ADSP-2181 Datasheet by Analog Devices Inc.

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FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM
EXTERNAL
ADDRESS
BUS
EXTERNAL
DATA BUS
DMA BUS
SERIAL PORTS
SPORT 1SPORT 0
MEMORY
PROGRAM
MEMORY DATA
MEMORY
PROGRAMMABLE
I/O
FLAGS
BYTE DMA
CONTROLLER
TIMER
ADSP-2100 BASE
ARCHITECTURE
SHIFTERMACALU
ARITHMETIC UNITS
POWER-DOWN
CONTROL
PROGRAM
SEQUENCER
DAG 2DAG 1
DATA ADDRESS
GENERATORS
PROGRAM MEMORY ADDRESS
DATA MEMORY ADDRESS
PROGRAM MEMORY DATA
DATA MEMORY DATA
INTERNAL
DMA
PORT
a
DSP Microcomputer
ADSP-2181
FEATURES
PERFORMANCE
25 ns Instruction Cycle Time from 20 MHz Crystal
@ 5.0 Volts
40 MIPS Sustained Performance
Single-Cycle Instruction Execution
Single-Cycle Context Switch
3-Bus Architecture Allows Dual Operand Fetches in
Every Instruction Cycle
Multifunction Instructions
Power-Down Mode Featuring Low CMOS Standby
Power Dissipation with 100 Cycle Recovery from
Power-Down Condition
Low Power Dissipation in Idle Mode
INTEGRATION
ADSP-2100 Family Code Compatible, with Instruction
Set Extensions
80K Bytes of On-Chip RAM, Configured as
16K Words On-Chip Program Memory RAM
16K Words On-Chip Data Memory RAM
Dual Purpose Program Memory for Both Instruction
and Data Storage
Independent ALU, Multiplier/Accumulator, and Barrel
Shifter Computational Units
Two Independent Data Address Generators
Powerful Program Sequencer Provides
Zero Overhead Looping
Conditional Instruction Execution
Programmable 16-Bit Interval Timer with Prescaler
128-Lead TQFP/128-Lead PQFP
SYSTEM INTERFACE
16-Bit Internal DMA Port for High Speed Access to
On-Chip Memory
4 MByte Memory Interface for Storage of Data Tables
and Program Overlays
8-Bit DMA to Byte Memory for Transparent
Program and Data Memory Transfers
I/O Memory Interface with 2048 Locations Supports
Parallel Peripherals
Programmable Memory Strobe and Separate I/O Memory
Space Permits “Glueless” System Design
Programmable Wait State Generation
Two Double-Buffered Serial Ports with Companding
Hardware and Automatic Data Buffering
Automatic Booting of On-Chip Program Memory from
Byte-Wide External Memory, e.g., EPROM, or
Through Internal DMA Port
Six External Interrupts
13 Programmable Flag Pins Provide Flexible System
Signaling
ICE-Port™ Emulator Interface Supports Debugging
in Final Systems
REV. D
Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and
reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed by Analog Devices for its
use, nor for any infringements of patents or other rights of third parties
which may result from its use. No license is granted by implication or
otherwise under any patent or patent rights of Analog Devices.
ICE-Port is a trademark of Analog Devices, Inc.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The ADSP-2181 is a single-chip microcomputer optimized for
digital signal processing (DSP) and other high speed numeric
processing applications.
The ADSP-2181 combines the ADSP-2100 family base archi-
tecture (three computational units, data address generators and
a program sequencer) with two serial ports, a 16-bit internal
DMA port, a byte DMA port, a programmable timer, Flag I/O,
extensive interrupt capabilities, and on-chip program and data
memory.
The ADSP-2181 integrates 80K bytes of on-chip memory con-
figured as 16K words (24-bit) of program RAM, and 16K words
(16-bit) of data RAM. Power-down circuitry is also provided to
meet the low power needs of battery operated portable equip-
ment. The ADSP-2181 is available in 128-lead TQFP and 128-
lead PQFP packages.
In addition, the ADSP-2181 supports new instructions, which
include bit manipulations—bit set, bit clear, bit toggle, bit test—
new ALU constants, new multiplication instruction (x squared),
biased rounding, result free ALU operations, I/O memory trans-
fers and global interrupt masking for increased flexibility.
Fabricated in a high speed, double metal, low power, CMOS
process, the ADSP-2181 operates with a 25 ns instruction cycle
time. Every instruction can execute in a single processor cycle.
The ADSP-2181’s flexible architecture and comprehensive
instruction set allow the processor to perform multiple opera-
tions in parallel. In one processor cycle the ADSP-2181 can:
Generate the next program address
Fetch the next instruction
Perform one or two data moves
Update one or two data address pointers
Perform a computational operation
One Technology Way, P.O. Box 9106, Norwood, MA 02062-9106, U.S.A.
Tel: 781/329-4700 World Wide Web Site: http://www.analog.com
Fax: 781/326-8703 © Analog Devices, Inc., 1998
REV. D
ADSP-2181
–2–
This takes place while the processor continues to:
Receive and transmit data through the two serial ports
Receive and/or transmit data through the internal DMA port
Receive and/or transmit data through the byte DMA port
Decrement timer
Development System
The ADSP-2100 Family Development Software, a complete
set of tools for software and hardware system development,
supports the ADSP-2181. The System Builder provides a high
level method for defining the architecture of systems under
development. The Assembler has an algebraic syntax that is easy
to program and debug. The Linker combines object files into
an executable file. The Simulator provides an interactive
instruction-level simulation with a reconfigurable user interface
to display different portions of the hardware environment. A
PROM Splitter generates PROM programmer compatible files.
The C Compiler, based on the Free Software Foundation’s
GNU C Compiler, generates ADSP-2181 assembly source
code. The source code debugger allows programs to be cor-
rected in the C environment. The Runtime Library includes over
100 ANSI-standard mathematical and DSP-specific functions.
The EZ-KIT Lite is a hardware/software kit offering a complete
development environment for the entire ADSP-21xx family: an
ADSP-2181 evaluation board with PC monitor software plus
Assembler, Linker, Simulator, and PROM Splitter software.
The ADSP-218x EZ-KIT Lite is a low-cost, easy to use hard-
ware platform on which you can quickly get started with your
DSP software design. The EZ-KIT Lite includes the following
features:
33 MHz ADSP-2181
Full 16-bit Stereo Audio I/O with AD1847 SoundPort
®
Codec
RS-232 Interface to PC with Windows 3.1 Control Software
Stand-Alone Operation with Socketed EPROM
• EZ-ICE
®
Connector for Emulator Control
DSP Demo Programs
The ADSP-218x EZ-ICE
Emulator aids in the hardware debug-
ging of ADSP-218x systems. The emulator consists of hard-
ware, host computer resident software and the target board
connector. The ADSP-218x integrates on-chip emulation sup-
port with a 14-pin ICE-Port interface. This interface provides a
simpler target board connection requiring fewer mechanical
clearance considerations than other ADSP-2100 Family EZ-ICEs.
The ADSP-218x device need not be removed from the target
system when using the EZ-ICE, nor are any adapters needed. Due
to the small footprint of the EZ-ICE
connector, emulation can be
supported in final board designs.
The EZ-ICE
performs a full range of functions, including:
In-target operation
Up to 20 breakpoints
Single-step or full-speed operation
Registers and memory values can be examined and altered
PC upload and download functions
Instruction-level emulation of program booting and execution
Complete assembly and disassembly of instructions
C source-level debugging
See the Designing An EZ-ICE-Compatible Target System sec-
tion of this data sheet for exact specifications of the EZ-ICE target
board connector.
Additional Information
This data sheet provides a general overview of ADSP-2181
functionality. For additional information on the architecture and
instruction set of the processor, refer to the ADSP-2100 Family
User’s Manual, Third Edition. For more information about the
development tools, refer to the ADSP-2100 Family Development
Tools Data Sheet.
ARCHITECTURE OVERVIEW
The ADSP-2181 instruction set provides flexible data moves
and multifunction (one or two data moves with a computation)
instructions. Every instruction can be executed in a single pro-
cessor cycle. The ADSP-2181 assembly language uses an alge-
braic syntax for ease of coding and readability. A comprehensive
set of development tools supports program development.
Figure 1 is an overall block diagram of the ADSP-2181. The
processor contains three independent computational units: the
ALU, the multiplier/accumulator (MAC) and the shifter. The
computational units process 16-bit data directly and have provi-
sions to support multiprecision computations. The ALU per-
forms a standard set of arithmetic and logic operations; division
primitives are also supported. The MAC performs single-cycle
multiply, multiply/add and multiply/subtract operations with
40 bits of accumulation. The shifter performs logical and arith-
metic shifts, normalization, denormalization and derive expo-
nent operations. The shifter can be used to efficiently implement
numeric format control including multiword and block floating-
point representations.
The internal result (R) bus connects the computational units so
that the output of any unit may be the input of any unit on the
next cycle.
A powerful program sequencer and two dedicated data address
generators ensure efficient delivery of operands to these computa-
tional units. The sequencer supports conditional jumps, subroutine
calls and returns in a single cycle. With internal loop counters and
loop stacks, the ADSP-2181 executes looped code with zero over-
head; no explicit jump instructions are required to maintain loops.
Two data address generators (DAGs) provide addresses for
simultaneous dual operand fetches (from data memory and
program memory). Each DAG maintains and updates four
address pointers. Whenever the pointer is used to access data
(indirect addressing), it is post-modified by the value of one of
four possible modify registers. A length value may be associated
with each pointer to implement automatic modulo addressing
for circular buffers.
