QT60168, 248 Datasheet by Microchip Technology

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lQQProx™ QT60168, QT60248
16, 24 K
EY
QM
ATRIX
™ IC
s
APPLICATIONS
yAutomotive panels
yMachine tools
yATM machines
yTouch-screens
yAppliance controls
yOutdoor keypads
ySecurity keypanels
yIndustrial keyboards
These digital charge-transfer (“QT”) QMatrix™ ICs are designed to detect human touch on up to 16 or 24 keys when used with a
scanned, passive X-Y matrix. They will project touch keys through almost any dielectric, e.g. glass, plastic, stone, ceramic, and even
wood, up to thicknesses of 5 cm or more. The touch areas are defined as simple 2-part interdigitated electrodes of conductive material,
like copper or screened silver or carbon deposited on the rear of a control panel. Key sizes, shapes and placement are almost entirely
arbitrary; sizes and shapes of keys can be mixed within a single panel of keys and can vary by a factor of 20:1 in surface area. The
sensitivity of each key can be set individually via simple functions over the serial port by a host microcontroller. Key setups are stored
in an onboard eeprom and do not need to be reloaded with each powerup.
These devices are designed specifically for appliances, electronic kiosks, security panels, portable instruments, machine tools, or
similar products that are subject to environmental influences or even vandalism. They permit the construction of 100% sealed,
watertight control panels that are immune to humidity, temperature, dirt accumulation, or the physical deterioration of the panel surface
from abrasion, chemicals, or abuse. To this end they contain Quantum-pioneered adaptive auto self-calibration, drift compensation, and
digital filtering algorithms that make the sensing function robust and survivable.
These devices feature continuous FMEA self-test and reporting diagnostics, to allow their use in critical consumer appliance
applications, for example ovens and cooktops.
Common PCB materials or flex circuits can be used as the circuit substrate; the overlying panel can be made of any non-conducting
material. External circuitry consists of only a few passive parts. Control and data transfer is via an SPI port.
These devices makes use of an important new variant of charge-transfer sensing, transverse charge-transfer, in a matrix format that
minimizes the number of required scan lines. Unlike older methods, it does not require one IC per key.
LQ
Copyright © 2004 QRG Ltd
QT60248-AS R4.02/0405
zSecond generation charge-transfer QMatrix technology
zKeys individually adjustable for sensitivity, response
time, and many other critical parameters
zPanel thicknesses to 50mm through any dielectric
z16 and 24 touch key versions
z100% autocal for life - no adjustments required
zSPI slave interface
zAdjacent key suppression feature
zSynchronous noise suppression feature
zSpread-spectrum modulation - high noise immunity
zMix and match key sizes & shapes in one panel
zLow overhead communications protocol
zFMEA compliant design features
zNegligible external component count
zExtremely low cost per key
z+3 to +5V single supply operation
z32-pin lead-free TQFP package
X2
X1
X0
/RST
Y2A
Y1A
Y0A
Y2B
X7
VREF
S
_
SYNC
SMP
DRDY
/
SS
MOSI
MISO
X3
X4
VSS
VDD
VSS
VDD
X5
X6 SCK
VDD
SYNC
VDD
VSS
n/c
Y0B
Y1B1
2
3
4
5
6
7
817
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25
910 11 161514
13
12
QT60248
QT60168
TQFP-32
YesQT60248-ASG24-40
0
C to +105
0
C
YesQT60168-ASG16-40
0
C to +105
0
C
Lead-FreePart Number# KeysT
A
AVAILABLE OPTIONS
Contents senses _ _ _ _ hug Keys
13
4.8 Report Error Flags for All Keys - 0x0b
..............
13
Table 4.1 Bits for key reporting and numbering
............
13
4.7 Report Detections for All Keys - 0x07
..............
13
4.6 Report 1st Key - 0x06
......................
12
4.5 General Status - 0x05
......................
12
4.4 Force Reset - 0x04
.......................
12
4.3 Cal All - 0x03
..........................
12
4.2 Enter Setups Mode - 0x01
....................
11
4.1 Null Command - 0x00
......................
11
4 Control Commands
.......................
11
3.3 Command Error Handling
....................
10
3.2 SPI Communications
......................
10
3.1 DRDY Pin
............................
10
3 Serial Communications
.....................
9
Figure 2.7 Wiring Diagram
......................
8
Table 2.2 - Pin Listing
.......................
8
2.17 Wiring
.............................
7
2.16 FMEA Tests
..........................
7
2.15 Detection Integrators
......................
7
2.14 Spread Spectrum Acquisitions
.................
6
2.13 Reset Input
..........................
6
Table 2-1 Basic Timings
......................
6
2.12 Startup / Calibration Times
...................
6
2.11 Power Supply Considerations
.................
6
2.10.2 PCB Cleanliness
.......................
6
2.10.1 LED Traces and Other Switching Signals
............
6
2.10 PCB Layout, Construction
...................
5
2.9 Key Design
...........................
5
2.8 Matrix Series Resistors
.....................
4
2.7 Signal Levels
..........................
4
2.6 Sample Resistors
........................
4
2.5 Sample Capacitors; Saturation
.................
4
2.4 Oscillator
............................
3
2.3 Response Time
.........................
3
2.2 Disabling Keys; Burst Paring
...................
3
2.1 Matrix Scan Sequence
......................
3
2 Hardware & Functional
.....................
3
1.2 Enabling / Disabling Keys
....................
3
1.1 Part differences
.........................
3
1 Overview
..............................
27
7.3 PCB Layout
...........................
27
7.2 1-Sided Key Layout
.......................
26
7.1 8-Bit CRC Algorithm
.......................
26
7 Appendix
.............................
25
6.6 Marking
.............................
24
6.5 Mechanical Dimensions
.....................
24
6.4 Timing Specifications
......................
24
6.3 DC Specifications
........................
24
6.2 Recommended operating conditions
...............
24
6.1 Absolute Maximum Electrical Specifications
...........
24
6 Specifications
..........................
23
Table 5.3 Setups Block Summary
..................
22
Table 5.2 Key Mapping
.......................
22
Table 5.1 Setups Block
.......................
21
5.13 Host CRC - HCRC
.......................
21
5.12 Lower Signal Limit - LSL
....................
20
5.11 Burst Spacing - BS
.......................
20
5.10 Mains Sync - MSYNC
.....................
20
5.9 Oscilloscope Sync - SSYNC
...................
20
5.8 Adjacent Key Suppression - AKS
................
20
5.7 Burst Length - BL
........................
19
5.6 Positive Recalibration Delay - PRD
...............
19
5.5 Negative Recal Delay - NRD
...................
19
5.4 Detect Integrators - NDIL, FDIL
.................
18
5.3 Drift Compensation - NDRIFT, PDRIFT
.............
18
5.2 Positive Threshold - PTHR
...................
18
5.1 Negative Threshold - NTHR
...................
18
5 Setups
...............................
16
Table 4.2 Command Summary
....................
14
4.18 Command Sequencing
.....................
14
4.17 Cal Key ‘k’ - 0xck
........................
14
4.16 Status for Key ‘k’ - 0x8k
....................
14
4.15 Data Set for One Key - 0x4k
..................
13
4.14 Internal Code - 0x12
......................
13
4.13 Internal Code - 0x10
......................
13
4.12 Return Last Command - 0x0f
..................
13
4.11 Eeprom CRC - 0x0e
......................
13
4.10 Dump Setups Block - 0x0d
...................
13
4.9 Report FMEA Status - 0x0c
...................
lQ
2 QT60248-AS R4.02/0405
Contents
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QMatrix devices are digital burst mode charge-transfer (QT)
sensors designed specifically for matrix geometry touch
controls; they include all signal processing functions necessary
to provide stable sensing under a wide variety of changing
conditions. Only a few external parts are required for operation.
The entire circuit can be built within a few square centimeters of
single-sided PCB area. CEM-1 and FR1 punched, single-sided
materials can be used for possible lowest cost. The PCB’s rear
can be mounted flush on the back of a glass or plastic panel
using a conventional adhesive, such as 3M VHB 2-sided
adhesive acrylic film.
QMatrix parts employ transverse charge-transfer ('QT') sensing,
a technology that senses changes in electrical charge forced
across an electrode by a pulse edge (Figure 1-1). QMatrix
devices allow for a wide range of key sizes and shapes to be
mixed together in a single touch panel.
The devices use an SPI interface to allow key data to be
extracted and to permit individual key parameter setup. The
interface protocol uses simple single byte commands and
responds with single byte responses in most cases. The
command structure is designed to minimize the amount of data
traffic while maximizing the amount of information conveyed.
In addition to normal operating and setup functions the device
can also report back actual signal strengths and error codes.
QmBtn software for the PC can be used to program the
operation of the IC as well as read back key status and signal
levels in real time.
The QT60168 and QT60248 are electrically identical with the
exception of the number of keys which may be sensed.
1.1 Part differences
Versions of the device are capable of a maximum of 16 or 24
keys (QT60168, QT60248 respectively).
These devices are identical in all respects, except that each is
capable of only the number of keys specified. These keys can
be located anywhere within the electrical grid of 8 X and 3 Y
scan lines.
Unused keys are always pared from the burst sequence in
order to optimize speed. Similarly, in a given part a lesser
number of enabled keys will cause any unused acquisition burst
timeslots to be pared from the sampling sequence to optimize
acquire speed. Thus, if only 14 keys are actually enabled, only
14 timeslots are used for scanning.
1.2 Enabling / Disabling Keys
The NDIL parameter is used to enable and disable keys in the
matrix. Setting NDIL = 0 for a key disables it (Section 5.4). At
no time can the number of enabled keys exceed the maximum
specified for the device in the case of the QT60168.
On the QT60168, only the first 2 Y lines (Y0, Y1) are
operational by default. On the QT60168, to use keys located on
line Y2, one or more of the pre-enabled keys must be disabled
simultaneously while enabling the desired new keys. This can
be done in one Setups block load operation.
2 Hardware & Functional
2.1 Matrix Scan Sequence
The circuit operates by scanning each key sequentially, key by
key. Key scanning begins with location X=0 / Y=0 (key #0). X
axis keys are known as rows while Y axis keys are referred to
as columns. Keys are scanned sequentially by row, for example
the sequence X0Y0 X1Y0 .... X7Y0, X0Y1, X1Y1... etc. Keys are
also numbered from 0..24. Key 0 is located at X0Y0. A table of
key numbering is located on page 22.
Each key is sampled in a burst of acquisition pulses whose
length is determined by the Setups parameter BL (page 20),
which can be set on a per-key basis. A burst is completed
entirely before the next key is sampled; at the end of each burst
the resulting signal is converted to digital form and processed.
