AP8801 Datasheet by Diodes Incorporated

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AP8801
500mA LED STEP-DOWN CONVERTER
Description
The AP8801 is a step-
down DC/DC converter designed to drive LEDs
with a constant current. The device can drive up to thirteen LEDs,
depending on the forward voltage of the LEDs, in series from a
voltage source
of 8V to 48V. Series connection of the LEDs provides
identical LED currents resulting in uniform brightness and eliminating
the requirement
for ballast resistors. The AP8801 switches at
frequency up to 700kHz.
This allows the use of small-size exte
rnal components, hence
minimizing the PCB area needed.
Maximum output current of AP8801 is set via an external resistor
connected between the VIN and SET input pins. Dimming is achieved
by applying either a DC voltage or a PWM signal at the CTRL input
pin. An input voltage of 0.2V or lower at CTRL shuts down the output
at SW and puts the device into a low-current standby state.
Features
LED Driving Current up to 500mA
Operating Input Voltage up to 48V
High Efficiency up to 92%
High Switching Frequency up to 700kHz
PWM/DC Input for Dimming Control
Built-in Output Open-Circuit Protection
SO-8 and MSOP-8 are in Green Molding Compound
(No Br, Sb)
Totally Lead-Free & Fully RoHS Compliant (Notes 1 & 2)
Halogen and Antimony Free. “Green Device (Note 3)
Pin Assignments
The AP8801
1
2
3
4 5
6
7
8
(Top View)
NC SW
CTRL
SET
SW
V
IN
GND GND
AP8801
SO-8
1
2
3
4 5
6
7
8
(Top View)
NC SW
CTRL
SET
SW
VIN
GND GND
AP8801
MSOP-8
Applications
Commercial & Industrial Lighting
Small LCD Panel Backlight
Appliances Interior Lighting
Architecture Detail Lighting
Notes: 1. EU Directive 2002/95/EC (RoHS), 2011/65/EU (RoHS 2) & 2015/863/EU (RoHS 3) compliant. All applicable RoHS exemptions applied.
2. See https://www.diodes.com/quality/lead-free/ for more information about Diodes Incorporated’s definitions of Halogen- and Antimony-free, "Green" and
Lead-free.
3. Halogen- and Antimony-free "Green” products are defined as those which contain <900ppm bromine, <900ppm chlorine (<1500ppm total Br + Cl) and
<1000ppm antimony compounds.
Typical Applications Circuit
NOT RECOMMENDED FOR NEW DESIGN
USE AL8860 and AL8861
AP8801
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AP8801
Pin Descriptions
Functions
Switch Pin. Connect inductor/freewheeling diode here, minimizing track length at this pin to reduce EMI.
GND Pin
SET Set Nominal Output Current Pin. Configure the output current of the device.
CTRL
Dual Function Dimming Control Pin
Input voltage of 0.2V or lower forces the device into low-current standby mode and shuts off the output.
A PWM signal (driven by an open-drain/collector source) allows the output current to be adjusted over a wide range
up to 100%.
An analog voltage between 0.3V and 2.5V adjusts the output current between 25% and 200% of the current set by
0.2V/RS.
The input impedance is about 50kΩ, and if the pin is left open, it is VCTRL = VREF
Input Supply Pin. Must be locally bypassed.
No Connection
Functional Block Diagram
Fig. 1 Block Diagram
Absolute Maximum Ratings (@TA = +25°C, unless otherwise specified.)
Symbol
Parameter
Rating
Unit
VIN
VIN Pin Voltage
-0.3 to +50
V
VSW
SW Voltage
-0.3 to +50
V
VCTRL
CTRL Pin Input Voltage
-0.3 to +6
V
V
SENSE
SET Voltage +0.3 to -5 V
TJ
Junction Temperature
+150
°C
TLEAD
Lead Temperature Soldering
+300
°C
TST
Storage Temperature Range
-65 to +150
°C
Caution: Stresses greater than the Absolute Maximum Ratings specified above, may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only;
functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions exceeding those indicated in this specification is not implied. Device reliability may be
affected by exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods of time.