Efficient data transfer is achieved with the use of five internal
buses:
Program Memory Address (PMA) Bus
Program Memory Data (PMD) Bus
Data Memory Address (DMA) Bus
Data Memory Data (DMD) Bus
Result (R) Bus
The two address buses (PMA and DMA) share a single external
address bus, allowing memory to be expanded off-chip, and the
two data buses (PMD and DMD) share a single external data
bus. Byte memory space and I/O memory space also share the
external buses.
Program memory can store both instructions and data, permit-
ting the ADSP-2181 to fetch two operands in a single cycle,
one from program memory and one from data memory. The
EZ-ICE and SoundPort are registered trademarks of Analog Devices, Inc.
ADSP-2181
–3–
REV. D
ADSP-2181 can fetch an operand from program memory and
the next instruction in the same cycle.
In addition to the address and data bus for external memory
connection, the ADSP-2181 has a 16-bit Internal DMA port
(IDMA port) for connection to external systems. The IDMA
port is made up of 16 data/address pins and five control pins.
The IDMA port provides transparent, direct access to the DSPs
on-chip program and data RAM.
An interface to low cost byte-wide memory is provided by the
Byte DMA port (BDMA port). The BDMA port is bidirectional
and can directly address up to four megabytes of external RAM
or ROM for off-chip storage of program overlays or data tables.
The byte memory and I/O memory space interface supports slow
memories and I/O memory-mapped peripherals with program-
mable wait state generation. External devices can gain control of
external buses with bus request/grant signals (BR, BGH and BG).
One execution mode (Go Mode) allows the ADSP-2181 to con-
tinue running from on-chip memory. Normal execution mode
requires the processor to halt while buses are granted.
The ADSP-2181 can respond to 13 possible interrupts, eleven
of which are accessible at any given time. There can be up to six
external interrupts (one edge-sensitive, two level-sensitive and
three configurable) and seven internal interrupts generated by
the timer, the serial ports (SPORTs), the Byte DMA port and
the power-down circuitry. There is also a master RESET signal.
The two serial ports provide a complete synchronous serial inter-
face with optional companding in hardware and a wide variety of
framed or frameless data transmit and receive modes of operation.
Each port can generate an internal programmable serial clock or
accept an external serial clock.
The ADSP-2181 provides up to 13 general-purpose flag pins.
The data input and output pins on SPORT1 can be alternatively
configured as an input flag and an output flag. In addition, there
are eight flags that are programmable as inputs or outputs and
three flags that are always outputs.
A programmable interval timer generates periodic interrupts. A
16-bit count register (TCOUNT) is decremented every n pro-
cessor cycles, where n is a scaling value stored in an 8-bit regis-
ter (TSCALE). When the value of the count register reaches
zero, an interrupt is generated and the count register is reloaded
from a 16-bit period register (TPERIOD).
Serial Ports
The ADSP-2181 incorporates two complete synchronous serial
ports (SPORT0 and SPORT1) for serial communications and
multiprocessor communication.
Here is a brief list of the capabilities of the ADSP-2181 SPORTs.
Refer to the ADSP-2100 Family User’s Manual, Third Edition for
further details.
SPORTs are bidirectional and have a separate, double-
buffered transmit and receive section.
SPORTs can use an external serial clock or generate their
own serial clock internally.
SPORTs have independent framing for the receive and trans-
mit sections. Sections run in a frameless mode or with frame
synchronization signals internally or externally generated.
Frame sync signals are active high or inverted, with either of
two pulsewidths and timings.
OUTPUT REGS
ALU
OUTPUT REGS
MAC TIMER
INPUT REGS INPUT REGS
ADSP-2181 INTEGRATION
DATA
ADDRESS
GENERATOR
#1
DATA
ADDRESS
GENERATOR
#2
21xx CORE
PMA BUS
DMA BUS
PMD BUS
INSTRUCTION
REGISTER
PROGRAM
SEQUENCER
BUS
EXCHANGE
DMD BUS
PROGRAM
SRAM
16K 3 24
DATA
SRAM
16K 3 16 BYTE
DMA
CONTROLLER
MUX
14
14
24
16
DMD
BUS
PMA BUS
DMA BUS
PMD BUS
INPUT REGS
SHIFTER
OUTPUT REGS
INPUT REGS
MAC
OUTPUT REGS
INPUT REGS
ALU
OUTPUT REGS
R BUS
16
TRANSMIT REG
RECEIVE REG
SERIAL
PORT 0
TRANSMIT REG
RECEIVE REG
SERIAL
PORT 0
COMPANDING
CIRCUITRY
5 5
INTERNAL
DMA
PORT
INTERRUPTS
POWER-
DOWN
CONTROL
LOGIC
2
8
3
MUX
PROGRAMMABLE
I/O
FLAGS
14
EXTERNAL
ADDRESS
BUS
EXTERNAL
DATA
BUS
16
4
24
Figure 1. ADSP-2181 Block Diagram
REV. D
ADSP-2181
–4–
SPORTs support serial data word lengths from 3 to 16 bits
and provide optional A-law and µ-law companding according
to CCITT recommendation G.711.
SPORT receive and transmit sections can generate unique
interrupts on completing a data word transfer.
SPORTs can receive and transmit an entire circular buffer of
data with only one overhead cycle per data word. An interrupt
is generated after a data buffer transfer.
SPORT0 has a multichannel interface to selectively receive
and transmit a 24- or 32-word, time-division multiplexed,
serial bitstream.
SPORT1 can be configured to have two external interrupts
(IRQ0 and IRQ1) and the Flag In and Flag Out signals. The
internally generated serial clock may still be used in this
configuration.
Pin Descriptions
The ADSP-2181 is available in 128-lead TQFP and 128-lead
PQFP packages.
PIN FUNCTION DESCRIPTIONS
#
Pin of Input/
Name(s) Pins Output Function
Address 14 O Address Output Pins for Program,
Data, Byte, and I/O Spaces
Data 24 I/O Data I/O Pins for Program and
Data Memory Spaces (8 MSBs
Are Also Used as Byte Space
Addresses)
RESET 1 I Processor Reset Input
IRQ2 1 I Edge- or Level-Sensitive
Interrupt Request
IRQL0,
IRQL1 2 I Level-Sensitive Interrupt
Requests
IRQE 1 I Edge-Sensitive Interrupt
Request
BR 1 I Bus Request Input
BG 1 O Bus Grant Output
BGH 1 O Bus Grant Hung Output
PMS 1 O Program Memory Select Output
DMS 1 O Data Memory Select Output
BMS 1 O Byte Memory Select Output
IOMS 1 O I/O Space Memory Select Output
CMS 1 O Combined Memory Select Output
RD 1 O Memory Read Enable Output
WR 1 O Memory Write Enable Output
MMAP 1 I Memory Map Select Input
BMODE 1 I Boot Option Control Input
CLKIN,
XTAL 2 I Clock or Quartz Crystal Input
#
Pin of Input/
Name(s) Pins Output Function
CLKOUT 1 O Processor Clock Output
SPORT0 5 I/O Serial Port I/O Pins
SPORT1 5 I/O Serial Port 1 or Two External
IRQs, Flag In and Flag Out
IRD, IWR 2 I IDMA Port Read/Write Inputs
IS 1 I IDMA Port Select
IAL 1 I IDMA Port Address Latch
Enable
IAD 16 I/O IDMA Port Address/Data Bus
IACK 1 O IDMA Port Access Ready
Acknowledge
PWD 1 I Power-Down Control
PWDACK 1 O Power-Down Control
FL0, FL1,
FL2 3 O Output Flags
PF7:0 8 I/O Programmable I/O Pins
EE 1 * (Emulator Only*)
EBR 1 * (Emulator Only*)
EBG 1 * (Emulator Only*)
ERESET 1 * (Emulator Only*)
EMS 1 * (Emulator Only*)
EINT 1 * (Emulator Only*)
ECLK 1 * (Emulator Only*)
ELIN 1 * (Emulator Only*)
ELOUT 1 * (Emulator Only*)
GND 11 Ground Pins
VDD 6 Power Supply Pins
*These ADSP-2181 pins must be connected only to the EZ-ICE
connector in
the target system. These pins have no function except during emulation, and
do not require pull-up or pull-down resistors.
Interrupts
The interrupt controller allows the processor to respond to the
eleven possible interrupts and reset with minimum overhead.
The ADSP-2181 provides four dedicated external interrupt
input pins, IRQ2, IRQL0, IRQL1 and IRQE. In addition,
SPORT1 may be reconfigured for IRQ0, IRQ1, FLAG_IN and
FLAG_OUT, for a total of six external interrupts. The ADSP-
2181 also supports internal interrupts from the timer, the byte
DMA port, the two serial ports, software and the power-down
control circuit. The interrupt levels are internally prioritized and
individually maskable (except power down and reset). The
IRQ2, IRQ0 and IRQ1 input pins can be programmed to be
either level- or edge-sensitive. IRQL0 and IRQL1 are level-
sensitive and IRQE is edge sensitive. The priorities and vector
addresses of all interrupts are shown in Table I.