The burst length directly impacts key gain; each key can have a
unique burst length in order to allow tailoring of key sensitivity
on a key by key basis.
2.2 Disabling Keys; Burst Paring
Keys that are disabled by setting NDIL =0 (Section 5.4, page
19) have their bursts pared from the scan sequence to save
time. This has the consequence of affecting the scan rate of the
entire matrix as well as the time required for initial matrix
calibration.
Reducing the number of enabled keys also reduces the time
required to calibrate an individual key once the matrix is initially
calibrated after power-up or reset, since the total cycle time is
proportional to the number of enabled keys.
Keys that are disabled report as follows:
Signal = 0
Reference = 0
Low-signal error flag (provided LSL >0)
Calibrating flag for key set only just after device reset or
after a CAL command, for one scan cycle only
Failed calibration error for key always set
Detect flag for key never set
See also Section 4.16 notes.
2.3 Response Time
The response time of the device depends on the scan rate of
the keys (Section 5.11), the number of keys enabled (Section
5.4), the detect integrator settings (Section 5.4), the serial
polling rate by the host microcontroller, and the time required to
do FMEA tests at the end of each scan (~5ms).
lQ
3 QT60248-AS R4.02/0405
Figure 1-1 Field flow between X and Y elements
overlying panel
X
element
Y
element
memwmmmm JJHHHHWHHHHWI
For example:
NKE = Number of keys enabled = 20
FDIL = Fast detect integrator limit = 5
BS = Burst spacing = 0.5ms
FMEA = FMEA test time = 5ms
NDIL = Norm detect integrator Limit = 2
HPR = Host polling rate = 10ms
The worst case response time is computed as:
Tr = ((((NKE + FDIL) * BS) + FMEA) * NDIL) + HPR
For the above example values:
Tr = ((((20 + 5) * 0.5ms) + 5ms) * 2) + 10ms = 45ms
2.4 Oscillator
The oscillator is internal to the device. There is no facility for
external clocking.
2.5 Sample Capacitors; Saturation
The charge sampler capacitors on the Y pins should be the
values shown. They should be X7R or NP0 ceramics or PPS
film. The value of these capacitors is not critical but 4.7nF is
recommended for most cases.
Cs voltage saturation is shown in Figure 2-1. This nonlinearity
is caused by excessively negative voltage on Cs inducing
conduction in the pin protection diodes. This badly saturated
signal destroys key gain and introduces a strong thermal
coefficient which can cause 'phantom' detection. The cause of
this is usually from the burst length being too long, the Cs value
being too small, or the X-Y coupling being too large. Solutions
include loosening up the interdigitation of key structures,
separating X and Y lines on the PCB more, increasing Cs, and
decreasing the burst length.
Increasing Cs will make the part slower; decreasing burst
length will make it less sensitive. A better PCB layout and a
looser key structure (up to a point) have no negative effects.
Cs voltages should be observed on an oscilloscope with the
matrix layer bonded to the panel material; if the Rs side of any
Cs ramps more negative than -0.25 volts during any burst (not
counting overshoot spikes which are probe artifacts), there is a
potential saturation problem.
Figure 2-2 shows a defective waveform similar to that of 2-1,
but in this case the distortion is caused by excessive stray
capacitance coupling from the Y line to AC ground, for example
from running too near and too far alongside a ground trace,
ground plane, or other traces. The excess coupling causes the
charge-transfer effect to dissipate a significant portion of the
received charge from a key into the stray capacitance. This
phenomenon is more subtle; it can be best detected by
increasing BL to a high count and watching what the waveform
does as it descends towards and below -0.25V. The waveform
will appear deceptively straight, but it will slowly start to flatten
even before the -0.25V level is reached.
A correct waveform is shown in Figure 2-3. Note that the
bottom edge of the bottom trace is substantially straight
(ignoring the downward spikes).
Unlike other QT circuits, the Cs capacitor values on QT60xx8
devices have no effect on conversion gain. However they do
affect conversion time.
Unused Y lines should be left open.
2.6 Sample Resistors
There are 3 sample resistors (Rs) used to perform single-slope
ADC conversion of the acquired charge on each Cs capacitor.
These resistors directly control acquisition gain: larger values of
Rs will proportionately increase signal gain. Values of Rs can
range from 380K ohms to 1M ohms. 470K ohms is a
reasonable value for most purposes.
Unused Y lines do not require an Rs resistor.
2.7 Signal Levels
Quantum’s QmBtn™ software makes it is easy to observe the
absolute level of signal received by the sensor on each key.
The signal values should normally be in the range from 250 to
750 counts with properly designed key shapes and values of
Rs. However, long adjacent runs of X and Y lines can also
artificially boost the signal values, and induce signal saturation:
this is to be avoided. The X-to-Y coupling should come mostly
from intra-key electrode coupling, not from stray X-to-Y trace
coupling.
QmBtn software is available free of charge on Quantum’s
website.
The signal swing from the smallest finger touch should
preferably exceed 10 counts, with 15 being a reasonable target.
The signal threshold setting (NTHR) should be set to a value
guaranteed to be less than the signal swing caused by the
smallest touch.
lQ
4 QT60248-AS R4.02/0405
Figure 2-1 VCs - Non-Linear During Burst
(Burst too long, or Cs too small, or X-Y capacitance too large)
Figure 2-2 VCs - Poor Gain, Non-Linear During Burst
(Excess capacitance from Y line to Gnd)
Figure 2-3 Vcs - Correct
Increasing the burst length (BL) parameter will increase the
signal strengths as will increasing the sampling resistor (Rs)
values.
2.8 Matrix Series Resistors
The X and Y matrix scan lines should use series resistors
(referred to as Rx and Ry respectively) for improved EMI
performance.
X drive lines require them in most cases to reduce edge rates
and thus reduce RF emissions. Typical values range from 1K to
20K ohms.
Y lines need them to reduce EMC susceptibility problems and in
some extreme cases, ESD. Typical Y values range around 1K
ohms. Y resistors act to reduce noise susceptibility problems by
forming a natural low-pass filter with the Cs capacitors.
It is essential that the Rx and Ry resistors and Cs capacitors be
placed very close to the chip. Placing these parts more than a
few millimeters away opens the circuit up for high frequency
interference problems (above 20MHz) as the trace lengths
between the components and the chip start to act as RF
antennae.
The upper limits of Rx and Ry are reached when the signal
level and hence key sensitivity are clearly reduced. The limits of
Rx and Ry will depending on key geometry and stray
capacitance, and thus an oscilloscope is required to determine
optimum values of both.
The upper limit of Rx can vary depending on key geometry and
stray capacitance, and some experimentation and an
oscilloscope are required to determine optimum values.
Dwell time is the duration in which charge coupled from X to Y
is captured. Increasing Rx values will cause the leading edge of
the X pulses to increasingly roll off, causing the loss of captured
charge (and hence loss of signal strength) from the keys
(Figure 2-4). The dwell time of these parts is fixed at 375ns. If
the X pulses have not settled within 375ns, key gain will be
reduced; if this happens, either the stray capacitance on the X
line(s) should be reduced (by a layout change, for example by
reducing X line exposure to nearby ground planes or traces), or,
the Rx resistor needs to be reduced in value (or a combination
of both approaches).
One way to determine X line settling time is to monitor the fields
using a patch of metal foil or a small coin over the key (Figure
2-5). Only one key along a particular X line needs to be
observed, as each of the keys along that X line will be identical.
The 250ns dwell time should be exceed the observed 95%
settling of the X-pulse by 25% or more.
In almost all case, Ry should be set equal to Rx, which will
ensure that the charge on the Y line is fully captured into the Cs
capacitor.
2.9 Key Design
Circuits can be constructed out of a variety of materials
including flex circuits, FR4, and even inexpensive single-sided
CEM-1.
The actual internal pattern style is not as important as is the
need to achieve regular X and Y widths and spacings of
sufficient size to cover the desired graphical key area or a little
bit more; ~3mm oversize is acceptable in most cases, since the
key’s electric fields drop off near the edges anyway. The overall
key size can range from 10mm x 10mm up to 100mm x 100mm
but these are not hard limits. The keys can be any shape
including round, rectangular, square, etc. The internal pattern
lQ
5 QT60248-AS R4.02/0405
Figure 2-4 X-Drive Pulse Roll-off and Dwell Time
Figure 2-5 Probing X-Drive Waveforms With a Coin
X drive Lost charge due to
inadequate settling
before end of dwell time
Y gate
Dwell time
Figure 2-6 Recommended Key Structure
‘T’ should ideally be similar to the complete thickness the fields need to
penetrate to the touch surface. Smaller dimensions will also work but will give
less signal strength. If in doubt, make the pattern coarser.
Gbloa
can be as simple as a single bar of Y within a solid perimeter of
X, or (preferably) interdigitated as shown in Figure 2-6.
For better surface moisture suppression, the outer perimeter of
X should be as wide as possible, and there should be no
ground planes near the keys. The variable ‘T’ in this drawing
represents the total thickness of all materials that the keys must
penetrate.
See Figure 2-6 and page 27 for examples of key layouts.
See Section 2.16 for guidance about potential FMEA problems
with small key shapes.
2.10 PCB Layout, Construction
It is best to place the chip near the touch keys on the same
PCB so as to reduce X and Y trace lengths, thereby reducing
the chances for EMC problems. Long connection traces act as
RF antennae. The Y (receive) lines are much more susceptible
to noise pickup than the X (drive) lines.
Even more importantly, all signal related discrete parts (R’s and
C’s) should be very close to the body of the chip. Wiring
between the chip and the various R’s and C’s should be as
short and direct as possible to suppress noise pickup.
Ground planes and traces should NOT
be used around the keys and the Y lines
from the keys. Ground areas, traces, and
other adjacent signal conductors that act
as AC ground (such as Vdd and LED
drive lines etc) will absorb the received key signals
and reduce signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and thus will
be counterproductive. Ground planes around keys will
also make water film effects worse.
Ground planes, if used, should be placed under or around the
QT chip itself and the associated R’s and C’s in the circuit,
under or around the power supply, and back to a connector, but
nowhere else.
See page 27 for an example of a 1-sided PCB layout.
2.10.1 LED Traces and Other Switching Signals
Digital switching signals near the Y lines will induce transients
into the acquired signals, deteriorating the SNR perfomance of
the device. Such signals should be routed away from the Y
lines, or the design should be such that these lines are not
switched during the course of signal acquisition (bursts).