Semiconductor devices are ESD sensitive and may be damaged by exposure to ESD events. Suitable ESD precautions should be taken when
handling and transporting these devices.
AP8801
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AP8801
Recommended Operating Conditions (@TA = +25°C, unless otherwise specified.)
Parameter
Min
Max
Unit
Operating Input Voltage Relative to GND
8.0
48.0
V
Voltage range for 24% to 200% DC Dimming Relative to GND (Note 4)
0.3
2.5
V
Voltage Low for PWM Dimming Relative to GND
0
0.2
V
Maximum Switching Frequency (Note 5)
625
kHz
Ambient Temperature Range
-40
+105
°C
Using Inductor 100µH (Note 6)
0.10
0.95
Notes: 4. For 100% brightness either leave floating or connect to 1.25V relative to GND.
5. AP8801 will operate at higher frequencies but accuracy will be affected due to propagation delays.
6. For most applications the LED current will be within 8% over the duty cycle range specified. Duty cycle accuracy is also dependent on propagation
delay. Smaller size inductors can be used but LED current accuracy may be greater than 8% at extremes of duty cycle. This is most noticeable at low
duty cycles (less than 0.1) or when the input voltage is high and only one LED is being driven.
Electrical Characteristics (@TA = +25°C, VIN = 12V, unless otherwise specified.)
Parameter
Conditions
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
I
Continuous Switch Current (Note 7) 500 mA
Quiescent Current
78
120
μA
Internal Threshold Voltage
184
200
216
mV
Sense Threshold Hysteresis
15
%
V
Internal Reference Voltage
1.25
V
SET SET Pin Input Current VSET = VIN -0.2 7 μA
On Resistance of MOSFET
ISW = 0.4A
0.70
1.15
Ω
Switch Leakage Current
8
μA
ϴJA Thermal Resistance Junction-to-Ambient
SO-8 (Note 8)
88
°C/W
MSOP-8 (Note 8)
128
°C/W
ϴJC Thermal Resistance Junction-to-Case
SO-8 (Note 8)
58
°C/W
MSOP-8 (Note 8)
90
°C/W
Notes: 7. Refer to Figure 6 for the device derating curve.
8. Test condition for SO-8 and MSOP-8: Device mounted on FR-4 PCB, 2× 2”, 2oz copper, minimum recommended pad layout on top layer and thermal
vias to bottom layer ground plane. For better thermal performance, larger copper pad for heat-sink is needed.
AP8801
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AP8801
Typical Characteristics
INPUT VOLTAGE (V)
Figure. 2 Supply Current (not switching) vs. Input Voltage
06055510 15 20 25 30 35 40 50
45
0.1
0
0.3
0.2
0.7
0.6
0.9
0.8
0.5
0.4
NON-SWITCHING SUPPLY CURRENT (mA)
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE C)
Figure. 3 V vs. Ambient Temperature
CTRL
-40 125-25 110
-10 5 20 35 50 65 9580
1.244
1.252
1.250
1.256
1.254
1.248
1.246
CTRL VOLTAGE (V)
-40 -25 -10 5 20 35 50 65 80 95 110 125
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (C)
Figure. 4 R vs Ambient Temperature
DS(ON)
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
R ( )
DS(ON)
R RESISTANCE ( )
Figure. 5 LED Current vs. R
SET
SET
00.5 1.5 2.0
1.0
0
300
250
500
450
50
LED CURRENT (mA)
400
200
100
350
150
CTRL VOLTAGE (V)
Figure. 6 LED Current vs. V
CTRL
02.50.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
0
400
300
600
500
100
LED CURRENT (mA)
200
R = 0.56
SET
R = 0.68
SET
R = 1.33
SET
CTRL VOLTAGE (V)
Figure. 7 Switching Frequency vs. V
CTRL
02.50.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
0
500
400
800
700
100
SWITCHING FREQUENCY (kHz)
300
600
200
(°C)
(°C)
AP8801
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AP8801
Typical Characteristics (TA = +25°C, VIN = 60V, L =68µH unless otherwise stated.)