ADSP-2181
–5–
REV. D
Table I. Interrupt Priority and Interrupt Vector Addresses
Interrupt Vector
Source of Interrupt Address (Hex)
Reset (or Power-Up with PUCR = 1) 0000 (Highest Priority)
Power-Down (Nonmaskable) 002C
IRQ2 0004
IRQL1 0008
IRQL0 000C
SPORT0 Transmit 0010
SPORT0 Receive 0014
IRQE 0018
BDMA Interrupt 001C
SPORT1 Transmit or IRQ1 0020
SPORT1 Receive or IRQ0 0024
Timer 0028 (Lowest Priority)
Interrupt routines can either be nested with higher priority
interrupts taking precedence or processed sequentially. Inter-
rupts can be masked or unmasked with the IMASK register.
Individual interrupt requests are logically ANDed with the bits
in IMASK; the highest priority unmasked interrupt is then
selected. The power-down interrupt is nonmaskable.
The ADSP-2181 masks all interrupts for one instruction cycle
following the execution of an instruction that modifies the
IMASK register. This does not affect serial port autobuffering
or DMA transfers.
The interrupt control register, ICNTL, controls interrupt nest-
ing and defines the IRQ0, IRQ1 and IRQ2 external interrupts to
be either edge- or level-sensitive. The IRQE pin is an external
edge-sensitive interrupt and can be forced and cleared. The
IRQL0 and IRQL1 pins are external level-sensitive interrupts.
The IFC register is a write-only register used to force and clear
interrupts.
On-chip stacks preserve the processor status and are automati-
cally maintained during interrupt handling. The stacks are twelve
levels deep to allow interrupt, loop and subroutine nesting.
The following instructions allow global enable or disable servic-
ing of the interrupts (including power down), regardless of the
state of IMASK. Disabling the interrupts does not affect serial
port autobuffering or DMA.
ENA INTS;
DIS INTS;
When the processor is reset, interrupt servicing is enabled.
LOW POWER OPERATION
The ADSP-2181 has three low power modes that significantly
reduce the power dissipation when the device operates under
standby conditions. These modes are:
• Power-Down
• Idle
Slow Idle
The CLKOUT pin may also be disabled to reduce external
power dissipation.
Power-Down
The ADSP-2181 processor has a low power feature that lets
the processor enter a very low power dormant state through
hardware or software control. Here is a brief list of power-
down features. For detailed information about the power-
down feature, refer to the ADSP-2100 Family User’s Manual,
Third Edition, “System Interface” chapter.
Quick recovery from power-down. The processor begins
executing instructions in as few as 100 CLKIN cycles.
Support for an externally generated TTL or CMOS
processor clock. The external clock can continue running
during power-down without affecting the lowest power
rating and 100 CLKIN cycle recovery.
Support for crystal operation includes disabling the oscil-
lator to save power (the processor automatically waits 4096
CLKIN cycles for the crystal oscillator to start and stabi-
lize), and letting the oscillator run to allow 100 CLKIN
cycle start up.
Power-down is initiated by either the power-down pin
(PWD) or the software power-down force bit.
Interrupt support allows an unlimited number of instruc-
tions to be executed before optionally powering down.
The power-down interrupt also can be used as a non-
maskable, edge-sensitive interrupt.
Context clear/save control allows the processor to con-
tinue where it left off or start with a clean context when
leaving the power-down state.
The RESET pin also can be used to terminate power-
down.
Power-down acknowledge pin indicates when the proces-
sor has entered power-down.
Idle
When the ADSP-2181 is in the Idle Mode, the processor
waits indefinitely in a low power state until an interrupt
occurs. When an unmasked interrupt occurs, it is serviced;
execution then continues with the instruction following the
IDLE instruction.
Slow Idle
The IDLE instruction is enhanced on the ADSP-2181 to let
the processor’s internal clock signal be slowed, further
reducing power consumption. The reduced clock fre-
quency, a programmable fraction of the normal clock rate,
is specified by a selectable divisor given in the IDLE in-
struction. The format of the instruction is
IDLE (n);
where n = 16, 32, 64 or 128. This instruction keeps the
processor fully functional, but operating at the slower clock
rate. While it is in this state, the processor’s other internal
clock signals, such as SCLK, CLKOUT and timer clock,
are reduced by the same ratio. The default form of the
instruction, when no clock divisor is given, is the standard
IDLE instruction.
REV. D
ADSP-2181
–6–
When the IDLE (n) instruction is used, it effectively slows down
the processor’s internal clock and thus its response time to in-
coming interrupts. The one-cycle response time of the standard
idle state is increased by n, the clock divisor. When an enabled
interrupt is received, the ADSP-2181 will remain in the idle
state for up to a maximum of n processor cycles (n = 16, 32, 64
or 128) before resuming normal operation.
When the IDLE (n) instruction is used in systems that have an
externally generated serial clock (SCLK), the serial clock rate
may be faster than the processor’s reduced internal clock rate.
Under these conditions, interrupts must not be generated at a
faster rate than can be serviced, due to the additional time the
processor takes to come out of the idle state (a maximum of n
processor cycles).
SYSTEM INTERFACE
Figure 2 shows a typical basic system configuration with the
ADSP-2181, two serial devices, a byte-wide EPROM, and op-
tional external program and data overlay memories. Program-
mable wait state generation allows the processor to connect
easily to slow peripheral devices. The ADSP-2181 also provides
four external interrupts and two serial ports or six external inter-
rupts and one serial port.
1/2x CLOCK
OR
CRYSTAL
SERIAL
DEVICE
SERIAL
DEVICE
16
A0-A21
DATA
CS
BYTE
MEMORY
I/O SPACE
(PERIPHERALS)
CS
DATA
ADDR
DATA
ADDR
2048 LOCATIONS
OVERLAY
MEMORY
TWO 8K
PM SEGMENTS
TWO 8K
DM SEGMENTS
D23-0
A13-0
D23-8
A10-0
D15-8
D23-16
A13-0
14
24
SPORT1
SCLK0
RFS0
TFS0
DT0
DR0
SPORT0
IAD15-0
IDMA PORT
FL0-2
PF0-7
CLKIN
XTAL ADDR13-0
DATA23-0
BMS
IOMS
ADSP-2181
RD
WR
IRQ2
IRQE
IRQL0
IRQL1
PMS
DMS
CMS
BR
BG
BGH
PWD
PWDACK
IRD
IWR
IS
IAL
IACK
SCLK1
RFS1 OR IRQ0
TFS1 OR IRQ1
DT1 OR FO
DR1 OR FI
SYSTEM
INTERFACE
OR
mCONTROLLER
Figure 2. ADSP-2181 Basic System Configuration
Clock Signals
The ADSP-2181 can be clocked by either a crystal or a TTL-
compatible clock signal.
The CLKIN input cannot be halted, changed during operation
or operated below the specified frequency during normal opera-
tion. The only exception is while the processor is in the power-
down state. For additional information, refer to Chapter 9,
ADSP-2100 Family User’s Manual, Third Edition, for detailed
information on this power-down feature.
If an external clock is used, it should be a TTL-compatible
signal running at half the instruction rate. The signal is con-
nected to the processor’s CLKIN input. When an external clock
is used, the XTAL input must be left unconnected.
The ADSP-2181 uses an input clock with a frequency equal to
half the instruction rate; a 20.00 MHz input clock yields a 25 ns
processor cycle (which is equivalent to 40 MHz). Normally,
instructions are executed in a single processor cycle. All device
timing is relative to the internal instruction clock rate, which is
indicated by the CLKOUT signal when enabled.
Because the ADSP-2181 includes an on-chip oscillator circuit,
an external crystal may be used. The crystal should be connected
across the CLKIN and XTAL pins, with two capacitors connected
as shown in Figure 3. Capacitor values are dependent on crystal
type and should be specified by the crystal manufacturer. A
parallel-resonant, fundamental frequency, microprocessor-grade
crystal should be used.
A clock output (CLKOUT) signal is generated by the processor
at the processor’s cycle rate. This can be enabled and disabled
by the CLKODIS bit in the SPORT0 Autobuffer Control
Register.
CLKIN CLKOUT
XTAL
DSP
Figure 3. External Crystal Connections
Reset
The RESET signal initiates a master reset of the ADSP-2181.
The RESET signal must be asserted during the power-up se-
quence to assure proper initialization. RESET during initial
power-up must be held long enough to allow the internal clock
to stabilize. If RESET is activated any time after power-up, the
clock continues to run and does not require stabilization time.
The power-up sequence is defined as the total time required for
the crystal oscillator circuit to stabilize after a valid V
DD
is ap-
plied to the processor, and for the internal phase-locked loop
(PLL) to lock onto the specific crystal frequency. A minimum of
2000 CLKIN cycles ensures that the PLL has locked, but does
not include the crystal oscillator start-up time. During this
power-up sequence the RESET signal should be held low. On
any subsequent resets, the RESET signal must meet the mini-
mum pulse width specification, t
RSP
.
The RESET input contains some hysteresis; however, if you use
an RC circuit to generate your RESET signal, the use of an
external Schmidt trigger is recommended.
The master reset sets all internal stack pointers to the empty
stack condition, masks all interrupts and clears the MSTAT
register. When RESET is released, if there is no pending bus
request and the chip is configured for booting (MMAP = 0), the
boot-loading sequence is performed. The first instruction is
fetched from on-chip program memory location 0x0000 once
boot loading completes.
ADSP-2181
–7–
REV. D
Table II.