LED terminals which are multiplexed or switched into a floating
state and which are within or physically very near a key
structure (even if on another nearby PCB) should be bypassed
to either Vss or Vdd with at least a 10nF capacitor of any type,
to suppress capacitive coupling effects which can induce false
signal shifts. Led terminals which are constantly connected to
Vss or Vdd do not need further bypassing.
2.10.2 PCB Cleanliness
All capacitive sensors should be treated as highly sensitive
circuits which can be influenced by stray conductive leakage
paths. QT devices have a basic resolution in the femtofarad
range; in this region, there is no such thing as ‘no clean flux’.
Flux absorbs moisture and becomes conductive between
solder joints, causing signal drift and resultant false detections
or transient losses of sensitivity or instability. Conformal
coatings will trap in existing amounts of moisture which will then
become highly temperature sensitive.
The designer should specify ultrasonic cleaning as part of the
manufacturing process, and in cases where a high level of
humidity is anticipated, the use of conformal coatings after
cleaning to keep out moisture.
2.11 Power Supply Considerations
As these devices use the power supply itself as an analog
reference, the power should be very clean and come from a
separate regulator. A standard inexpensive LDO type regulator
should be used that is not also used to power other loads such
as LEDs, relays, or other high current devices. Load shifts on
the output of the LDO can cause Vdd to fluctuate enough to
cause false detection or sensitivity shifts.
A single ceramic 0.1uF bypass capacitor should be placed very
close to supply pins 3, 4, 5 and 6 of the IC. Pins 18, 20, and 21
do not require bypassing.
Vdd can range from +3 to +5 nominal. The device enters reset
below 2.8V via an internal LVD circuit. See Section 2.13.
2.12 Startup / Calibration Times
The devices require initialization times as follows:
Normal cold start to ability to communicate:
4ms - Normal initialization from any type of reset
22ms - Initialization from reset where the Setups were
previously modified.
Calibration time per key vs. burst spacings for 16 and 24
enabled keys:
1,0407283.00
9596732.75
8786182.50
7975632.25
7155072.00
6344521.75
5533971.50
4723421.25
3902861.00
3092310.75
2281760.50
Cal Time, ms,
24 keys
Cal Time, ms,
16 keys
Burst Spacing,
ms
Table 2-1 Basic Timings
To the above, add the initialization time from above (4ms or
22ms) to get the total elapsed time from reset, to the ability to
report key detections over the serial interface. Disabled keys
are subtracted from the burst sequence and thus the cal time is
shortened. The scan time should be measured on an
oscilloscope.
Keys that cannot calibrate for some reason require 5 full cal
cycles before they report as errors. The device can report back
during the calibration interval that the key(s) affected are still in
calibration via status function bits. Errors can be observed after
a cal cycle using the 0x8k command (see Section 4.16).
2.13 Reset Input
The /RST pin can be used to reset the device to simulate a
power down cycle, in order to bring the part up into a known
lQ
6 QT60248-AS R4.02/0405
state should communications with the part be lost. The pin is
active low, and a low pulse lasting at least 10µs must be
applied to this pin to cause a reset.
To provide for proper operation during power transitions the
devices have an internal LVD set to 2.7 volts.
The reset pin has an internal 30K ~ 80K resistor. A 2.2µF
capacitor plus a diode to Vdd can be connected to this pin as a
traditional reset circuit, but this is not required.
A Force Reset command, 0x04 is also provided which
generates an equivalent hardware reset.
If an external hardware reset is not used, the reset pin may be
connected to Vdd or left floating.
2.14 Spread Spectrum Acquisitions
QT60xx8 devices use spread-spectrum burst modulation. This
has the effect of drastically reducing the possibility of EMI
effects on the sensor keys, while simultaneously spreading RF
emissions. This feature is hard-wired into the device and
cannot be disabled or modified.
Spread spectrum is configured as a frequency chirp over a
wide range of frequencies for robust operation.
2.15 Detection Integrators
See also Section 5.4, page 19.
The devices feature a detection integration mechanism, which
acts to confirm a detection in a robust fashion. The basic idea is
to increment a per-key counter each time the key has crossed
its threshold. When this counter reaches a preset limit the key
is finally declared to be touched. Example: If the limit value is
10, then the device has to detect a threshold crossing 10 times
in succession without interruption, before the key is declared to
be touched. If on any sample the signal is not seen to cross the
threshold level, the counter is cleared and the process has to
start over from the beginning.
The QT60xx8 uses a two-tier confirmation mechanism having
two such counters for each key. These can be thought of as
‘inner loop’ and ‘outer loop’ confirmation counters.
The ‘inner’ counter is referred to as the ‘fast-DI’; this acts to
attempt to confirm a detection via rapid successive acquisition
bursts, at the expense of delaying the sampling of the next key.
Each key has its own fast-DI counter and limit value; these
limits can be changed via the Setups block on a per-key basis.
The ‘outer’ counter is referred to as the ‘normal-DI’; this DI
counter increments whenever the fast-DI counter has reached
its limit value. If a fast-DI counter failed to reach its terminal
count, the corresponding normal-DI counter is also reset. The
normal-DI counter also has a limit value which is settable on a
per-key basis. If a normal-DI counter reaches its terminal count,
the corresponding key is declared to be touched and becomes
‘active’. Note that the normal-DI can only be incremented once
per complete keyscan cycle, ie more slowly, whereas the
fast-DI is incremented ‘on the spot’ without interruption.
The net effect of this mechanism is a multiplication of the inner
and outer counters and hence a highly noise-resistance
sensing method. If the inner limit is set to 5, and the outer to 3,
the net effect is 5x3=15 successive threshold crossings to
declare a key as active.
2.16 FMEA Tests
FMEA (Failure Modes and Effects Analysis) is a tool used to
determine critical failure problems in control systems. FMEA
analysis is being applied increasingly to a wide variety of
applications including domestic appliances. To survive FMEA
testing the control board must survive any single problem in a
way that the overall product can either continue to operate in a
safe way, or shut down.
The most common FMEA requirements regard opens and
shorts analysis of adjacent pins on components and
connectors. However other criteria must usually be taken into
account, for example complete device failure, and the use of
redundant signaling paths.
QT60xx8 devices incorporate special self-test features which
allow products to pass such FMEA tests easily. These tests are
performed during a dummy timeslot after the last enabled key.
The FMEA testing is done on all enabled keys in the matrix, and
results are reported via the serial interface through a dedicated
status command (page 13). Disabled keys are not tested. The
existence of an error is also reported in normal key reporting
commands such as Report 1st Key, page 13.
All FMEA tests are repeated every second or faster during
normal run operation. Sometimes, FMEA errors can occur
intermittently, for example due to momentary power
fluctuations. It is advisable to confirm a true FMEA fault
condition by making sure the error flags persist for a several
seconds.
Since the devices only communicate in slave mode, the host
can determine immediately if the QT has suffered a
catastrophic failure.
The FMEA tests performed are:
X drive line shorts to Vdd and Vss
X drive line shorts to other pins
X drive signal deviation
Y line shorts to Vdd and Vss
Y line shorts to other pins
X to Y line shorts
Cs capacitor checks including shorts and opens
Vref test
Key gain test
Other tests incorporated into the devices include:
A test for signal levels against a preset min value (LSL
setup, see page 21). If any signal level falls below this
level, an error flag is generated.
CRC communications checks on all critical command and
data transmissions.
‘Last-command’ command to verify that an instruction was
properly received.
Some very small key designs have very low X-Y coupling. In
these cases, the amount of signal will be very small, and the
key gain will be low. As a result, small keys can fail the LSL
test (page 21) or the FMEA key gain test (above). In such
cases, the burst length of the key should be increased so that
the key gain increases. Failing that, a small ceramic capacitor,
for example 3pF, can be added between the X and Y lines
serving the key to artificially boost signal strength.
For those applications requiring it, Quantum can supply sample
FMEA test data on special request.
lQ
7 QT60248-AS R4.02/0405
2.17 Wiring
Table 2.2 - Pin Listing
Leave openX2 matrix drive lineOX232
Leave openX1 matrix drive lineOX131
Leave openX0 matrix drive lineOX030
Leave open or Vdd
Reset low;
has internal 30K ~ 80K pull-up
I/RST29
Y2A line connectionIY2A28 Leave open
Y1A line connectionIY1A27
Y0A line connectionIY0A26 Leave open
Y2B line connectionIY2B25
Y1B line connectionIY1B24 Leave open
Y0B line connectionIY0B23
Leave openNot usedN/ANC22
-Supply groundPVss21
-Power, +3 ~ +5VPVdd20
VddMains sync inputISYNC19
-Power, +3 ~ +5VPVdd18
-SPI clock inputISCK17
-SPI data outputOMISO16
-SPI data inputIMOSI15
-
SPI slave select;
has internal 20K ~ 50K pull-up
I/SS14
-
1= Comms ready;
has internal 20K ~ 50K pull-up
ODRDY13
-Sample drive outputOSMP12
Leave openScope Sync: Synchronization test signal outputOS_Sync11
-0.05V nominal +/-10% via external dividerIVref10
Leave openX7 matrix drive lineOX79
Leave openX6 matrix drive lineOX68
Leave openX5 matrix drive lineOX57
-Power, +3 ~ +5VPVdd6
-Supply groundPVss5
-Power, +3 ~ +5VPVdd4
-Supply groundPVss3
Leave openX4 matrix drive lineOX42
Leave openX3 matrix drive lineOX31
If Unused, Connect To..CommentsI/OFunctionPin
lQ
8 QT60248-AS R4.02/0405
‘a Van Van W van 1“ x7 x5 x5 x‘ x) x: x‘ xn m mg m we m v25 n MA€ an AM ; za 2: | I 27 2‘ I | 25 25 I I ‘“ vm ‘1 sun
Figure 2.7 Wiring Diagram
See Table 2.2 for further connection information.
lQ
9 QT60248-AS R4.02/0405
+
MATRIX Y SCAN IN MATRIX X DRIVE
MISO
MOSI
DRDY
Note 1
SS
SCLK
+
10K
100
RS2
470K
RS0
470K
1KRX2
1KRX6
1KRY1
1KRY2
1KRY0
1KRX0
1KRX4
Vunreg +3 to +5V
VREG
VDD
QT60248
QT60168
100nF
LINE SYNC
SCOPE SYNC
Note 2
Note 2
VDD
SPI
4.7uF 4.7uF
RS1
470K
Note 1: Wire 100nF bypass cap
very close to pins 3, 4, 5, 6
Note 2: Leave Y2A, Y2B unconnected
for QT60168
CS1 4.7nF
1KRX1
1KRX3
1KRX7
CS2 4.7nF
4.7nFCS0
1KRX5
from Oxx
3 Serial Communications
These devices use SPI communications, in slave mode.