OUTPUT CURRENT DEVIATION (%)
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
Figure. 8 LED Current vs. Input Voltage
612 18 48
24 30 36 42
10
-10
8
-8
-6
-4
0
2
4
6
-2
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
Figure. 9 Efficiency vs. Input Voltage
612 18 4824 30 36 42
EFFICIENCY (%)
100
90
60
70
75
80
85
65
55
50
95
SWITCHING FREQUENCY (kHz)
700
0
100
200
500
600
300
400
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
Figure. 10 Switching Frequency vs. Input Voltage
612 18 4824 30 36 42
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
Figure. 11 Duty Cycle vs. Input Voltage
612 18 4824 30 36 42
DUTY CYCLE (%)
100
0
90
10
20
30
50
60
70
80
40
Figure 12 Steady State Waveforms
Figure 13 Start-Up Showing LED Current Soft -Start
AP8801
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AP8801
Application Information
LED Current Control
The LED current is controlled by the resistor RSET in Figure 14 connected between VIN and SET. The nominal average output current in the
LED(s) is defined as:
SET
THD
LED
R
V
I=
where VTHD is the voltage between the VIN and SET pins and is nominally 200mV.
Figure 14 Typical Application Circuit for ILED = 0.3A
Inductor Selection
This section highlights how to select the inductor suitable for the application requirements in terms of switching frequency, LED current accuracy,
and temperature.
100
100
100
150
150
220
220
220
150
470
470
470
68
68
47
47
Switching Frequency @I = 500mA
LED
12V - 1 LED
24V - 3 LEDs
48V - 6 LEDs
050 100 150 200 250 300 400 450 500350
INDUCTOR VALUE (µH)
Figure. 15 Switching Frequency vs. Inductor Value
FREQUENCY (kHz)
600
500
100
0
400
300
200
(µH)
AP8801
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AP8801
Application Information (continued)
The inductor influences the LED current accuracy that the system is able to provide. The following section highlights how to select the inductor in
relation to the device packages and the LED current, while maintaining the chip temperature below +70°C.
Capacitor Selection
The small size of ceramic capacitors makes them ideal for AP8801 applications. X5R and X7R types are recommended because they retain their
capacitance over wider voltage and temperature ranges than other types such as Z5U. A 2.2μF input capacitor is sufficient for most intended
applications of AP8801.
A 4.7μF input capacitor is suggested for application with an input voltage equal or higher than 40V.
Diode Selection
Schottky diodes, e.g. B1100, with their low forward voltage drop and fast reverse recovery, are the ideal choice for AP8801 applications.
0
5
10
15
30
35
40
45
20
25
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
Figure 16 Minimum Recommended Inductor with 500mA LED Current
12
11
10
9
4
3
2
1
8
7
6
5
N
U
M
B
E
R
o
f
L
E
D
s
47µH
100µH
68µH
47µH
470µH
220µH
150µH
68µH
100µH
150µH
220µH
470µH
8% Accuracy, <+70°C Case Temperature
NUMBER of LEDs
AP8801
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ms AP8801
AP8801
Application Information (cont.)
LED Current Adjustment/Dimming
The LED current for the AP8801 can be adjusted by driving the CTRL with a digital signal (PWM dimming) or by driving the CTRL with a dc
voltage between 0.3V and 2.5V (DC dimming).