PMOVLAY Memory A13 A12:0
0 Internal Not Applicable Not Applicable
1 External 0 13 LSBs of Address
Overlay 1 Between 0x2000
and 0x3FFF
2 External 1 13 LSBs of Address
Overlay 2 Between 0x2000
and 0x3FFF
This organization provides for two external 8K overlay segments
using only the normal 14 address bits. This allows for simple
program overlays using one of the two external segments in
place of the on-chip memory. Care must be taken in using this
overlay space in that the processor core (i.e., the sequencer)
does not take into account the PMOVLAY register value. For
example, if a loop operation was occurring on one of the exter-
nal overlays and the program changes to another external over-
lay or internal memory, an incorrect loop operation could occur.
In addition, care must be taken in interrupt service routines as
the overlay registers are not automatically saved and restored on
the processor mode stack.
For ADSP-2100 Family compatibility, MMAP = 1 is allowed.
In this mode, booting is disabled and overlay memory is dis-
abled (PMOVLAY must be 0). Figure 5 shows the memory map
in this configuration.
INTERNAL 8K
(PMOVLAY = 0,
MMAP = 1)
0x3FFF
0x2000
0x1FFF
8K EXTERNAL
0x0000
PROGRAM MEMORY ADDRESS
Figure 5. Program Memory (MMAP = 1)
Data Memory
The ADSP-2181 has 16,352 16-bit words of internal data
memory. In addition, the ADSP-2181 allows the use of 8K
external memory overlays. Figure 6 shows the organization of
the data memory.
8K INTERNAL
(DMOVLAY = 0)
OR
EXTERNAL 8K
(DMOVLAY = 1, 2)
INTERNAL
8160 WORDS
DATA MEMORY ADDRESS
32 MEMORY–
MAPPED REGISTERS
0x3FFF
0x3FEO
0x3FDF
0x2000
0x1FFF
0x0000
Figure 6. Data Memory
Memory Architecture
The ADSP-2181 provides a variety of memory and peripheral
interface options. The key functional groups are Program
Memory, Data Memory, Byte Memory and I/O.
Program Memory is a 24-bit-wide space for storing both
instruction opcodes and data. The ADSP-2181 has 16K words
of Program Memory RAM on chip and the capability of access-
ing up to two 8K external memory overlay spaces using the
external data bus. Both an instruction opcode and a data value
can be read from on-chip program memory in a single cycle.
Data Memory is a 16-bit-wide space used for the storage of
data variables and for memory-mapped control registers. The
ADSP-2181 has 16K words on Data Memory RAM on chip,
consisting of 16,352 user-accessible locations and 32 memory-
mapped registers. Support also exists for up to two 8K external
memory overlay spaces through the external data bus.
Byte Memory provides access to an 8-bit wide memory space
through the Byte DMA (BDMA) port. The Byte Memory inter-
face provides access to 4 MBytes of memory by utilizing eight
data lines as additional address lines. This gives the BDMA Port
an effective 22-bit address range. On power-up, the DSP can
automatically load bootstrap code from byte memory.
I/O Space allows access to 2048 locations of 16-bit-wide data.
It is intended to be used to communicate with parallel periph-
eral devices such as data converters and external registers or
latches.
Program Memory
The ADSP-2181 contains a 16K × 24 on-chip program RAM.
The on-chip program memory is designed to allow up to two
accesses each cycle so that all operations can complete in a
single cycle. In addition, the ADSP-2181 allows the use of 8K
external memory overlays.
The program memory space organization is controlled by the
MMAP pin and the PMOVLAY register. Normally, the ADSP-
2181 is configured with MMAP = 0 and program memory orga-
nized as shown in Figure 4.
8K INTERNAL
(PMOVLAY = 0,
MMAP = 0)
OR
EXTERNAL 8K
(PMOVLAY = 1 or 2,
MMAP = 0)
0x3FFF
0x2000
0x1FFF
8K INTERNAL
0x0000
PROGRAM MEMORY ADDRESS
Figure 4. Program Memory (MMAP = 0)
There are 16K words of memory accessible internally when the
PMOVLAY register is set to 0. When PMOVLAY is set to
something other than 0, external accesses occur at addresses
0x2000 through 0x3FFF. The external address is generated as
shown in Table II.
REV. D
ADSP-2181
–8–
The CMS pin functions like the other memory select signals,
with the same timing and bus request logic. A 1 in the enable bit
causes the assertion of the CMS signal at the same time as the
selected memory select signal. All enable bits, except the BMS
bit, default to 1 at reset.
Byte Memory
The byte memory space is a bidirectional, 8-bit-wide, external
memory space used to store programs and data. Byte memory is
accessed using the BDMA feature. The byte memory space
consists of 256 pages, each of which is 16K × 8.
The byte memory space on the ADSP-2181 supports read and
write operations as well as four different data formats. The byte
memory uses data bits 15:8 for data. The byte memory uses
data bits 23:16 and address bits 13:0 to create a 22-bit address.
This allows up to a 4 meg × 8 (32 megabit) ROM or RAM to be
used without glue logic. All byte memory accesses are timed by
the BMWAIT register.
Byte Memory DMA (BDMA)
The Byte memory DMA controller allows loading and storing of
program instructions and data using the byte memory space.
The BDMA circuit is able to access the byte memory space
while the processor is operating normally, and steals only one
DSP cycle per 8-, 16- or 24-bit word transferred.
The BDMA circuit supports four different data formats which
are selected by the BTYPE register field. The appropriate num-
ber of 8-bit accesses are done from the byte memory space to
build the word size selected. Table V shows the data formats
supported by the BDMA circuit.
Table V.
Internal
BTYPE Memory Space Word Size Alignment
00 Program Memory 24 Full Word
01 Data Memory 16 Full Word
10 Data Memory 8 MSBs
11 Data Memory 8 LSBs
Unused bits in the 8-bit data memory formats are filled with 0s.
The BIAD register field is used to specify the starting address
for the on-chip memory involved with the transfer. The 14-bit
BEAD register specifies the starting address for the external byte
memory space. The 8-bit BMPAGE register specifies the start-
ing page for the external byte memory space. The BDIR register
field selects the direction of the transfer. Finally the 14-bit
BWCOUNT register specifies the number of DSP words to
transfer and initiates the BDMA circuit transfers.
BDMA accesses can cross page boundaries during sequential
addressing. A BDMA interrupt is generated on the completion
of the number of transfers specified by the BWCOUNT register.
The BWCOUNT register is updated after each transfer so it can
be used to check the status of the transfers. When it reaches
zero, the transfers have finished and a BDMA interrupt is gener-
ated. The BMPAGE and BEAD registers must not be accessed
by the DSP during BDMA operations.
The source or destination of a BDMA transfer will always be
on-chip program or data memory, regardless of the values of
MMAP, PMOVLAY or DMOVLAY.
There are 16,352 words of memory accessible internally when
the DMOVLAY register is set to 0. When DMOVLAY is set to
something other than 0, external accesses occur at addresses
0x0000 through 0x1FFF. The external address is generated as
shown in Table III.
Table III.
DMOVLAY Memory A13 A12:0
0 Internal Not Applicable Not Applicable
1 External 0 13 LSBs of Address
Overlay 1 Between 0x0000
and 0x1FFF
2 External 1 13 LSBs of Address
Overlay 2 Between 0x0000
and 0x1FFF
This organization allows for two external 8K overlays using only
the normal 14 address bits.
All internal accesses complete in one cycle. Accesses to external
memory are timed using the wait states specified by the DWAIT
register.
I/O Space
The ADSP-2181 supports an additional external memory space
called I/O space. This space is designed to support simple con-
nections to peripherals or to bus interface ASIC data registers.
I/O space supports 2048 locations. The lower eleven bits of the
external address bus are used; the upper three bits are unde-
fined. Two instructions were added to the core ADSP-2100
Family instruction set to read from and write to I/O memory
space. The I/O space also has four dedicated 3-bit wait state
registers, IOWAIT0-3, which specify up to seven wait states to
be automatically generated for each of four regions. The wait
states act on address ranges as shown in Table IV.
Table IV.
Address Range Wait State Register
0x000–0x1FF IOWAIT0
0x200–0x3FF IOWAIT1
0x400–0x5FF IOWAIT2
0x600–0x7FF IOWAIT3
Composite Memory Select (CMS)
The ADSP-2181 has a programmable memory select signal that
is useful for generating memory select signals for memories
mapped to more than one space. The CMS signal is generated
to have the same timing as each of the individual memory select
signals (PMS, DMS, BMS, IOMS) but can combine their
functionality.
When set, each bit in the CMSSEL register, causes the CMS
signal to be asserted when the selected memory select is as-
serted. For example, to use a 32K word memory to act as both
program and data memory, set the PMS and DMS bits in the
CMSSEL register and use the CMS pin to drive the chip select
of the memory; use either DMS or PMS as the additional
address bit.
ADSP-2181
–9–
REV. D
Table VI. Boot Summary Table
MMAP BMODE Booting Method
0 0 BDMA feature is used in default mode
to load the first 32 program memory
words from the byte memory space.
Program execution is held off until all
32 words have been loaded.
0 1 IDMA feature is used to load any inter-
nal memory as desired. Program execu-
tion is held off until internal program
memory location 0 is written to.
1 X Bootstrap features disabled. Program
execution immediately starts from
location 0.
BDMA Booting
When the BMODE and MMAP pins specify BDMA booting
(MMAP = 0, BMODE = 0), the ADSP-2181 initiates a BDMA
boot sequence when reset is released. The BDMA interface is
set up during reset to the following defaults when BDMA boot-
ing is specified: the BDIR, BMPAGE, BIAD and BEAD regis-
ters are set to 0, the BTYPE register is set to 0 to specify
program memory 24 bit words, and the BWCOUNT register is
set to 32. This causes 32 words of on-chip program memory to
be loaded from byte memory. These 32 words are used to set up
the BDMA to load in the remaining program code. The BCR
bit is also set to 1, which causes program execution to be held
off until all 32 words are loaded into on-chip program memory.