The host device always initiates communications sequences;
the QT is incapable of chattering data back to the host. This is
intentional for FMEA purposes so that the host always has total
control over the communications with the QT60xx8. In SPI
mode the device is a slave, so that even return data following a
command is controlled by the host.
A command from the host always ends in a response of some
kind from the QT. Some transmission types from the host or the
QT employ a CRC check byte to provide for robust
communications.
A DRDY line is provided that handshakes transmissions.
Generally this is needed by the host from the QT to ensure that
transmissions are not sent when the QT is busy or has not yet
processed a prior command.
Initiating or Resetting Communications: After a reset, or,
should communications be lost due to noise or out-of-sequence
reception, the host should send a 0x0f (return last command)
command repeatedly until the compliment of 0x0f, i.e. 0xf0, is
received back. Then, the host can resume normal run mode
communications from a clean start.
Poll rate: The typical poll rate in normal ‘run’ operation should
be no faster than once per 10ms; 25ms is more than fast
enough to extract status data using the 0x06 command (report
first key: see page 13) in most situations. Streaming multi-byte
response commands like the 0x0d command (dump setups: see
page 13) or multi-byte response commands like 0x07 can and
should pace at the maximum possible rate.
Run Poll Sequence: In normal run mode the host should limit
traffic with a minimalist control structure (see also Section 4.18).
The host should just send a 0x06 command until something
requires a deeper state inspection. If there is more than one key
in detect, the host should use 0x07 to find which additional keys
are in detect. If there is an error, the host should ascertain the
error type based on commands 0x0b and 0x0c and take
appropriate action. Issuing a 0x07 command all the time is
wasteful of bandwidth, requires more host processor time, and
actually conveys less information (no error flags are sent via a
0x07 command).
3.1 DRDY Pin
DRDY is an open-drain output with an internal 20K ~ 50K pullup
resistor.
Serial communications pacing is controlled by this pin. The host
is permitted to send data only when DRDY is high. After a byte
is received DRDY will always go low even if only for a few
microseconds; during this period the host should not send data.
Therefore, after each byte transmission the host should first
check that DRDY is high again.
If the host desires to send a byte to the QT it should behave as
follows:
1. If DRDY is low, wait
2. If DRDY is high: send a command to QT
3. Wait at least 40µs (time S5 in Figure 3-3: DRDY is
guaranteed to go low before this 40µs expires)
4. Wait until DRDY is high (it may already be high again)
5. Send next command or a null byte 0x00 to QT
The time it takes for DRDY to go high again after a command
depends on the command. Following is a list of commands and
the time required to process them and then raise DRDY:
0x0E Eeprom CRC [ 25ms
0x01 Load Setups [ 25ms
All other commands: [ 2ms between bytes;
[ 40µs after CRC byte is sent
Other DRDY specs:
Min time DRDY is low: 1µs
Min time DRDY is low
after reset: 1ms
3.2 SPI Communications
SPI communications operates in slave mode only, and obeys
DRDY control signaling. The clocking is as follows:
Clock idle: High
Clock shift out edge: Falling
Clock data in edge: Rising
Max clock rate: 1.5MHz
SPI mode requires 5 signals to operate:
MOSI - Master out / Slave in data pin; used as an input for
data from the host (master). This pin should be connected
to the MOSI (DO) pin of the host device.
MISO - Master in / Slave out data pin; used as an output for
data to the host. This pin should be connected to the MISO
lQ
10 QT60248-AS R4.02/0405
Figure 3-2 Filtered SPI Connections
MOSI
MISO
SCK
DRDY
SS
QT60
x
x
8 Circuit
Ra
1K
Ra
Ra
Ra
Ra
RESET
1K
Host MCU
1K
Yn
Xn
X drives
(1 of 8
shown)
Y Lines
(1 of 3
shown)
Ca
Ca
Ca
Ca
Ca
1nF
SCK
MISO
MOSI
P_IN
P_OUT1
P_OUT2
1nF2,20050kHz
470pF2,200100kHz
270pF1,000400kHz
100pF6801.5MHz
CaRaSPI Clock Rate
Recommended Values of Ra & Ca
Figure 3-1 Basic SPI Connections
MOSI MOSI
MISOMISO
SCK SCK
DRDY
P_OUT
P_IN
SS
Host MCU QT60xx8
'MNMMMW WO'O'O'O'O'O'O'O'O'O'O'O'O'O'O'O' \ W 4.?
(DI) pin of the host. MISO floats when /SS is high to allow
multi-drop communications along with other slave parts.
SCK - SPI clock - input only clock from host. The host must
shift out data on the falling SCK edge; the QT60xx8 clocks
data in on the rising edge. The QT60xx8 likewise shifts data
out on the falling edge of SCK back to the host so that the
host can shift the data in on the rising edge. Important:
SCK must idle high; it should never float.
/SS - Slave select - input only; acts as a framing signal to the
sensor from the host. /SS must be low before and during
reception of data from the host. It must not go high again
until the SCK line has returned high; /SS must idle high.
This pin includes an internal pull-up resistor of 20K ~ 50K.
When /SS is high, MISO floats.
DRDY - Data Ready - active-high - indicates to the host that
the QT is ready to send or receive data. This pin idles high.
This pin includes an internal pull-up resistor of 20K ~ 50K.
In SPI mode this pin is an output only (i.e. open drain with
internal pull-up).
The MISO pin on the QT floats in 3-state mode between bytes
when /SS is high. This facilitates multiple devices on one SPI
bus.
Null Bytes: When the QT responds to a command with one or
more response bytes, the host should issue a null commands
(0x00) to get the response bytes back. The host should not
send new commands until all the responses are accepted back
from the QT from the prior command via nulls.
New commands attempted during intermediate byte transfers
are ignored.
SPI Line Noise: In some designs it is necessary to run SPI
lines over ribbon cable across a lengthy distance on a PCB.
This can introduce ringing, ground bounce, and other noise
problems which can introduce false SPI clocking or false data.
Simple RC networks and slower data rates as shown in Figure
3-2 are helpful to resolve these issues.
CRC checks have been added to critical commands in order to
detect transmission errors to a high level of certainty.
3.3 Command Error Handling
If an unrecognized command is received, the device will release
DRDY high and the communications error flag will be set in the
General Status byte (see Section 4.5).
4 Control Commands
Refer to Table 4.2, page 16 for further details.
The devices feature a set of commands which are used for
control and status reporting. The host device has to send the
command to the QT60xx8 and await a response.
SPI mode: While waiting the host should delay for 40µs from
the end of the command, then start to check if DRDY is or goes
high. If it is high, then the host master can clock out the
resulting byte(s).
Command timeouts: Where a command involves multi-byte
transfers in either direction, each byte must be transmitted
within 100ms of the prior byte or the command will timeout. No
error is reported for this condition; the command simply ceases.
Word return byte order: Where a word or long word is
returned (16 or 24 bit number or bit pattern) the low order byte
is sent or received first.
4.1 Null Command - 0x00
Used to shift back data from the QT. Since the host device is
always the master in SPI mode, and data is clocked in both
directions, the Null command is required frequently to act as a
placeholder where the desire is to only get data back from the
QT, not to send a command.
In SPI communications, when the QT60xx8 responds to a
command with one or more response bytes, the host can issue
a new command instead of a null on the last byte shift
operation.
New commands during intermediate byte shift-out operations
are ignored, and null bytes should always be used.
lQ
11 QT60248-AS R4.02/0405
Figure 3-3 SPI Slave-Only Mode Timing
S1: m333ns S2: [20ns S3: m25ns S4: [20ns
S5: [40µs S6: m1µs S7: m333ns S8: m333ns S9: m667ns
S6
high via pullup-R
DRDY
(from QT)
S1 S5
/SS
(from Host)
S3
CLK
(from Host)
MOSI
(Data from Host)
MISO 3-state 3-state
(Data from QT)
023671210 45
450123765 67210 ??43
543
?
076? 7654321
76543210
S7
S9
S8
Data shifts out of QT on falling edge
data response
{optional 2nd command byte} {null byte or next command to get QT response}
Data shifts in to QT on rising edge
{Command byte} S4S2
4.2 Enter Setups Mode - 0x01
This command is used to initiate the Setups block transfer from
Host to QT.
The command must be repeated 2x within 100ms or the
command will fail; the repeating command must be sequential
without any intervening command. After the 2nd 0x01 from the
host, the QT will stop scanning keys and reply with the
character 0xFE. In SPI mode this character must be shifted out
by sending a null (0x00) from the host. This command
suspends normal sensing starting from the receipt of the
second 0x01. A failure of the command will cause a timeout.
Each byte in the block must arrive at the QT no later than
100ms after the previous one or a timeout will occur.
Any timeout will cause the device to cancel the block load and
go back to normal operation.
If no response comes back, the command was not received and
the device should preferably be reset from the host by hardware
reset just in case there are any other problems.
If 0xFE is received by the host, then the host should begin to
transmit the block of Setups to the QT. DRDY handshakes the
data. The delay between bytes can be as short as 10µs but the
host can make it longer than this if required, but no more than
100ms. The last byte the host should send is the CRC for the
block of data only, ie the command itself should not be folded
into the CRC.
After the block transfer the QT will check the CRC and respond
with 0x00 if there was an error. Regardless, it will program the
internal eeprom. If the CRC was correct it will reply with a
second 0xFE after the eeprom was programmed.
At the end of the full block load sequence, the device restarts
sensing without recalibration.
It is highly recommended that
the part be reset after a block load to allow the part to
properly initialize itself, clear any setup flags, using the reset
command or the reset pin.
4.3 Cal All - 0x03
This command must be repeated 2x within 100ms or the
command will fail; the repeating command must be sequential
without any intervening command.
After the 2nd 0x03 from the host, the QT will reply with the
character 0xFC. Shortly thereafter the device will recalibrate all
keys and restart operation.
If no 0xFC comes back, the command was not properly
received and the device should preferably be reset.
The host can monitor the progress of the recalibration by
checking the status byte, using command 0x05.
A key will show an error flag (via command 0x8k) indicating the
key has failed calibration if its signal is too noisy or if its signal is
below the low signal threshold. A key is deemed too noisy if, at
the end of calibration, the signal is no longer between its
computed negative hysteresis level and positive thresholds.
4.4 Force Reset - 0x04
The command must be repeated 2x within 100ms or the
command will fail; the repeating command must be sequential
without any intervening command. After the 2nd 0x04, the QT
will reply with the character 0xFB just prior to executing the
reset operation.