If the CTRL pin is driven by an external voltage (lower than 2.5V), the average LED current is:
SET
THD
REF
CTRL
LED
R
V
V
V
I×=
where VREF is nominally 1.25V
LED Current @
V = 1.25V
CTRL
LED Current @
V = 2.5V
LED Current @
V = 0.625V
CTRL
CTRL
00.3 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.4 2.7 32.1
R VALUE ( )
SET
Figure. 17 LED Current vs. R and V
SET CTRL
LED CURRENT (mA)
600
500
100
0
400
300
200
0.82
0.82
0.82
1
1
1
1.2
1.2
1.2 1.5
1.5
1.5
2
2
23
3
3
0.4
0.47
0.68
0.47
0.56
0.68
Figure 17 shows that reducing the CTRL voltage by a factor of 2 also reduces the LED current by a factor of 2. The AP8801 has the ability vary
the LED current by a factor of 2 above the default value set by RSET down to a factor of 0.24 of the nominal LED current. This provides an
8.33:1 dynamic range of the dc dimming.
A low-pass filter on the CTRL pin of the AP8801 automatically provides some soft-start function of the LED current on initial start-up (this
phenomenon can be seen in Figure 7); the built-in soft-start period can be increased by the addition of an external capacitor onto the CTRL pin.
The AP8801’s dimming range can be increased above this dc dimming factor by applying a PWM signal to the CTRL pin using this method
dimming dynamic ranges above 100 can be achieved.
AP8801
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AP8801
Application Information (cont.) (@TA = +25°C, VIN = 12V, unless otherwise specified.)
PWM Dimming of LED Current
When a low-frequency PWM signal with voltages between 2.5V and a low level of zero is applied to the CTRL pin the output current will be
switched on and off at the PWM frequency. The resultant LED current ILEDavg will be proportional to the PWM duty cycle. See Figure 18.
A Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) signal with a max resolution of 8-bit can be applied to the CTRL pin to change the output current to a value
above or below the nominal average value set by resistor RSET.
To achieve this resolution the PWM frequency has to be lower than 500Hz. The ultimate resolution will be determined by the number of switching
cycles required to get back to nominal LED current once the PWM voltage is high relative to PWM frequency. Lower switching frequencies and
higher PWM frequencies will result in lower PWM dimming dynamic ranges.
Figure 18 Low-Frequency PWM Operating Waveforms
There are different ways of accomplishing PWM dimming of the AP8801 LED current:
Directly Driving CTRL Input
A Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) signal with duty cycle DPWM can be applied to the CTRL pin to adjust the output current to a value above or
below the nominal average value set by resistor RSET. When driving the CTRL with a voltage waveform care should be taken not to exceed a
drive voltage of 2.5V (where extra brightness is required) or 1.25V if a maximum of 100% brightness is required.
A way of avoiding over-driving the CTRL pin is use an open collector/drain driver to drive the CTRL pin.
Driving the CTRL Input via Open Collector Transistor
The recommended method of driving the CTRL pin and controlling the amplitude of the PWM waveform is to use a small NPN switching
transistor. This uses the internal pull-up resistor between the CTRL pin and the internal voltage reference to pull-up CTRL pin when the external
transistor is turned off.
Driving the CTRL Input from a Microcontroller
If the CTRL pin is driven by a MOSFET (either discrete or open-drain output of a micro-controller) then Schottky diode maybe be required due to
high Gate / Drain capacitance, which could inject a negative spike into CTRL input of the AP8801 and cause erratic operation but the addition of
a Schottky clamp diode (eg. Diodes Inc. SD103CWS) to ground and inclusion of a series resistor (3.3k) will prevent this.
AP8801
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AP8801
Application Information (cont.) (@TA = +25°C, VIN = 12V, unless otherwise specified.)
Soft-Start
An external capacitor from the CTRL pin to ground will provide a soft-start delay, by increasing the time taken for the voltage on this pin to rise to
the turn-on threshold and by slowing down the rate of rise of the control voltage at the input of the comparator. Adding capacitance increases this
delay by approximately 200µs/nF. The graph below shows the variation of soft-start time for different values of capacitor.