Execution then begins at address 0.
The ADSP-2100 Family Development Software (Revision 5.02
and later) fully supports the BDMA booting feature and can
generate byte memory space compatible boot code.
The IDLE instruction can also be used to allow the processor to
hold off execution while booting continues through the BDMA
interface.
IDMA Booting
The ADSP-2181 can also boot programs through its Internal
DMA port. If BMODE = 1 and MMAP = 0, the ADSP-2181
boots from the IDMA port. IDMA feature can load as much on-
chip memory as desired. Program execution is held off until on-
chip program memory location 0 is written to.
The ADSP-2100 Family Development Software (Revision 5.02
and later) can generate IDMA compatible boot code.
Bus Request and Bus Grant
The ADSP-2181 can relinquish control of the data and address
buses to an external device. When the external device requires
access to memory, it asserts the bus request (BR) signal. If the
ADSP-2181 is not performing an external memory access, then
it responds to the active BR input in the following processor
cycle by:
three-stating the data and address buses and the PMS, DMS,
BMS, CMS, IOMS, RD, WR output drivers,
asserting the bus grant (BG) signal, and
halting program execution.
When the BWCOUNT register is written with a nonzero value,
the BDMA circuit starts executing byte memory accesses with
wait states set by BMWAIT. These accesses continue until the
count reaches zero. When enough accesses have occurred to
create a destination word, it is transferred to or from on-chip
memory. The transfer takes one DSP cycle. DSP accesses to
external memory have priority over BDMA byte memory ac-
cesses.
The BDMA Context Reset bit (BCR) controls whether the
processor is held off while the BDMA accesses are occurring.
Setting the BCR bit to 0 allows the processor to continue opera-
tions. Setting the BCR bit to 1 causes the processor to stop
execution while the BDMA accesses are occurring, to clear the
context of the processor and start execution at address 0 when
the BDMA accesses have completed.
Internal Memory DMA Port (IDMA Port)
The IDMA Port provides an efficient means of communication
between a host system and the ADSP-2181. The port is used to
access the on-chip program memory and data memory of the
DSP with only one DSP cycle per word overhead. The IDMA
port cannot, however, be used to write to the DSP’s memory-
mapped control registers.
The IDMA port has a 16-bit multiplexed address and data bus
and supports 24-bit program memory. The IDMA port is
completely asynchronous and can be written to while the
ADSP-2181 is operating at full speed.
The DSP memory address is latched and then automatically
incremented after each IDMA transaction. An external device
can therefore access a block of sequentially addressed memory
by specifying only the starting address of the block. This in-
creases throughput as the address does not have to be sent for
each memory access.
IDMA Port access occurs in two phases. The first is the IDMA
Address Latch cycle. When the acknowledge is asserted, a 14-
bit address and 1-bit destination type can be driven onto the bus
by an external device. The address specifies an on-chip memory
location; the destination type specifies whether it is a DM or
PM access. The falling edge of the address latch signal latches
this value into the IDMAA register.
Once the address is stored, data can either be read from or
written to the ADSP-2181’s on-chip memory. Asserting the
select line (IS) and the appropriate read or write line (IRD and
IWR respectively) signals the ADSP-2181 that a particular
transaction is required. In either case, there is a one-processor-
cycle delay for synchronization. The memory access consumes
one additional processor cycle.
Once an access has occurred, the latched address is automati-
cally incremented and another access can occur.
Through the IDMAA register, the DSP can also specify the
starting address and data format for DMA operation.
Bootstrap Loading (Booting)
The ADSP-2181 has two mechanisms to allow automatic load-
ing of the on-chip program memory after reset. The method for
booting after reset is controlled by the MMAP and BMODE
pins as shown in Table VI.
REV. D
ADSP-2181
–10–
If Go Mode is enabled, the ADSP-2181 will not halt program
execution until it encounters an instruction that requires an
external memory access.
If the ADSP-2181 is performing an external memory access
when the external device asserts the BR signal, then it will not
three-state the memory interfaces or assert the BG signal until
the processor cycle after the access completes. The instruction
does not need to be completed when the bus is granted. If a
single instruction requires two external memory accesses, the
bus will be granted between the two accesses.
When the BR signal is released, the processor releases the BG
signal, reenables the output drivers and continues program
execution from the point where it stopped.
The bus request feature operates at all times, including when
the processor is booting and when RESET is active.
The BGH pin is asserted when the ADSP-2181 is ready to
execute an instruction, but is stopped because the external bus
is already granted to another device. The other device can re-
lease the bus by deasserting bus request. Once the bus is re-
leased, the ADSP-2181 deasserts BG and BGH and
executes
the external memory access.
Flag I/O Pins
The ADSP-2181 has eight general purpose programmable in-
put/output flag pins. They are controlled by two memory
mapped registers. The PFTYPE register determines the direc-
tion, 1 = output and 0 = input. The PFDATA register is used to
read and write the values on the pins. Data being read from a
pin configured as an input is synchronized to the ADSP-2181’s
clock. Bits that are programmed as outputs will read the value
being output. The PF pins default to input during reset.
In addition to the programmable flags, the ADSP-2181 has
five fixed-mode flags, FLAG_IN, FLAG_OUT, FL0, FL1 and
FL2. FL0-FL2 are dedicated output flags. FLAG_IN and
FLAG_OUT are available as an alternate configuration of
SPORT1.
INSTRUCTION SET DESCRIPTION
The ADSP-2181 assembly language instruction set has an
algebraic syntax that was designed for ease of coding and read-
ability. The assembly language, which takes full advantage of the
processor’s unique architecture, offers the following benefits:
The algebraic syntax eliminates the need to remember cryptic
assembler mnemonics. For example, a typical arithmetic add
instruction, such as AR = AX0 + AY0, resembles a simple
equation.
Every instruction assembles into a single, 24-bit word that can
execute in a single instruction cycle.
The syntax is a superset ADSP-2100 Family assembly lan-
guage and is completely source and object code compatible
with other family members. Programs may need to be relo-
cated to utilize on-chip memory and conform to the ADSP-
2181’s interrupt vector and reset vector map.
Sixteen condition codes are available. For conditional jump,
call, return or arithmetic instructions, the condition can be
checked and the operation executed in the same instruction
cycle.
Multifunction instructions allow parallel execution of an
arithmetic instruction with up to two fetches or one write to
processor memory space during a single instruction cycle.
DESIGNING AN EZ-ICE-COMPATIBLE SYSTEM
The ADSP-2181 has on-chip emulation support and an ICE-
Port, a special set of pins that interface to the EZ-ICE. These
features allow in-circuit emulation without replacing the target
system processor by using only a 14-pin connection from the
target system to the EZ-ICE. Target systems must have a 14-pin
connector to accept the EZ-ICE
’s in-circuit probe, a 14-pin plug.
The ICE-Port interface consists of the following ADSP-2181 pins:
EBR EMS ELIN
EBG EINT ELOUT
ERESET ECLK EE
These ADSP-2181 pins must be connected only to the EZ-ICE
connector in the target system. These pins have no function
except during emulation, and do not require pull-up or pull-
down resistors. The traces for these signals between the ADSP-
2181 and the connector must be kept as short as possible, no
longer than three inches.
The following pins are also used by the EZ-ICE:
BR BG
GND RESET
The EZ-ICE
uses the EE (emulator enable) signal to take con-
trol of the ADSP-2181 in the target system. This causes the
processor to use its ERESET, EBR and EBG pins instead of the
RESET, BR and BG pins. The BG output is three-stated.
These signals do not need to be jumper-isolated in your system.
The EZ-ICE
connects to the target system via a ribbon cable
and a 14-pin female plug. The ribbon cable is 10 inches in
length with one end fixed to the EZ-ICE. The female plug is
plugged onto the 14-pin connector (a pin strip header) on the
target board.
Target Board Connector for EZ-ICE
Probe
The EZ-ICE
connector (a standard pin strip header) is shown in
Figure 7. You must add this connector to your target board
design if you intend to use the EZ-ICE. Be sure to allow enough
room in your system to fit the EZ-ICE
probe onto the 14-pin
connector.
12
34
56
78
910
11 12
13 14
GND
KEY (NO PIN)
RESET
BR
BG
TOP VIEW
EBG
EBR
ELOUT
EE
EINT
ELIN
ECLK
EMS
ERESET
Figure 7. Target Board Connector for EZ-ICE
ADSP-2181
–11–
REV. D
The 14-pin, 2-row pin strip header is keyed at the Pin 7 loca-
tion—you must remove Pin 7 from the header. The pins must
be 0.025 inch square and at least 0.20 inch in length. Pin spac-
ing should be 0.1 x 0.1 inches. The pin strip header must have
at least 0.15 inch clearance on all sides to accept the EZ-ICE
probe plug. Pin strip headers are available from vendors such as
3M, McKenzie and Samtec.
Target Memory Interface
For your target system to be compatible with the EZ-ICE emu-
lator, it must comply with the memory interface guidelines listed
below.
PM, DM, BM, IOM and CM
Design your Program Memory (PM), Data Memory (DM),
Byte Memory (BM), I/O Memory (IOM) and Composite
Memory (CM) external interfaces to comply with worst case
device timing requirements and switching characteristics as
specified in the DSP’s data sheet. The performance of the
EZ-ICE
may approach published worst case specification for
some memory access timing requirements and switching
characteristics.