The host can monitor the progress of the reset by checking the
status byte for recalibration, using command 0x05. The
complete reset sequence is as follows:
1. Reset command received by QT
2. Response byte (0xFB) recovered by host
3. DRDY floats high
4. 20ms elapses until device completes reset
5. DRDY clamped low
6. 4ms or 22ms elapses - (see Section 2.12)
7. DRDY floats high again - device reset has completed
If the host does not recover the response byte in step 2, the
QT device will self-reset within 2 seconds.
4.5 General Status - 0x05
This command returns the general status bits. They are as
follows:
1= any key in detect0
1= any key in calibration1
1= calibration has failed on an
enabled key or, an LSL failure
2
1= mains sync error3
Reserved4
1= FMEA failure detected5
1= communications error6
Reserved7
DescriptionBIT
Notes:
Bit 7: Reserved
Bit 6: Set if a communications failure, such as an unrecognized
command. This bit can be reset by sending command 0x0f
(“last command command”) repeatedly until a response of 0xf0
is received.
Bit 5: Set if an FMEA error was detected during operation. See
Section 2.16. A further amplification of what the FMEA error
consisted of is described in Section 4.9.
Bit 4: Reserved
Bit 3: Set if there was a mains sync error, for example there
was no Sync signal detected within the allotted 100ms amount
of time. See Section 5.10. This condition is not necessarily fatal
to operation, however the device will operate very slowly and
may suffer from noise problems if the sync feature was required
for noise reasons.
Bit 2: Reports either a cal failure (failed in 5 sequential
attempts) on any enabled key or, that an enabled key has a
very low signal reference value, lower than the user-settable
LSL value (Section 5.12). Disabled keys do not cause this bit 2
error flag to be set even if they generate an error flag in the
0x8k response.
Bit 1: Set if any key is in the process of calibrating.
Bit 0: Set if any key is in detection (touched).
A CRC byte is appended to the response to the 0x05 command;
this CRC folds in the command value 0x05 itself initially.
lQ
12 QT60248-AS R4.02/0405
m
4.6 Report 1st Key - 0x06
Reports the first or only key to be touched, plus indicates if
there are yet other keys that are also touched.
The return bits are as follows:
Key bit 00
Key bit 11
Key bit 22
Key bit 33
Key bit 44
Unused5
1= any error condition is present6
1= more than 1 key is active7
DescriptionBIT
Bits 4..0 encode for the first detected key in range 0..23. If no
keys are active, these 5 bits are all 1’s (0x1F, 31 decimal when
bits 5, 6, 7 are masked off). Disabled keys do not report as
active and do not generate an error flag in bit 6, even if they are
reporting an error via command 0x8k.
If 2 or more keys in detection, bit 7 is set and the host should
interrogate the part via the 0x07 command to read out all the
key detections. This one command should be the dominant
interrogation command in the host interface; further commands
can be issued if the response to 0x06 warrants it.
A CRC byte is appended to the response; this CRC folds in the
command 0x06 itself initially.
4.7 Report Detections for All Keys - 0x07
Returns three bytes which indicate all keys in detection if any,
as a bitfield; active keys report as 1’s.. Key 0 reports in bit 0 of
the first byte returned; key 23 is reported in bit 7 of the last byte
returned. See Table 4.1 and Table 5.2. Disabled keys report as
inactive (0).
A CRC byte is appended to the response; this CRC folds in the
command 0x07 itself initially.
Table 4.1 Bits for key reporting and numbering
1617181920212223
2
89101112131415
1
01234567
0
Byte Number
Returned
(Y line #)
01234567
Bit Number (X line #)Key #
4.8 Report Error Flags for All Keys - 0x0b
Returns three bytes which show error flags as a bitfield for all
keys. Key 0 reports in bit 0 of the first byte returned; key 23 is
reported in bit 7 of the last byte returned. See Table 4.1 and
Table 5.2.
A key that is in calibration also is reported as an error in the
response. The error flag is self-cleared once the key
successfully exits from calibration.
Important note: These error bits exclude FMEA error flags.
A CRC byte is appended to the response; this CRC folds in the
command 0x0b itself initially.
4.9 Report FMEA Status - 0x0c
Returns one byte which shows the FMEA error status of the X
and/or Y matrix scan lines. If an X line is in error, the
corresponding bit (below) is set. If a Y line has an FMEA error,
the entire field is set to ones (0xFF).
Due to the physics of matrix wiring, a fault on any Y line will
cause faults to be reported on all X lines as well. It is not
possible to separate out these faults for reporting purposes.
X0X1X2X3X4X5X6X7
b0b1b2b3b4b5b6b7
A CRC byte is appended to the response; this CRC folds in the
command 0x0C itself initially.
Sometimes, FMEA errors can occur intermittently, for example
due to momentary power fluctuations. It is advisable to confirm
a true FMEA fault condition by making sure the error flags
persist for a several seconds.
For more information see Section 2.16.
4.10 Dump Setups Block - 0x0d
This command causes the device to dump the entire internal
Setups block back to the host.
If the transfer is not paced faster than 100ms per byte the
transfer will be aborted and the device will time out. This can
happen if the host is also controlling DRDY.
During the transfer, sensing is halted. Sensing is resumed after
the command has finished.
An 8-bit CRC is appended to the response; this CRC is the
same as the Setups table CRC.
4.11 Eeprom CRC - 0x0e
This command returns the 8-bit CRC byte calculated from the
eeprom contents. The CRC sent back is the same CRC that is
appended to the end of the Setups block.
This command requires substantial amounts of time to process
and return a result; it is not recommended to use this command
except perhaps on startup or very infrequently.
No CRC is appended to the response.
4.12 Return Last Command - 0x0f
This command returns the last received command character, in
1’s complement (inverted). If the command is repeated twice or
more, it will return the inversion of 0x0f, 0xf0.
If a prior command was not valid or was corrupted, it will return
the bad command as well. This command also will reset the
communications error flag (Section 4.5).
No CRC is appended to the response.
4.13 Internal Code - 0x10
This command returns a 1-byte internal code.
A CRC byte is appended to the response; this CRC folds in the
command 0x10 itself initially.
4.14 Internal Code - 0x12
This command returns an internal code byte of the part for
factory diagnostic purposes. A response might take as long as
500ms.
No CRC is appended to the response.
lQ
13 QT60248-AS R4.02/0405
4.15 Data Set for One Key - 0x4k
Returns the data set for key k, where k = {0..23} encoded into
the low nibble of this command. This command returns 5 bytes,
in the sequence:
Signal (2 bytes)
Reference (2 bytes)
Normal Detect Integrator (1 byte)
Signal and Reference are returned LSByte first. No CRC is
appended.
Keys that are disabled report ‘0’ for both signal and reference.
4.16 Status for Key ‘k’ - 0x8k
Returns a bitfield for key ‘k’ where k is from {0..23}. The bitfield
indicates as follows:
1= cal on this key failed 5 times0
1= this key is in cal1
1= signal ref < LSL (low signal error)2
1= key is in detect3
1= key is enabled4
1= reserved5
1= reserved6
1= reserved7
DescriptionBIT
Bit 2 - LSL notes: See page 21.
A CRC byte is appended to the response; this CRC folds in the
command 0x8k itself initially.
Disabled Keys: A disabled key never reports as being in
detect, but always reports an LSL error (if LSL >0). An LSL error
flag generated for this reason is not reflected elsewhere, for
example via the 0x05 or 0x06 commands. An LSL error on an
enabled key is however reflected in the 0x05 and 0x06
commands.
A disabled key also reports back with bit 0 high (failed Cal). A
Cal error flag generated for this reason is not reflected
elsewhere, for example via the 0x05 or 0x06 commands. A Cal
error on an enabled key is however reflected in the 0x05 and
0x06 commands.
Just after reset or after a CAL command (commands 0x03 or
0xCk), a disabled key will report back as being in calibration for
only one matrix scan cycle, then will report as having failed cal.
See also Section 2.2.
4.17 Cal Key ‘k’ - 0xck
This command must be repeated 2x within 100ms or the
command will fail; the repeating command must be sequential
without any intervening command.
This command functions the same as 0x03 CAL command
except this command only affects one key ‘k’ where ‘k’ is from 0
to 23.
The chosen key ‘k’ is recalibrated in its native timeslot; normal
running of the part is not interrupted and all other keys operate
correctly throughout. This command is for use only during
normal operation to try to recover a single key that has failed or
is not calibrated correctly.
Returns the 1’s compliment of 0xck just before the key is
recalibrated.
4.18 Command Sequencing
To interface the device with a host, the flow diagram of Figure
4-1, page 15, is suggested. The actual settings of the Setups
block used should normally just be the default settings except
where changes are specifically required, such as for sensiti vity,
timing, or AKS changes.
The circles in this drawing are communications interchanges
between host and sensor. The rectangles are internal host
states or processing events. If any communications exchange
fails, either the device will fail to respond within the allotted time,
or the response CRC will be incorrect, or the response will be
out of context (the response is clearly not for the intended
command). In these cases the host should just repeat the
command.
The control flow will spend 99% of its time alternating between
the two states within the dashed rectangle. If a key is detected,
the control flow will enter ‘Key Detection Processing’.
Stuck Key Detection processing (0xCk) is optional, since the
device contains the max on-duration timeout function and can
therefore recalibrate the stuck key automatically. However, the
host can recalibrate stuck keys with greater flexibility if the
recalibration timeouts are set to infinite and the host recalibrates
them under specific conditions.
Error handling takes place whenever an error flag is detected,
or the device stops communicating (not shown). The error
handling procedure is up to the designer, however normally this
would entail shutting down the product if the error is serious
enough (for example, a key that will not calibrate, or a FMEA
class error).
An eeprom CRC error report is serious, and requires that the
host reload the Setups table into the device and thereafter issue
a reset command or hardware reset.
The ‘Last Command’ command can be used at any time to clear
comms error flags and to resynchronize failed communications,
for example due to timing errors etc.
lQ
14 QT60248-AS R4.02/0405
lQ
15 QT60248-AS R4.02/0405
Figure 4-1 Suggested Communications Flow
0x0E
Setups CRC
Check
0x04
Force Reset
0x06
Report 1st Key
0x07
Report all
detections
Only 1 Key
in Detect
0xck
Cal Key 'k'
~10ms Delay
Key Detection(s) Processing
No key,
no error
m
mm
m2 Keys
Detected
resolvable
error
0x0F
Get
'Last command'
(clear error)
Comms
Error
Setups CRC failed 2x
Setups CRC
failed 1x
0x05
Get
General Status
calibration fail, or
FMEA fail, or
multiple errors
CRC is OK
Power On or Hardware Reset
Stuck Key
Detected
(optional)
0x0C
Get
FMEA Status
0x0B
Get
Errors for All
Keys
Error Handling
Error Flag
(takes
precedence)
FMEA
Error
Calibration
Error
Done
Keys OK
Note: CRC errors or incorrect
responses should cause
each transmission to retry
Internal Host
Processes
Comms with
QT
0x0F
Get
'Last command' 0xF0
returned
0xF0 not
returned
0x01
Load Setups
Block
132nd return byte is CRC-8 of cmmd + return data
Yes
0..0xFF21
FMEA bitfield on X, Y linesFMEA status
0x0C
134th return byte is CRC-8 of cmmd + return data
Yes
0..0xFF
3 bytes
41
Error bit fieldsError flags for all
0x0B
134th return byte is CRC-8 of cmmd + return data
Yes
0..0xFF
3 bytes
41
Sends back all key detect status bits (bitfield)Report all keys
0x07
13
Bit 7: 1= indicates 2 or more touches if set.