020 40 60 80 100 120
CAPACITANCE (nf)
Figure. 19 Soft-Start Time vs. Capacitance
from ADJ Pin to Ground
16
14
0
-2
12
10
4
2
8
6
SOFT-START TIME (ms)
Thermal Considerations
The graph below in Figure 20, gives details for power derating. This assumes the device to be on a FR-4 PCB, 2” × 2”, 2oz copper, minimum
recommended pad layout on top layer and thermal vias to bottom layer ground plane standing in still air.
-50 -25 0 50 75 100 125
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE C)
Figure. 20 Maximum Power Dissipation
25
1.2
1.0
0.2
0
0.8
0.4
0.6
POWER DISSIPATION (W)
SO-8
MSOP-8
(°C)
AP8801
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AP8801
Application Information (cont.)
Package Selection
The device comes with a wide selection of packages. The suggested package is able to provide a case temperature below +70˚C (with an
ambient temperature of +25°C) for the combination of input voltage and load requested.
812 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48
8 LEDs
I = 500mA
LED
L = 10H
SO-8
MSOP-8
SO-8
12 LEDs
10 LEDs
2 LEDs
6 LEDs
4 LEDs
Figure. 21 Package Section
Fault Condition Operation
The AP8801 has by default open LED protection. If the LEDs should become open circuit the AP8801 will stop oscillating; the SET pin will rise to
VIN and the SW pin will then fall to GND. No excessive voltages will be seen by the AP8801.
If the LEDs should become shorted together the AP8802H will continue to switch however the duty cycle at which it will operate will change
dramatically and the switching frequency will most likely decrease. The on-time of the internal power MOSFET switch will be significantly reduced
because almost all of the input voltage is now developed across the inductor. The off-time will be significantly increased because the reverse
voltage across the inductor is now just the Schottky diode voltage (See Figure 20) causing a much slower decay in inductor current. During this
condition the inductor current will remain within its controlled levels and so no excessive heat will be generated within the AP8801.
Figure 22 Switching Characteristics
(Normal Open to Short LED Chain)
100µH
AP8801
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AP8801
Ordering Information
Package Green Packing
G : GreenS : SO-8
M8 : MSOP-8 13 : Tape & Reel
AP8801 - XX G 13
Device Package Code Packaging
(Note 9)
13” Tape and Reel
Quantity
Part Number Suffix
AP8801SG-13 S SO-8 2500/Tape & Reel -13
AP8801M8G-13
M8
MSOP-8
2500/Tape & Reel
-13
Note: 9. Pad layout as shown on Diodes Incorporated’s suggested pad layout document, which can be found on our website at
http://www.diodes.com/package-outlines.html.
Marking Information
(1) SO-8
(2) MSOP-8
AP8801
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AP8801
Package Outline Dimensions
Please see http://www.diodes.com/package-outlines.html for the latest version.
SO-8
1
b
e
E
A
A1
9° ( All sides)
4°±3°
c
Q
h
4
R 0.1
D
E0
E1
L
Seating Plane
Gauge Plane
SO-8
Dim
Min
Max
Typ
A
1.40
1.50
1.45
A1
0.10
0.20
0.15
b
0.30
0.50
0.40
c
0.15
0.25
0.20
D
4.85
4.95
4.90
E
5.90
6.10
6.00
E1
3.80
3.90
3.85
E0
3.85
3.95
3.90
e
1.27
h
0.35
L
0.62
0.82
0.72
Q
0.60
0.70
0.65
All Dimensions in mm
MSOP-8
A
A1
A2
e
Seating Plane
Gauge Plane
0.25
L
4X10°
4X1
See Detail C
Detail C
c
a
E1
E3
A3
1
E
y
x
D
b
MSOP-8
Dim
Min
Max
Typ
A
1.10
A1
0.05
0.15
0.10
A2
0.75
0.95
0.86
A3
0.29
0.49
0.39
b
0.22
0.38
0.30
c
0.08
0.23
0.15
D
2.90
3.10
3.00
E
4.70
5.10
4.90
E1
2.90
3.10
3.00
E3
2.85
3.05
2.95
e
0.65
L
0.40
0.80
0.60
a
x
0.750
y
0.750
All Dimensions in mm
AP8801
Document number: DS31765 Rev. 9 - 3
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www.diodes.com March 2019
© Diodes Incorporated
AP8801 127 1.505 6 50 enslons Value (in mm) X1 V1 MSOP-B
AP8801
Suggested Pad Layout
Please see http://www.diodes.com/package-outlines.html for the latest version.