Note: If your target does not meet the worst case chip specifica-
tion for memory access parameters, you may not be able to
emulate your circuitry at the desired CLKIN frequency. De-
pending on the severity of the specification violation, you may
have trouble manufacturing your system as DSP components
statistically vary in switching characteristic and timing require-
ments within published limits.
Restriction: All memory strobe signals on the ADSP-2181
(RD, WR, PMS, DMS, BMS, CMS and IOMS) used in your
target system must have 10 k pull-up resistors connected when
the EZ-ICE
is being used. The pull-up resistors are necessary
because there are no internal pull-ups to guarantee their state
during prolonged three-state conditions resulting from typical
EZ-ICE
debugging sessions. These resistors may be removed at
your option when the EZ-ICE
is not being used.
Target System Interface Signals
When the EZ-ICE
board is installed, the performance on some
system signals changes. Design your system to be compatible
with the following system interface signal changes introduced by
the EZ-ICE
board:
• EZ-ICE
emulation introduces an 8 ns propagation delay be-
tween your target circuitry and the DSP on the RESET
signal.
• EZ-ICE
emulation introduces an 8 ns propagation delay be-
tween your target circuitry and the DSP on the BR signal.
• EZ-ICE
emulation ignores RESET and BR when single-
stepping.
• EZ-ICE
emulation ignores RESET and BR when in Emulator
Space (DSP halted).
• EZ-ICE
emulation ignores the state of target BR in certain
modes. As a result, the target system may take control of the
DSP’s external memory bus only if bus grant (BG) is asserted
by the EZ-ICE
board’s DSP.
Target Architecture File
The EZ-ICE
software lets you load your program in its linked
(executable) form. The EZ-ICE
PC program can not load sec-
tions of your executable located in boot pages (by the linker).
With the exception of boot page 0 (loaded into PM RAM), all
sections of your executable mapped into boot pages are not
loaded.
Write your target architecture file to indicate that only PM
RAM is available for program storage, when using the EZ-ICE
software’s loading feature. Data can be loaded to PM RAM or
DM RAM.
ADSP-2181–SPECIFICATIONS
RECOMMENDED OPERATING CONDITIONS
K Grade B Grade
Parameter Min Max Min Max Unit
V
DD
Supply Voltage 4.5 5.5 4.5 5.5 V
T
AMB
Ambient Operating Temperature 0 +70 –40 +85 °C
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
K/B Grades
Parameter Test Conditions Min Typ Max Unit
V
IH
Hi-Level Input Voltage
1, 2
@ V
DD
= max 2.0 V
V
IH
Hi-Level CLKIN Voltage @ V
DD
= max 2.2 V
V
IL
Lo-Level Input Voltage
1, 3
@ V
DD
= min 0.8 V
V
OH
Hi-Level Output Voltage
1, 4, 5
@ V
DD
= min
I
OH
= –0.5 mA 2.4 V
@ V
DD
= min
I
OH
= –100 µA
6
V
DD
– 0.3 V
V
OL
Lo-Level Output Voltage
1, 4, 5
@ V
DD
= min
I
OL
= 2 mA 0.4 V
I
IH
Hi-Level Input Current
3
@ V
DD
= max
V
IN
= V
DD
max 10 µA
I
IL
Lo-Level Input Current
3
@ V
DD
= max
V
IN
= 0 V 10 µA
I
OZH
Three-State Leakage Current
7
@ V
DD
= max
V
IN
= V
DD
max
8
10 µA
I
OZL
Three-State Leakage Current
7
@ V
DD
= max
V
IN
= 0 V
8
10 µA
I
DD
Supply Current (Idle)
9
@ V
DD
= 5.0
T
AMB
= +25°C
t
CK
= 34.7 ns 12 mA
t
CK
= 30 ns 13 mA
t
CK
= 25 ns 15 mA
I
DD
Supply Current (Dynamic)
10
@ V
DD
= 5.0
T
AMB
= +25°C
t
CK
= 34.7 ns
11
65 mA
t
CK
= 30 ns
11
73 mA
t
CK
= 25 ns
11
85 mA
C
I
Input Pin Capacitance
3, 6, 12
@ V
IN
= 2.5 V,
f
IN
= 1.0 MHz,
T
AMB
= +25°C8pF
C
O
Output Pin Capacitance
6, 7, 12, 13
@ V
IN
= 2.5 V,
f
IN
= 1.0 MHz,
T
AMB
= +25°C8pF
NOTES
1
Bidirectional pins: D0–D23, RFS0, RFS1, SCLK0, SCLK1, TFS0, TFS1, A1–A13, PF0–PF7.
2
Input only pins: RESET, BR, DR0, DR1, PWD.
3
Input only pins: CLKIN, RESET, BR, DR0, DR1, PWD.
4
Output pins: BG, PMS, DMS, BMS, IOMS, CMS, RD, WR, PWDACK, A0, DT0, DT1, CLKOUT, FL2-0, BGH.
5
Although specified for TTL outputs, all ADSP-2186 outputs are CMOS-compatible and will drive to V
DD
and GND, assuming no dc loads.
6
Guaranteed but not tested.
7
Three-statable pins: A0–A13, D0–D23, PMS, DMS, BMS, IOMS, CMS, RD, WR, DT0, DT1, SCLK0, SCLK1, TFS0, TFS1, RFS0, RSF1, PF0–PF7.
8
0 V on BR, CLKIN Inactive.
9
Idle refers to ADSP-2181 state of operation during execution of IDLE instruction. Deasserted pins are driven to either V
DD
or GND.
10
I
DD
measurement taken with all instructions executing from internal memory. 50% of the instructions are multifunction (types 1, 4, 5, 12, 13, 14), 30% are type 2
and type 6, and 20% are idle instructions.
11
V
IN
= 0 V and 3 V. For typical figures for supply currents, refer to Power Dissipation section.
12
Applies to TQFP and PQFP package types.
13
Output pin capacitance is the capacitive load for any three-stated output pin.
Specifications subject to change without notice.
–12– REV. D
ADSP-2181
–13–
REV. D
ESD SENSITIVITY
The ADSP-2181 is an ESD (electrostatic discharge) sensitive device. Electrostatic charges readily
accumulate on the human body and equipment and can discharge without detection. Permanent
damage may occur to devices subjected to high energy electrostatic discharges.
The ADSP-2181 features proprietary ESD protection circuitry to dissipate high energy discharges
(Human Body Model). Per method 3015 of MIL-STD-883, the ADSP-2181 has been classified as
a Class 1 device.
Proper ESD precautions are recommended to avoid performance degradation or loss of function-
ality. Unused devices must be stored in conductive foam or shunts, and the foam should be
discharged to the destination before devices are removed.
TIMING PARAMETERS
GENERAL NOTES
Use the exact timing information given. Do not attempt to
derive parameters from the addition or subtraction of others.
While addition or subtraction would yield meaningful results for
an individual device, the values given in this data sheet reflect
statistical variations and worst cases. Consequently, you cannot
meaningfully add up parameters to derive longer times.
TIMING NOTES
Switching Characteristics specify how the processor changes its
signals. You have no control over this timing—circuitry external
to the processor must be designed for compatibility with these
signal characteristics. Switching characteristics tell you what the
processor will do in a given circumstance. You can also use switch-
ing characteristics to ensure that any timing requirement of a
device connected to the processor (such as memory) is satisfied.
Timing Requirements apply to signals that are controlled by cir-
cuitry external to the processor, such as the data input for a read
operation. Timing requirements guarantee that the processor
operates correctly with other devices.
MEMORY TIMING SPECIFICATIONS
The table below shows common memory device specifications
and the corresponding ADSP-2181 timing parameters, for your
convenience.
Memory ADSP-2181 Timing
Device Timing Parameter
Specification Parameter Definition
Address Setup to t
ASW
A0–A13, xMS Setup before
Write Start WR Low
Address Setup to t
AW
A0–A13, xMS Setup before
Write End WR Deasserted
Address Hold Time t
WRA
A0–A13, xMS Hold after
WR Deasserted
Data Setup Time t
DW
Data Setup before WR
High
Data Hold Time t
DH
Data Hold after WR High
OE to Data Valid t
RDD
RD Low to Data Valid
Address Access Time t
AA
A0–A13, xMS to Data Valid
xMS = PMS, DMS, BMS, CMS, IOMS.
FREQUENCY DEPENDENCY FOR TIMING
SPECIFICATIONS
t
CK
is defined as 0.5t
CKI
. The ADSP-2181 uses an input clock
with a frequency equal to half the instruction rate: a 16.67 MHz
input clock (which is equivalent to 60 ns) yields a 30 ns proces-
sor cycle (equivalent to 33 MHz). t
CK
values within the range of
0.5t
CKI
period should be substituted for all relevant timing pa-
rameters to obtain the specification value.
Example: t
CKH
= 0.5t
CK
– 7 ns = 0.5 (25 ns) – 7 ns = 8 ns
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
*
Supply Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –0.3 V to +7 V
Input Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –0.3 V to V
DD
+ 0.3 V
Output Voltage Swing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –0.3 V to V
DD
+ 0.3 V
Operating Temperature Range (Ambient) . . . . –40°C to +85°C
Storage Temperature Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . –65°C to +150°C
Lead Temperature (5 sec) TQFP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +280°C
Lead Temperature (5 sec) PQFP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +280°C
*Stresses above those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings may cause perma-
nent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only; functional operation of
the device at these or any other conditions above those indicated in the operational
sections of this specification is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating
conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
WARNING!