Bit 6: 1= any of the following conditions prevail: calibrating, key(s)
failed cal 5 times, sync fail, comms error, FMEA failure.
Bit 5: Unused
Bits 4..0: indicates key number (0..23) of first key touched; reads
0x1F (31 decimal) if no touch.
2nd return byte is CRC-8 of cmmd + return data
Yes0..0xFF
21Get indication of first touched key + othersReport 1st key
0x06
12
Bit 7: reserved
Bit 6: 1= comms error: unrecognized command received
This bit can be reset by the 0x0F cmmd
Bit 5: 1= FMEA failure
Bit 4: 1= Reserved
Bit 3: 1= line sync failure
Bit 2: 1= cal failed 5 times on an enabled key, or, an enabled key has
a low reference (Ref < LSL)
Bit 1: 1= any key in calibration
Bit 0: 1= any key is in detect
2nd return byte is CRC-8 of cmmd + return data
Yes
0..0xFF21Get general part status.General status
0x05
12
Returns 1’s complement of command to acknowledge command prior
to reset. If 2 commands not received in 100ms, times out and no
response is issued.
-0xFB12
Force device to reset. Command must be
repeated 2x consecutively without any
intervening command in 100ms to execute
Force reset
0x04
12
Returns 1’s complement of command to acknowledge cmd once the
cal has been initiated.
If 2 commands not received in 100ms, times out and no response is
issued.
-0xFC12
Force device to recalibrate all keys; re-enters
RUN mode afterwards automatically; 0x03 must
be repeated 2x consecutively without any
intervening command in 100ms to execute
CAL all
0x03
12
First 0xFE issued when ready to get data, second 0xFE issued when
all loaded and burned; else timeout.
If 2 commands not received in 100ms, times out and no response is
issued. Part will timeout if each byte not received within 100ms of
previous byte.
If CRC failure, returns 0x00 instead of 0xFE
Data block length is 100 + 1 (added +1 byte is CRC-8). LSL should be
sent low byte first. A CRC of 0x00 is also acceptable in which
case the CRC is not checked.
The internal EEPROM will be programmed regardless of CRC health.
-
0xFE
+ 0xFE
OR
0xFE
+ 0x00 (err)
2
2
+100
+1
Enter Setups, stop sensing; followed by block
load of binary Setups of length ‘nn’. Command
must be repeated 2x consecutively without any
intervening command in 100ms to execute.
Sensing auto-restarts, however, the device
should be reset after the block load to ensure all
new setups will take effect.
Enter Setups
mode
0x01
11
Flushes pending data from QT; one required to extract each response
byte.
-0..0xFF11
Used to get data back in SPI modeNull command
0x00
Page
NotesCRCRtn range# Rtnd#/CmdDescriptionNameHex
Table 4.2 Command Summary
lQ
16 QT60248-AS R4.02/0405
14
Used in Run mode. Normal sensing of other keys not affected.
CAL of ‘k’ only takes place in the key’s normal timeslot.
Returns the ones compliment of the cmd char, once the cal is
scheduled.
-
~0xCk
12
Force calibration of key # k where k= 0..23.
Command must be repeated 2x consecutively
without any intervening command in 100ms to
execute
CAL key ‘k’
0xCk
14
Bits 7..5: reserved
Bit 4: 1= key is enabled
Bit 3: 1= key is in detect
Bit 2: 1= (Ref < LSL), even on a disabled key
Bit 1: 1= key is in calibration
Bit 0: 1= calibration of this key failed 5 times
Second return byte is CRC of cmmd + return data
Yes0..0xFF21Get status byte for key ‘k’ {0..23}Status for key ‘k’
0x8k
14
Diagnostic use only, not to be relied upon (no CRC). Signal and
ref are Tx as 2 bytes, LSB first.
-
0..0xFF
Each byte
51
Get signal, ref, Norm DI for key k {0..23}
Signal: 2 bytes; Ref: 2 bytes; Norm DI: 1
byte
Data for 1 key
0x4k
13
Returns 1’s compliment of last command even if bad. Resets the
communications error flag.
-0..0xFF11Returns last command received
Return last
cmmd
0x0F
13
CRC-8 only on Setups array section of eeprom
This CRC is the same as the CRC at the end of Setups block load.
Yes0..0xFF11Get eeprom CRCEeprom CRC
0x0E
13
100 block data bytes + 1 CRC byte returned.Yes
0..0xFF
Each byte
1001
Returns Setups block area followed by CRC.
Scanning is halted and then auto-restarted
after the cmd has completed.
Dump Setups
0x0D
Page
NotesCRCRtn range# Rtnd#/CmdDescriptionNameHex
lQ
17 QT60248-AS R4.02/0405
5 Setups
The devices calibrate and process all signals using a
number of algorithms specifically designed to provide for
high survivability in the face of adverse environmental
challenges. They provide a large number of processing
options which can be user-selected to implement very
flexible, robust keypanel solutions.
User-defined Setups are employed to alter these algorithms
to suit each application. These setups are loaded into the
device in a block load over the serial interface. The Setups
are stored in an onboard eeprom array. After a setups block
load, the device should be reset to allow the new Setups
parameters to take effect. This reset can be either a
hardware or software reset.
Refer to Table 5.1, page 22 for a table of all Setups.
Block length issues: The setups block is 100 bytes long to
accommodate 24 keys. This can be a burden on smaller host
controllers with limited memory. In larger quantities the
devices can be procured with the setups block
preprogrammed from Quantum. If the application only
requires a small number of keys (such as 16) then the
setups table can be compressed in the host by filling large
stretches of the Setups area with nulls.
Many setups employ lookup-table value translation. The
Setups Block Summary on page 23 shows all translation
values.
Default Values shown are factory defaults.
5.1 Negative Threshold - NTHR
The negative threshold value is established relative to a
key’s signal reference value. The threshold is used to
determine key touch when crossed by a negative-going
signal swing after having been filtered by the detection
integrator. Larger absolute values of threshold desensitize
keys since the signal must travel farther in order to cross the
threshold level. Conversely, lower thresholds make keys
more sensitive.
As Cx and Cs drift, the reference point drift-compensates for
these changes at a user-settable rate; the threshold level is
recomputed whenever the reference point moves, and thus it
also is drift compensated.
The amount of NTHR required depends on the amount of
signal swing that occurs when a key is touched. Thicker
panels or smaller key geometries reduce ‘key gain’, ie signal
swing from touch, thus requiring smaller NTHR values to
detect touch.
The negative threshold is programmed on a
per-key basis using the Setup process. See table,
page 23.
Negative hysteresis: NHYST is fixed at 12.5% of
the negative threshold value and cannot be
altered
.
Typical values: 3 to 8
(7 to 12 counts of threshold; 4 is internally
added to NTHR to generate the threshold).
Default value:
6
(10 counts of threshold)
5.2 Positive Threshold - PTHR
The positive threshold is used to provide a mechanism for
recalibration of the reference point when a key's signal
moves abruptly to the positive. This condition is not normal,
and usually occurs only after a recalibration when an object
is touching the key and is subsequently removed. The desire
is normally to recover from these events quickly.
Positive hysteresis: PHYST is fixed at 12.5% of the positive
threshold value and cannot be altered.
Positive threshold levels are all fixed at 6 counts of signal
and cannot be modified.
5.3 Drift Compensation - NDRIFT, PDRIFT
Signals can drift because of changes in Cx and Cs over time
and temperature. It is crucial that such drift be compensated,
else false detections and sensitivity shifts can occur.
Drift compensation (Figure 5-1) is performed by making the
reference level track the raw signal at a slow rate, but only
while there is no detection in effect. The rate of adjustment
must be performed slowly, otherwise legitimate detections
could be ignored. The devices drift compensate using a
slew-rate limited change to the reference level; the threshold
and hysteresis values are slaved to this reference.
When a finger is sensed, the signal falls since the human
body acts to absorb charge from the cross-coupling between
X and Y lines. An isolated, untouched foreign object (a coin,
or a water film) will cause the signal to rise very slightly due
to an enhancement of coupling. This is contrary to the way
most capacitive sensors operate.
Once a finger is sensed, the drift compensation mechanism
ceases since the signal is legitimately detecting an object.
Drift compensation only works when the signal in question
has not crossed the negative threshold level.
The drift compensation mechanism can be asymmetric; the
drift-compensation can be made to occur in one direction
faster than it does in the other simply by changing the
NDRIFT Setup parameter. This can be done on a per-key
basis.
The PDRIFT parameter is fixed at 0.4 seconds per count of
reference drift.
Specifically, drift compensation should be set to compensate
faster for increasing signals than for decreasing signals.
Decreasing signals should not be compensated quickly,
since an approaching finger could be compensated for
partially or entirely before even touching the touch pad.
lQ
18 QT60248-AS R4.02/0405
Figure 5-1 Thresholds and Drift Compensation
Threshold
Signal
Hysteresis
Reference
Output
However, an obstruction over the sense pad, for which the
sensor has already made full allowance for, could suddenly
be removed leaving the sensor with an artificially suppressed
reference level and thus become insensitive to touch. In this
latter case, the sensor should compensate for the object's
removal by raising the reference level relatively quickly.
Drift compensation and the detection time-outs work together
to provide for robust, adaptive sensing. The time-outs
provide abrupt changes in reference calibration depending
on the duration of the signal 'event'.
NDRIFT Typical values:
9 to 11
(2 to 3.3 seconds per count of drift compensation)
NDRIFT Default value:
10
(2.5s / count of drift compensation)
PDRIFT Fixed value:
0.4 secs
Note: This value cannot be altered and does not appear
in the Setups block.
5.4 Detect Integrators - NDIL, FDIL
NDIL is used to enable or disable keys and to provide signal
filtering. To enable a key, its NDIL parameter should be
non-zero (ie NDIL=0 disables a key). See Section 2.2.