SO-8
CX
Y
Y1
X1
Dimensions
Value (in mm)
C
1.27
X
0.802
X1
4.612
Y
1.505
Y1
6.50
MSOP-8
XC
Y
Y1
Dimensions
Value
(in mm)
C
0.650
X
0.450
Y
1.350
Y1
5.300
AP8801
Document number: DS31765 Rev. 9 - 3
14 of 15
www.diodes.com March 2019
© Diodes Incorporated
ms AP8801 . Customers sha omey fees 'sing ou pen' . uc Vh ve n [@V ac 2
AP8801
IMPORTANT NOTICE
DIODES INCORPORATED MAKES NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WITH REGARDS TO THIS DOCUMENT,
INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
(AND THEIR EQUIVALENTS UNDER THE LAWS OF ANY JURISDICTION).
Diodes Incorporated and its subsidiaries reserve the right to make modifications, enhancements, improvements, corrections or other changes
without further notice to this document and any product described herein. Diodes Incorporated does not assume any liability arising out of the
application or use of this document or any product described herein; neither does Diodes Incorporated convey any license under its patent or
trademark rights, nor the rights of others. Any Customer or user of this document or products described herein in such applications shall assume
all risks of such use and will agree to hold Diodes Incorporated and all the companies whose products are represented on Diodes Incorporated
website, harmless against all damages.
Diodes Incorporated does not warrant or accept any liability whatsoever in respect of any products purchased through unauthorized sales channel.
Should Customers purchase or use Diodes Incorporated products for any unintended or unauthorized application, Customers shall indemnify and
hold Diodes Incorporated and its representatives harmless against all claims, damages, expenses, and attorney fees arising out of, directly or
indirectly, any claim of personal injury or death associated with such unintended or unauthorized application.
Products described herein may be covered by one or more United States, international or foreign patents pending. Product names and markings
noted herein may also be covered by one or more United States, international or foreign trademarks.
This document is written in English but may be translated into multiple languages for reference. Only the English version of this document is the
final and determinative format released by Diodes Incorporated.
LIFE SUPPORT
Diodes Incorporated products are specifically not authorized for use as critical components in life support devices or systems without the express
written approval of the Chief Executive Officer of Diodes Incorporated. As used herein:
A. Life support devices or systems are devices or systems which:
1. are intended to implant into the body, or
2. support or sustain life and whose failure to perform when properly used in accordance with instructions for use provided in the
labeling can be reasonably expected to result in significant injury to the user.
B. A critical component is any component in a life support device or system whose failure to perform can be reasonably expected to cause the
failure of the life support device or to affect its safety or effectiveness.
Customers represent that they have all necessary expertise in the safety and regulatory ramifications of their life support devices or systems, and
acknowledge and agree that they are solely responsible for all legal, regulatory and safety-related requirements concerning their products and any
use of Diodes Incorporated products in such safety-critical, life support devices or systems, notwithstanding any devices- or systems-related
information or support that may be provided by Diodes Incorporated. Further, Customers must fully indemnify Diodes Incorporated and its
representatives against any damages arising out of the use of Diodes Incorporated products in such safety-critical, life support devices or systems.
Copyright © 2019, Diodes Incorporated
www.diodes.com
AP8801
Document number: DS31765 Rev. 9 - 3
15 of 15
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© Diodes Incorporated

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