ESD SENSITIVE DEVICE
REV. D
ADSP-2181
–14–
Parameter Min Max Unit
Clock Signals and Reset
Timing Requirements:
t
CKI
CLKIN Period 50 150 ns
t
CKIL
CLKIN Width Low 20 ns
t
CKIH
CLKIN Width High 20 ns
Switching Characteristics:
t
CKL
CLKOUT Width Low 0.5t
CK
– 7 ns
t
CKH
CLKOUT Width High 0.5t
CK
– 7 ns
t
CKOH
CLKIN High to CLKOUT High 0 20 ns
Control Signals
Timing Requirement:
t
RSP
RESET Width Low 5t
CK1
ns
NOTE
1
Applies after power-up sequence is complete. Internal phase lock loop requires no more than 2000 CLKIN cycles assuming stable CLKIN (not including crystal
oscillator start-up time).
tCKOH
tCKI
tCKIH
tCKIL
tCKH
tCKL
tMH
tMS
CLKIN
CLKOUT
PF(2:0)*
RESET
*PF2 IS MODE C, PF1 IS MODE B, PF0 IS MODE A
Figure 8. Clock Signals
4i!»
ADSP-2181
–15–
REV. D
Parameter Min Max Unit
Interrupts and Flag
Timing Requirements:
t
IFS
IRQx, FI, or PFx Setup before CLKOUT Low
1, 2, 3, 4
0.25t
CK
+ 15 ns
t
IFH
IRQx, FI, or PFx Hold after CLKOUT High
1, 2, 3, 4
0.25t
CK
ns
Switching Characteristics:
t
FOH
Flag Output Hold after CLKOUT Low
5
0.5t
CK
– 7 ns
t
FOD
Flag Output Delay from CLKOUT Low
5
0.5t
CK
+ 5 ns
NOTES
1
If IRQx and FI inputs meet t
IFS
and t
IFH
setup/hold requirements, they will be recognized during the current clock cycle; otherwise the signals will be recognized on
the following cycle. (Refer to “Interrupt Controller Operation” in the Program Control chapter of the User’s Manual for further information on interrupt servicing.)
2
Edge-sensitive interrupts require pulsewidths greater than 10 ns; level-sensitive interrupts must be held low until serviced.
3
IRQx = IRQ0, IRQ1, IRQ2, IRQL0, IRQL1, IRQE.
4
PFx = PF0, PF1, PF2, PF3, PF4, PF5, PF6, PF7.
5
Flag outputs = PFx, FL0, FL1, FL2, Flag_out4.
Figure 9. Interrupts and Flags
REV. D
ADSP-2181
–16–
Parameter Min Max Unit
Bus Request/Grant
Timing Requirements:
t
BH
BR Hold after CLKOUT High
1
0.25t
CK
+ 2 ns
t
BS
BR Setup before CLKOUT Low
1
0.25t
CK
+ 17 ns
Switching Characteristics:
t
SD
CLKOUT High to xMS, 0.25t
CK
+ 10 ns
RD, WR Disable
t
SDB
xMS, RD, WR
Disable to BG Low 0 ns
t
SE
BG High to xMS,
RD, WR Enable 0 ns
t
SEC
xMS, RD, WR
Enable to CLKOUT High 0.25t
CK
– 4 ns
t
SDBH
xMS, RD, WR
Disable to BGH Low
2
0ns
t
SEH
BGH High to xMS,
RD, WR Enable
2
0ns
NOTES
xMS = PMS, DMS, CMS, IOMS, BMS.
1
BR is an asynchronous signal. If BR meets the setup/hold requirements, it will be recognized during the current clock cycle; otherwise the signal will be recognized on
the following cycle. Refer to the ADSP-2100 Family User’s Manual, Third Edition for BR/BG cycle relationships.
2
BGH is asserted when the bus is granted and the processor requires control of the bus to continue.
CLKOUT
tSD
tSDB tSE
tSEC
tSDBH tSEH
tBS
BR
tBH
CLKOUT
PMS, DMS
BMS, RD
WR
BG
BGH
Figure 10. Bus Request–Bus Grant
ADSP-2181
–17–
REV. D
Parameter Min Max Unit
Memory Read
Timing Requirements:
t
RDD
RD Low to Data Valid 0.5t
CK
– 9 + w ns
t
AA
A0–A13, xMS to Data Valid 0.75t
CK
– 10.5 + w ns
t
RDH
Data Hold from RD High 0 ns
Switching Characteristics:
t
RP
RD Pulsewidth 0.5t
CK
– 5 + w ns
t
CRD
CLKOUT High to RD Low 0.25t
CK
– 5 0.25t
CK
+ 7 ns
t
ASR
A0–A13, xMS Setup before RD Low 0.25t
CK
– 4 ns
t
RDA
A0–A13, xMS Hold after RD Deasserted 0.25t
CK
– 3 ns
t
RWR
RD High to RD or WR Low 0.5t
CK
– 5 ns
w = wait states × t
CK
.
xMS = PMS, DMS, CMS, IOMS, BMS.
CLKOUT
A0–A13
D
tRDA
tRWR
tRP
tASR
tCRD
tRDD
tAA
tRDH
DMS, PMS,
BMS, IOMS,
CMS
RD
WR
Figure 11. Memory Read
2&2
REV. D
ADSP-2181
–18–
Parameter Min Max Unit
Memory Write
Switching Characteristics:
t
DW
Data Setup before WR High 0.5t
CK
– 7 + w ns
t
DH
Data Hold after WR High 0.25t
CK
– 2 ns
t
WP
WR Pulsewidth 0.5t
CK
– 5 + w ns
t
WDE
WR Low to Data Enabled 0 ns
t
ASW
A0–A13, xMS Setup before WR Low 0.25t
CK
– 4 ns
t
DDR
Data Disable before WR or RD Low 0.25t
CK
– 4 ns
t
CWR
CLKOUT High to WR Low 0.25t
CK
– 5 0.25 t
CK
+ 7 ns
t
AW
A0–A13, xMS, Setup before WR Deasserted 0.75t
CK
– 9 + w ns
t
WRA
A0–A13, xMS Hold after WR Deasserted 0.25t
CK
– 3 ns
t
WWR
WR High to RD or WR Low 0.5t
CK
– 5 ns
w = wait states × t
CK
.
xMS = PMS, DMS, CMS, IOMS, BMS.
CLKOUT
A0–A13
D
tWP
tAW
tCWR tDH
tWDE
tDW
tASW tWWR
tWRA
tDDR
DMS, PMS,
BMS, CMS,
IOMS
RD
WR
Figure 12. Memory Write
ADSP-2181
–19–
REV. D
Parameter Min Max Unit
Serial Ports
Timing Requirements:
t
SCK
SCLK Period 50 ns
t
SCS
DR/TFS/RFS Setup before SCLK Low 4 ns
t
SCH
DR/TFS/RFS Hold after SCLK Low 7 ns
t
SCP
SCLK
IN
Width 20 ns
Switching Characteristics:
t
CC
CLKOUT High to SCLK
OUT
0.25t
CK
0.25t
CK
+ 10 ns
t
SCDE
SCLK High to DT Enable 0 ns
t
SCDV
SCLK High to DT Valid 15 ns
t
RH
TFS/RFS
OUT
Hold after SCLK High 0 ns
t
RD
TFS/RFS
OUT
Delay from SCLK High 15 ns
t
SCDH
DT Hold after SCLK High 0 ns
t
TDE
TFS (Alt) to DT Enable 0 ns
t
TDV
TFS (Alt) to DT Valid 14 ns
t
SCDD
SCLK High to DT Disable 15 ns
t
RDV
RFS
(Multichannel, Frame Delay Zero) to DT Valid 15 ns
CLKOUT
SCLK
TFSOUT
RFSOUT
DT
ALTERNATE
FRAME MODE
tCC tCC
tSCS tSCH
tRH
tSCDE tSCDH
tSCDD
tTDE
tRDV
MULTICHANNEL MODE,
FRAME DELAY 0
(MFD = 0)
DR
TFSIN
RFSIN
RFSOUT
TFSOUT
tTDV
tSCDV
tRD
tSCP
tSCK
tSCP
TFSIN
RFSIN
ALTERNATE
FRAME MODE
tRDV
MULTICHANNEL MODE,
FRAME DELAY 0
(MFD = 0)
tTDV
tTDE
Figure 13. Serial Ports
REV. D
ADSP-2181
–20–
Parameter Min Max Unit
IDMA Address Latch
Timing Requirements:
t
IALP
Duration of Address Latch
1, 2
10 ns
t
IASU
IAD15–0 Address Setup before Address Latch End
2
5ns
t
IAH
IAD15–0 Address Hold after Address Latch End
2
2ns
t
IKA
IACK Low before Start of Address Latch
1
0ns
t
IALS
Start of Write or Read after Address Latch End
2, 3
3ns
NOTES
1
Start of Address Latch = IS Low and IAL High.
2
End of Address Latch = IS High or IAL Low.
