117
D27
DS3
DS4
J17 2
PWR
IN
L12
3
4
C93
D18
C112
R116
R118
L10 L11
C109
L8
C110
L9
L4
R88
C98
L5
C111L6
C99
L7
U21
C100
R95R96
R77
C94
R92
C113
R97
U19
R75
R85
C90
R76
C89
C88
U17
L3
C17
C18
C19
C20
C21
C22
C23
C24
C41
C44 R54
R55
C46
C49
C47
C50
U15
R62
R60
D17
C60
R66
C78
C80
C82
C81
C83
C84
4
3
1
2
Y4
R67
R68
R70
R71
R79
R80
R78
R81
R82
R83
R84
C70
C75
C72
C76
C73
C77
C71
C85 C79
U16
Y1
C55
Y2
C59
C66
1
R59
C38
C42
C43
C30
C33
C29
C32
C37
C52
R58
C51
C57
C67
C62
C63
C53
C54
R57
C61
4
1
3
R61
Y3
R64
U9
R47
U13
R46
R51
C27
U5
C34
C31
C28
R56 C45
C40
C39
U14
C56
U10
R53
Q9
R52
C35
C36
U12
C26
C25
U6
R48 R49
D16
U11
R28
R29
R50
C48
C1
R2
C16 C15 C14
U3
C9
C12
C8
R27
R39
R42
R37
R32
R36
XBee
Series 2
DEMO BOARD
POWER
CONNECT TO
BL4S100
HEADER J4 +5 V
GND
)El 9 - LE 174 LED! LED} DEMO BOARD - - LED! I 00 a Do
BL4S100 User’s Manual 124
C.2 Demonstration Board Features
The Demonstration Board can be used to illustrate I/O activity via LEDs and pushbutton
switches.
C.2.1 Pinout
Figure C-2 shows the pinouts for the input signals on screw-terminal header J1 and the
outputs on screw-terminal header J3.
Figure C-2. Demonstration Board Pinout
C.2.2 Configuration
The pushbutton switches may be configured active high or active low via jumper settings
on header JP15.
Figure C-3. Pushbutton Switch Configuration
GND
LED1
LED2
LED3
LED4
+V
OUTPUTS
J3
+V_ALT
SW4
SW3
SW2
SW1
GND
J1
POWER
INPUTS
3.3 kW
+V
JP15
SW1SW4
ACTIVE LOW
3.3 kW
+V JP15
SW1SW4
ACTIVE HIGH
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BL4S100 User’s Manual 125
The four LED output indicators can be configured as sinking outputs or as sourcing out-
puts via jumpers on headers JP1–JP4 as shown in Figure C-4.
Figure C-4. LED Output Indicators Sinking or Sourcing Configuration
NOTE: Disconnect power before changing any jumper settings.
The power supply voltage input at +V on screw-terminal
header J3 is available as +V_ALT on screw-terminal
header J1. There is a potentiometer immediately above
the +V_ALT location to allow you to vary the voltage at
+V_ALT from 0 V to +V.
Figure C-5 shows the location of the adjustable output
voltage and the potentiometer.
Figure C-5. Location of
Adjustable Output Voltage
+K
(in sinking
mode)
(in sourcing
mode)
Sinking/
Sourcing
Hookups
J1
POT
BL4S100 User’s Manual 126
APPENDIX D. RABBIT RIO RESOURCE
ALLOCATION
Appendix D provides the pin and block associations on the Rabbit
RIO chip with their corresponding I/O on the BL4S100 boards.
The main shared resource within the RIO chips are the counter/timer
blocks — the RIO chip has eight counter/timer blocks. A given
block is defined by the block number. The tables in this appendix
provide a quick reference of which block is used by each input
and/or output pin on the BL4S100 board.
BL4S100 User’s Manual 127
D.1 Digital I/O Pin Associations
Table D-1. Digital I/O Pin Associations
I/O Pin Block Pin
IN0
0
0
IN1 1
IN2 2
IN3
1
0
IN4 1
IN5 2
IN6
2
0
IN7 1
OUT0 2
OUT1 3
IN8
3
0
IN9 1
OUT2 2
OUT3 3
OUT4 42
OUT5 3
OUT6 52
OUT7 3
IN10 6 0
IN11 7 0
BL4S100 User’s Manual 128
D.2 Interpreting Error Codes
Some BL4S100 function calls may return a Mode Conflict error code. This error code is a
4-bit value that identifies other pins using the same counter/timer block on a RIO chip that
require this block to be in a mode that conflicts with the functionality that has already been
requested — the additional functionality requested cannot be supported. The error code also
helps you identify the other pins whose functionality needs to change to possibly allow the
latest function call to succeed.
The bit values in the Mode Conflict error codes have the following meanings.
Bits [7:4] don’t matter, will always be zero
Bit 3 — Pin 3 of this block has a mode conflict
Bit 2 — Pin 2 of this block has a mode conflict
Bit 1 — Pin 1 of this block has a mode conflict
Bit 0 — Pin 0 of this block has a mode conflict
By looking at the table in this appendix, you can identify the other pins that share the RIO
counter/timer block with the pin(s) that returned the Mode Conflict error code. For example,
if you already configured IN0 and IN1 as Quadrature Decoder inputs, then try to set IN2
as a counter input, the function call will return a Mode Conflict error code of 3.
This error code is a 4-bit value that identifies other pins using the same counter/timer
block that conflict with the requested function. In this case, 3 is 0011, which indicates that
pin 1 and pin 2 of the block used by IN2 have the conflicts — they are using the
counter/timer in a way that conflicts with setting IN2 as a counter input. Looking at
Table D-1, you find IN2 is using block 0 on RIO chip 0, and pin 0 and pin 1 of this block
are used by IN0 and IN1. Therefore you cannot use IN2 as a counter input unless you
remove the Quadrature Decoder inputs from this block. This illustrates how the Mode
Conflict error code can be used to identify the pin functions that cannot mix together on
the same RIO block.
The tables in this appendix are useful for both finding the cause of mode conflicts, and for
planning which pins to use for which functions to avoid conflicts in the first place.
Notice that there is a pattern to the block sharing of certain I/O pins. The first six digital
input pins, IN0—IN5, have blocks shared across four inputs. These are the only pins that
can support functions such as Quadrature Decoder inputs with an independent index-
based reset. The next group of eight digital I/O pins (IN6–IN9 and OUT0–OUT3) share
blocks among their digital I/O pairs, bringing both the input and output functionality of
these pins into the same block. This allows PWM or PPM outputs that can be used with an
external synchronization signal. It would also allow synchronization of a pulse capture
response to a PWM-based output pulse. The last remaining I/O pins have nonshared RIO
blocks available for both the input and output functionality, making these pins ideal for
single-pin functions requiring a counter/timer.
BL4S100 User’s Manual 129
Table D-2 shows all counter/timer modes of the RIO block and which functions can use
the given modes. The use of synch signals is allowed with all the functions, but does affect
the timer/counter so it may have an adverse affect on functions marked with * or #.
× — I/O are compatible with the given mode, and can work with any other function
using that mode.
* — I/O cannot share the block with any other * or # marked function without
possible conflicts.
# — I/O can generally share the timer, but will be affected by settings of the limit
value (value at which the timer rolls over) or resetting of the counter, either
directly or through synch signals.
Table D-2. RIO Counter/Timer Block Mode Summary
Up Count
Count
Until
Match
Up/Down
Count
Free-
Running
Timer
Count
Until
End
Count
from