To suppress false detections caused by spurious events like
electrical noise, the device incorporates a 'detection
integrator' or DI counter mechanism that acts to confirm a
detection by consensus (all detections in sequence must
agree). The DI mechanism counts sequential detections of a
key that appears to be touched, after each burst for the key.
For a key to be declared touched, the DI mechanism must
count to completion without even one detection failure.
The DI mechanism uses two counters. The first is the ‘fast
DI’ counter FDIL. When a key’s signal is first noted to be
below the negative threshold, the key enters ‘fast burst’
mode. In this mode the burst is rapidly repeated for up to the
specified limit count of the fast DI counter. Each key has its
own counter and its own specified fast-DI limit (FDIL), which
can range from 1 to 15. When fast-burst is entered the QT
device locks onto the key and repeats the acquire burst until
the fast-DI counter reaches FDIL, or, the detection fails
beforehand. After this the device resumes normal
keyscanning and goes on to the next key.
The ‘Normal DI’ counter counts the number of times the
fast-DI counter reached its FDIL value. The Normal DI
counter can only increment once per complete scan of all
keys. Only when the Normal DI counter reaches NDIL does
the key become formally ‘active’.
The net effect of this is that the sensor can rapidly lock onto
and confirm a detection with many confirmations, while still
scanning other keys. The ratio of ‘fast’ to ‘normal’ counts is
completely user-settable via the Setups process. The total
number of required confirmations is equal to FDIL times
NDIL.
If FDIL = 5 and NDIL = 2, the total detection confirmations
required is 10, even though the device only scanned through
all keys only twice.
The DI is extremely effective at reducing false detections at
the expense of slower reaction times. In some applications a
slow reaction time is desirable; the DI can be used to
intentionally slow down touch response in order to require
the user to touch longer to operate the key.
If FDIL = 1, the device functions conventionally; each
channel acquires only once in rotation, and the normal detect
integrator counter (NDIL) operates to confirm a detection.
Fast-DI is in essence not operational.
If FDIL m 2, then the fast-DI counter also operates in addition
to the NDIL counter.
If Signal [ NThr: The fast-DI counter is incremented towards
FDIL due to touch.
If Signal >NThr then the fast-DI counter is cleared due to
lack of touch.
Disabling a key: If NDIL =0, the key becomes disabled.
Keys disabled in this way are pared from the burst sequence
in order to improve sampling rates and thus response time.
See Section 2.2, page 3.
NDIL Typical values:
2, 3
NDIL Default value:
2
FDIL Typical values:
4 to 6
FDIL Default value:
5
5.5 Negative Recal Delay - NRD
If an object unintentionally contacts a key resulting in a
detection for a prolonged interval it is usually desirable to
recalibrate the key in order to restore its function, perhaps
after a time delay of some seconds.
The Negative Recal Delay timer monitors such detections; if
a detection event exceeds the timer's setting, the key will be
automatically recalibrated. After a recalibration has taken
place, the affected key will once again function normally
even if it is still being contacted by the foreign object. This
feature is set on a per-key basis using the NRD setup
parameter.
NRD can be disabled by setting it to zero (infinite timeout) in
which case the key will never auto-recalibrate during a
continuous detection (but the host could still command it).
NRD is set using one byte per key, which can range in value
from 0..254. NRD above 0 is expressed in 0.5s increments.
Thus if NRD =120, the timeout value will actually be 60
seconds. 255 is not a legal number to use.
NRD Typical values:
20 to 60 (10 to 30 seconds)
NRD Default value:
20 (10 seconds)
NRD Range:
0..254 (, 0.5 .. 127s)
5.6 Positive Recalibration Delay - PRD
A recalibration occurs automatically if the signal swings more
positive than the positive threshold level. This condition can
occur if there is positive drift but insufficient positive drift
compensation, or, if the reference moved negative due to a
NRD auto-recalibration, and thereafter the signal rapidly
returned to normal (positive excursion).
As an example of the latter, if a foreign object or a finger
contacts a key for period longer than the Negative Recal
Delay (NRD), the key is by recalibrated to a new lower
reference level. Then, when the condition causing the
negative swing ceases to exist (e.g. the object is removed)
the signal suddenly swings positive to its normal reference.
It is almost always desirable in these cases to cause the key
to recalibrate quickly so as to restore normal touch
operation. The time required to do this is governed by PRD.
In order for this to work, the signal must rise through the
positive threshold level PTHR continuously for the PRD
period.
lQ
19 QT60248-AS R4.02/0405
After the PRD interval has expired and the auto- recalibration
has taken place, the affected key will once again function
normally. PRD is fixed at 1 second for all keys, and cannot
be altered.
5.7 Burst Length - BL
The signal gain for each key is controlled by circuit
parameters as well as the burst length.
The burst length is simply the number of times the
charge-transfer (‘QT’) process is performed on a given key.
Each QT process is simply the pulsing of an X line once, with
a corresponding Y line enabled to capture the resulting
charge passed through the key’s capacitance Cx.
QT60xx8 devices use a fixed number of QT cycles which are
executed in burst mode. There can be up to 64 QT cycles in
a burst, in accordance with the list of permitted values shown
in Table 5.3.
Increasing burst length directly affects key sensitivity. This
occurs because the accumulation of charge in the charge
integrator is directly linked to the burst length. The burst
length of each key can be set individually, allowing for direct
digital control over the signal gains of each key individually.
Apparent touch sensitivity is also controlled by the Negative
Threshold level (NTHR). Burst length and NTHR interact;
normally burst lengths should be kept as short as possible to
limit RF emissions, but NTHR should be kept above 6 to
reduce false detections due to external noise. The detection
integrator mechanism also helps to prevent false detections.
BL Typical values:
2, 3 (48, 64 pulses / burst)
BL Default value:
2 (48 pulses / burst)
BL possible values:
16, 32, 48, 64
5.8 Adjacent Key Suppression - AKS
These devices incorporate adjacent key suppression (‘AKS’ -
patent pending) that can be selected on a per-key basis.
AKS permits the suppression of multiple key presses based
on relative signal strength. This feature assists in solving the
problem of surface moisture which can bridge a key touch to
an adjacent key, causing multiple key presses. This feature
is also useful for panels with tightly spaced keys, where a
fingertip might inadvertently activate an adjacent key.
AKS works for keys that are AKS-enabled anywhere in the
matrix and is not restricted to physically adjacent keys; the
device has no knowledge of which keys are actually
physically adjacent. When enabled for a key, adjacent key
suppression causes detections on that key to be suppressed
if any other AKS-enabled key in the panel has a more
negative signal deviation from its reference.
This feature does not account for varying key gains (burst
length) but ignores the actual negative detection threshold
setting for the key. If AKS-enabled keys in a panel have
different sizes, it may be necessary to reduce the gains of
larger keys relative to smaller ones to equalize the effects of
AKS. The signal threshold of the larger keys can be altered
to compensate for this without causing problems with key
suppression.
Adjacent key suppression works to augment the natural
moisture suppression of narrow gated transfer switches
creating a more robust sensing method.
AKS Default value:
0 (Off)
5.9 Oscilloscope Sync - SSYNC
Pin 11 (S_Sync) can output a positive pulse oscilloscope
sync that brackets the burst of a selected key. More than one
burst can output a sync pulse as determined by the Setups
parameter SSYNC for each key.
The SSYNC function does not become effective until the part
has been reset, or the desired key(s) are recalibrated.
This feature is invaluable for diagnostics; without it,
observing signals clearly on an oscilloscope for a particular
burst is very difficult.
This function is supported in Quantum’s QmBtn PC software.
SSYNC Default value:
0 (Off)
5.10 Mains Sync - MSYNC
The MSync feature uses the SYNC pin.
External fields can cause interference leading to false
detections or sensitivity shifts. Most fields come from AC
power sources. RFI noise sources are heavily suppressed
by the low impedance nature of the QT circuitry itself.
Noise such as from 50Hz or 60Hz fields becomes a problem
if it is uncorrelated with acquisition signal sampling;
uncorrelated noise can cause aliasing effects in the key
signals. To suppress this problem the SYNC input allows
bursts to synchronize to the noise source.
The noise sync operating mode is set by parameter MSYNC
in Setups.
The sync occurs only at the burst for the lowest numbered
enabled key in the matrix; the device waits for the sync
signal for up to 100ms after the end of a preceding full matrix
scan, then when a negative sync edge is received, the matrix
is scanned in its entirety again.
The sync signal drive should be a buffered logic signal, but
never a raw AC signal from the mains; slow or erratic edges
on MSYNC can cause the device to sync on the wrong edge,
or both edges. The device should only sync to the falling
edge.
Since Noise sync is highly effective and inexpensive to
implement, it is strongly advised to take advantage of it
anywhere there is a possibility of encountering low frequency
(i.e. 50/60Hz) electric fields. Quantum’s QmBtn software can
show such noise effects on signals, and will hence assist in
determining the need to make use of this feature.
If the sync feature is enabled but no sync signal exists, the
sensor will continue to operate but with a delay of 100ms
from the end of one scan to the start of the next, and hence
will have a slow response time. A failed Sync signal (one
exceeding a 100ms period) will cause an error flag (see
commands 0x05, 0x06).
MSYNC Default value:
0 (Off
)
MSYNC Possible range:
0, 1 (Off, On)
5.11 Burst Spacing - BS
The interval of time from the start of one burst to the start of
the next is known as the burst spacing. This is an alterable
parameter which affects all keys. The burst spacing can be
viewed as a scheduled timeslot in which a burst occurs. This
approach results in an orderly and predictable sequencing of
key scanning with predictable response times.
lQ
20 QT60248-AS R4.02/0405
Shorter spacings result in a faster response time to touch;
longer spacings permit higher burst lengths and longer
conversion times but slow down response time.
BS Default value:
1 (500µs)
BS Possible range:
1..11 (500µs .. 3ms)
5.12 Lower Signal Limit - LSL
This Setup determines the lowest acceptable value of signal
level for all keys. If any key’s reference level falls below this
value, the device declares an error condition in the status
bits.
Testing is required to ensure that there are adequate
margins in this determination. Key size, shape, panel
material, and burst length all factor into the detected signal
levels.
This parameter occupies 2 bytes of the setups table. The low
order byte should be sent first.
LSL Default value:
100
LSL Possible range:
0..2047
5.13 Host CRC - HCRC
The setups block terminates with a 8-bit CRC, HCRC, of the
entire block. The formulae for calculating this CRC is shown
in Section 7.
lQ
21 QT60248-AS R4.02/0405
Note:
Table 5.1 Setups Block
Setups data is sent from the host to the QT in a block of hex data. The block can only be loaded in Setups mode following two se quential 0x01 commands (page 12). All
devices this datasheet pertain to have the same block length. Refer also to Table 5.3, page 23 for further details, and all of Section 5.
101Block length
21--80..2551HCRCHost CRC byte1008
21
Lower limit of acceptable signal; below this value, device declares an error.
The low order byte should be sent first.
10024160..20482LSLLower signal Limit987
20Lower nibble = burst spacing1244BS = 0..111BSBurst spacing976
20Bit 6 = Mains sync, negative edge, 1 = enabled; default = 0 (off)0241MSYNC = 0, 11MSYNCMains Sync965
20
20
20
Bits 5, 4: = BL, via LUT, default = 48 (setting =2)
Bit 6 = AKS, 1 - enabled
Bit 7 = Scope sync, 1 = enabled
2
0
0
1
1
1
2
1
1
BL = 0, 1, 2, 3
AKS = 0, 1
SSYNC = 0, 1
24
BL
AKS
SSYNC
Burst Length
AKS
Scope Sync
724
19
Range is in 0.5 sec increments; 0 = infinite; default = 10s (operand = 20)
Range is { infinite, 0.5...127s }; 255 is illegal to use
20180..25424NRDNeg recal delay483
19
Lower nibble = Normal DI Limit, values same as operand (0 = disables key)
Upper nibble = Fast DI Limit, values same as operand (0 does not work)
2
5
1
1
4
4
NDIL = 0..15
FDIL = 0..15
24
NDIL
FDIL
Normal DI Limit
Fast DI Limit
242
18
18
Lower nibble = Neg Threshold - take operand and add 4 to get value
Upper nibble = Neg Drift comp - Via LUT
6
10
1
1
4
4
NTHR = 0..15
NDRIFT = 0..15
24
NTHR
NDRIFT
Neg thresh
Neg Drift Comp
01
Page
Description
Default
Value
Key
Scope
BitsValid rangeBytesSymbolParameterByte
Item
#
CRC Note: A CRC calculator for Windows is available free of charge from Quantum Research on request.
Table 5.2 Key Mapping
Some commands return bitfields related to keys. For example, command 0x07 (report all keys) returns 3 bytes containing flag bits, one per key, to indicate which keys are reporting
touches. The following table shows the byte and bit order of the keys. The table contains the key number reported in each bit.
The key number is related to the X and Y scan lines which address each particular key. Each byte in the return stream represents one set of keys along a Y line, ie up to 8 keys.
Thus, key 0 is at location X0,Y0 and key 19 is at location X3,Y2. .
Note: Byte 0 is returned first.
lQ
22 QT60248-AS R4.02/0405
1617181920212223
2
89101112131415
1
01234567
0
Byte
(Y line)
01234567
Bit
(X line)
Table 5.3 Setups Block Summary
Typical values: For most touch applicatio
ns, use the values shown in the outlined cells. Bold text items indicate
default settings. The number to send to the QT is the number in
the leftmost column (0..15), not numbers from within the table. The QT uses lookup tables to translate the 0..15 to the parameters for each function.
NRD is an exception: It can range from 0..254 which is translated from 1= 0.5s to 254= 127s with zero = infinity.
15151019
15
14147.51814
13136
17
13
12124.51612
3,000µs11113.31511
2,750µs1010
- 2.5 -
14
10
2,500µs992139
2,250µs881.512
8
2,000µs771.2117
1,750µs661- 10 -6
1,500µs
- 5 -
50.89
5
1,250µs440.68
4
1,000µs64330.473
750µs
- 48 -
Default=
10s
2
- 2 -
0.36
2
- 500µs -
OnOnOn320.5 .. 127s110.25
1
unused- Off -- Off -- Off -160 (Infinite)unusedKey off0.140
GlobalGlobalPer keyPer keyPer keyPer keyPer keyPer keyPer keyPer key
BSMSYNCScope SyncAKS
BL
pulses
NRD
secs
FDIL
countsNDIL counts
NDRIFT
secs
NTHR
counts
Parameter
Index Number
lQ
23 QT60248-AS R4.02/0405
6 Specifications
6.1 Absolute Maximum Electrical Specifications
Operating temp.................................................................... -40
O
C to +105
O
C
Storage temp......................................................................-55
O
C to +125
O
C
V
DD
..................................................................................-0.5 to +5.5V
Max continuous pin current, any control or drive pin............................................. ±10mA
Short circuit duration to ground, any pin........................................................ infinite
Short circuit duration to V
DD
, any pin........................................................... infinite
Voltage forced onto any pin.................................................. -0.6V to (Vdd + 0.6) Volts
Eeprom setups maximum writes.................................................. 100,000 write cycles
6.2 Recommended operating conditions
V
DD
................................................................................ +3.0V to 5.25V
Supply ripple+noise................................................................... 5mV p-p max
Cx transverse load capacitance per key..................................................... 0 to 20pF
6.3 DC Specifications
Vdd = 5.0V, Cs = 4.7nF, Rs = 470K; Ta = recommended range, unless otherwise noted
k8030Internal /RST pullup resistorRrst
DRDY, /SS pinsk50 20Internal pullup resistorsRp
bits119Acquisition resolutionAr
µA±1Input leakage currentIil
1mA sourceVVdd-0.7High output voltageVoh
4mA sinkV0.6Low output voltageVol
V2.2High input logic levelVhl
V0.8Low input logic levelVil
V2.92.7 Vdd internal reset voltageVr
Excluding external componentsmA25Supply current, runningIddr
NotesUnitsMaxTypMinDescriptionParameter
6.4 Timing Specifications
Max guaranteed is a min of 1.5MHzMHz1.5SPI Clock rateFck
SPI parameter controlled by hostns667CLK periodS9
SPI parameter controlled by hostns333CLK high pulse widthS8
SPI parameter controlled by hostns333CLK low pulse widthS7
SPI parameter controlled by QTµs1DRDY low pulse widthS6
SPI parameter controlled by QTµs40Ç /SS to falling DRDYS5
SPI parameter controlled by QTns20Ç /SS to 3-state MISOS4
SPI parameter controlled by hostns25Last Ç CLK to Ç /SSS3
SPI parameter controlled by QTns20È CLK to valid MISOS2
SPI parameter controlled by hostns333È /SS to first È CLK edgeS1
%±8Burst modulation, percentFm
kHz226Burst center frequencyFc
Adjustable parameter via Setupsµs3,000500Burst spacingT
BS
NotesUnitsMaxTypMinDescriptionParameter
lQ
24 QT60248-AS R4.02/0405
6.5 Mechanical Dimensions
6.6 Marking
lQ
25 QT60248-AS R4.02/0405
1
2
3
4
8
7
6
5
11109
32 31 30 28
23
24
25262729
12 14 16
18
22
20
15 17
19
21
13
SYMBOL
A
e
E
h
H
L
p
a
Millimeters Inches
Min Max Notes Min Max Notes
E
Hh
a
e
p
A
L
o
9.25 8.75 0.344 0.354
0.09 0.20 0.003 0.008
0.45
0.05
0.75
0.15
1.20
0.018
0.002
0.030
0.006
0.047
0.80
0.30
BSC0.80
0.45
0.031
0.012
BSC0.031
0.018
6.90 7.10 0.272 0.280
--
o07 07
SQSQ
SQSQ
Package Type: 32 Pin TQFP
YesQT60248-AG24QT60248-ASG-40
0
C to +105
0
C
YesQT60168-AG16QT60168-ASG-40
0
C to +105
0
C
Lead-FreeMarkingKeys
TQFP Part
NumberT
A
7 Appendix
7.1 8-Bit CRC Algorithm
// 8 bits crc calculation. Initial value is 0.
// polynomial = X
8
+ X
5
+ X
4
+ 1
// data is an 8 bit number; crc is a 8 bit number
unsigned char eight_bit_crc(unsigned char crc, unsigned char data)
{ unsigned char index; // shift counter
unsigned char fb;
index = 8; // initialise the shift counter
do
{ fb = (crc ^ data) & 0x01;
data >>= 1;
crc >>= 1;
If(fb)
{ crc ^= 0x8c;
}
} while(--index);
return crc;
}
A CRC calculator for Windows is available free of charge from Quantum Research.
lQ
26 QT60248-AS R4.02/0405
7.2 1-Sided Key Layout
This key design can be made on a 1-sided SMT PCB. A single 0-ohm jumper
allows the wiring to be done on a single side with full pass-through of X and Y
traces to allow matrix connections to be made across a large number of keys.
Key size, shape, and number of interleavings can be varied substantially from
this drawing. The below drawing shows 6 interleave white spaces; only a
double interleave is required in the case of smaller keys.
The PCB is bonded to a panel on its underside, and the fields fire through the
PCB, adhesive, and panel in that sequence. This results in a very low cost
design.
7.3 PCB Layout
Shown is an example PCB layout using inexpensive 1-sided CEM-1 or FR-1 PCB laminate. The key layouts follow the design
rules shown above. (PCB design shown uses a QT60326 chip but still represents a good example).
lQ
27 QT60248-AS R4.02/0405
X
Y
X
Y
0-ohm SMT Jumper
lQ
Copyright © 2004 QRG Ltd. All rights reserved
Patented and patents pending
Corporate Headquarters
1 Mitchell Point
Ensign Way, Hamble SO31 4RF
Great Britain
Tel: +44 (0)23 8056 5600 Fax: +44 (0)23 8045 3939
www.qprox.com
North America
651 Holiday Drive Bldg. 5 / 300
Pittsburgh, PA 15220 USA
Tel: 412-391-7367 Fax: 412-291-1015
This device covered under one or more of the following United States and international patents: 5,730,165, 6,288,707, 6,377,009, 6,452,514,
6,457,355, 6,466,036, 6,535,200. Numerous further patents are pending which may apply to this device or the applications thereof.
The specifications set out in this document are subject to change without notice. All products sold and services supplied by QRG are subject
to our Terms and Conditions of sale and supply of services which are available online at www.qprox.com and are supplied with every order
acknowledgement. QProx, QTouch, QMatrix, QLevel, QSlide, and QWheel are trademarks of QRG. QRG products are not suitable for
medical (including lifesaving equipment), safety or mission critical applications or other similar purposes. Except as expressly set out in
QRG's Terms and Conditions, no licenses to patents or other intellectual property of QRG (express or implied) are granted by QRG in
connection with the sale of QRG products or provision of QRG services. QRG will not be liable for customer product design and customers
are entirely responsible for their products and applications which incorporate QRG's products.
Development Team: Dr. Tim Ingersoll, Samuel Brunet, Hal Philipp

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