3
Start of Write or Read = IS Low and IWR Low or IRD Low.
tIKA
IAD15–0
IACK
IAL
IS
IRD
IWR
OR
tIALP
tIASU tIAH
tIALS
Figure 14. IDMA Address Latch
ADSP-2181
–21–
REV. D
Parameter Min Max Unit
IDMA Write, Short Write Cycle
Timing Requirements:
t
IKW
IACK Low before Start of Write
1
0ns
t
IWP
Duration of Write
1, 2
15 ns
t
IDSU
IAD15–0 Data Setup before End of Write
2, 3, 4
5ns
t
IDH
IAD15–0 Data Hold after End of Write
2, 3, 4
2ns
Switching Characteristic:
t
IKHW
Start of Write to IACK High 15 ns
NOTES
1
Start of Write = IS Low and IWR Low.
2
End of Write = IS High or IWR High.
3
If Write Pulse ends before IACK Low, use specifications t
IDSU
, t
IDH
.
4
If Write Pulse ends after IACK Low, use specifications t
IKSU
, t
IKH
.
IAD15–0 DATA
tIKHW
tIKW
tIDSU
IACK
tIWP
tIDH
IS
IWR
Figure 15. IDMA Write, Short Write Cycle
REV. D
ADSP-2181
–22–
Parameter Min Max Unit
IDMA Write, Long Write Cycle
Timing Requirements:
t
IKW
IACK Low before Start of Write
1
0ns
t
IKSU
IAD15–0 Data Setup before IACK Low
2, 3
0.5t
CK
+ 10 ns
t
IKH
IAD15–0 Data Hold after IACK Low
2, 3
2ns
Switching Characteristics:
t
IKLW
Start of Write to IACK Low
4
1.5t
CK
ns
t
IKHW
Start of Write to IACK High 15 ns
NOTES
1
Start of Write = IS Low and IWR Low.
2
If Write Pulse ends before IACK Low, use specifications t
IDSU
, t
IDH
.
3
If Write Pulse ends after IACK Low, use specifications t
IKSU
, t
IKH
.
4
This is the earliest time for IACK Low from Start of Write. For IDMA Write cycle relationships, please refer to the User’s Manual.
IAD15–0 DATA
tIKHW
tIKW
IACK
IS
IWR
tIKLW
tIKH
tIKSU
Figure 16. IDMA Write, Long Write Cycle
ADSP-2181
–23–
REV. D
Parameter Min Max Unit
IDMA Read, Long Read Cycle
Timing Requirements:
t
IKR
IACK Low before Start of Read
1
0ns
t
IRP
Duration of Read 15 ns
Switching Characteristics:
t
IKHR
IACK High after Start of Read
1
15 ns
t
IKDS
IAD15–0 Data Setup before IACK Low 0.5t
CK
– 10 ns
t
IKDH
IAD15–0 Data Hold after End of Read
2
0ns
t
IKDD
IAD15–0 Data Disabled after End of Read
2
12 ns
t
IRDE
IAD15–0 Previous Data Enabled after Start of Read 0 ns
t
IRDV
IAD15–0 Previous Data Valid after Start of Read 15 ns
t
IRDH1
IAD15–0 Previous Data Hold after Start of Read (DM/PM1)
3
2t
CK
– 5 ns
t
IRDH2
IAD15–0 Previous Data Hold after Start of Read (PM2)
4
t
CK
– 5 ns
NOTES
1
Start of Read = IS Low and IRD Low.
2
End of Read = IS High or IRD High.
3
DM read or first half of PM read.
4
Second half of PM read.
tIRP
tIKR
PREVIOUS
DATA READ
DATA
tIKHR
tIKDS
tIRDV
tIRDH
tIKDD
tIRDE tIKDH
IAD15–0
IACK
IS
IRD
Figure 17. IDMA Read, Long Read Cycle
i L r? \
REV. D
ADSP-2181
–24–
Parameter Min Max Unit
IDMA Read, Short Read Cycle
Timing Requirements:
t
IKR
IACK Low before Start of Read
1
0ns
t
IRP
Duration of Read 15 ns
Switching Characteristics:
t
IKHR
IACK High after Start of Read
1
15 ns
t
IKDH
IAD15–0 Data Hold after End of Read
2
0ns
t
IKDD
IAD15–0 Data Disabled after End of Read
2
12 ns
t
IRDE
IAD15–0 Previous Data Enabled after Start of Read 0 ns
t
IRDV
IAD15–0 Previous Data Valid after Start of Read 15 ns
NOTES
1
Start of Read = IS Low and IRD Low.
2
End of Read = IS High or IRD High.
tIRP
tIKR
PREVIOUS
DATA
tIKHR
tIRDV tIKDD
tIRDE tIKDH
IAD15–0
IACK
IS
IRD
Figure 18. IDMA Read, Short Read Cycle
\ \\ \\ \\ \ \\ 30% ARE m’: 2 AND m’: 5 AND 20% ARE IDLE msmucnoNs.
ADSP-2181
–25–
REV. D
OUTPUT DRIVE CURRENTS
Figure 19 shows typical I-V characteristics for the output drivers
of the ADSP-2181. The curves represent the current drive
capability of the output drivers as a function of output voltage.
SOURCE VOLTAGE – Volts
SOURCE CURRENT – mA
120
–8001 6
2345
100
0
–20
–40
–60
80
60
20
40
5.5V, –408C
5.0V, +258C
4.5V, +858C
4.5V, +858C
5.0V, +258C
5.5V, –408C
Figure 19. Typical Drive Currents
POWER DISSIPATION
To determine total power dissipation in a specific application,
the following equation should be applied for each output:
C × V
DD2
×f
C = load capacitance, f= output switching frequency.
Example:
In an application where external data memory is used and no
other outputs are active, power dissipation is calculated as
follows:
Assumptions:
External data memory is accessed every cycle with 50% of the
address pins switching.
External data memory writes occur every other cycle with
50% of the data pins switching.
Each address and data pin has a 10 pF total load at the pin.
The application operates at V
DD
= 5.0 V and t
CK
= 30 ns.
Total Power Dissipation = P
INT
+ (C × V
DD2
×f)
P
INT
= internal power dissipation from Power vs. Frequency
graph (Figure 20).
TEMPERATURE – °C
1000
1
100
10
CURRENT (LOG SCALE) – mA
58515 25 35 45 55 65 75
–5
VDD = 5.5V
VDD = 5.0V
VDD = 4.5V
NOTES:
1. REFLECTS ADSP-2181 OPERATION IN LOWEST POWER MODE.
(SEE “SYSTEM INTERFACE" CHAPTER OF THE
ADSP-2100 FAMILY
USER'S MANUAL, THIRD EDITION,
FOR DETAILS.)
2. CURRENT REFLECTS DEVICE OPERATING WITH NO OUTPUT LOADS.
Figure 20. Power-Down Supply Current (Typical)
(C × V
DD2
× f) is calculated for each output:
# of
Pins × C × V
DD2
× f
Address, DMS 8× 10 pF × 5
2
V × 33.3 MHz = 66.6 mW
Data Output, WR 9× 10 pF × 5
2
V × 16.67 MHz = 37.5 mW
RD 1× 10 pF × 5
2
V × 16.67 MHz = 4.2 mW
CLKOUT 1 × 10 pF × 5
2
V × 33.3 MHz = 8.3 mW
116.6 mW
Total power dissipation for this example is P
INT
+ 116.6 mW.
1/tCK – MHz
POWER (PINT) – mW
220 30 32 42
34 36 38 40
420
370
320
270
570
470
520
2181 POWER, INTERNAL1, 3, 4
VDD = 5.5V
VDD = 5.0V
VDD = 4.5V
410mW
325mW
250mW
550mW
425mW
330mW
28
POWER (PIDLE) – mW
1/tCK – MHz
100
40
30 32 4234 36 38 40
70
60
50
90
80
30
POWER, IDLE1, 2, 3
VDD = 5.5V
VDD = 5.0V
VDD = 4.5V
77mW
60mW
45mW
95mW
75mW
54mW
28
1/tCK – MHz
POWER (PIDLE
n
) – mW
80
30 30 32 42
34 36 38 40
75
50
45
40
35
70
65
55
60
POWER, IDLE
n
MODES3
IDLE
IDLE (16)
IDLE (128)
60mW
35mW
34mW
39mW
37mW
75mW
28
VALID FOR ALL TEMPERATURE GRADES.
4IDD MEASUREMENT TAKEN WITH ALL INSTRUCTIONS EXECUTING FROM INTERNAL
MEMORY. 50% OF THE INSTRUCTIONS ARE MULTIFUNCTION (TYPES 1, 4, 5, 12, 13, 14),
30% ARE TYPE 2 AND TYPE 6 AND 20% ARE IDLE INSTRUCTIONS.
3TYPICAL POWER DISSIPATION AT 5.0V VDD AND 258C EXCEPT WHERE SPECIFIED.
2IDLE REFERS TO ADSP-2181 STATE OF OPERATION DURING EXECUTION OF IDLE
1POWER REFLECTS DEVICE OPERATING WITH NO OUTPUT LOADS.
INSTRUCTION. DEASSERTED PINS ARE DRIVEN TO EITHER VDD OR GND.
Figure 21. Power vs. Frequency
REV. D
ADSP-2181
–26–
CAPACITIVE LOADING
Figures 22 and 23 show the capacitive loading characteristics of
the ADSP-2181.
CL – pF
RISE TIME (0.4V–2.4V) – ns
050 100 150 200 250
25
15
10
5
0
20
Figure 22. Range of Output Rise Time vs. Load Capaci-
tance, C
L
(at Maximum Ambient Operating Temperature)
CL – pF
14
0
VALID OUTPUT DELAY OR HOLD – ns
50 100 150 250200
12
4
2
–2
10
8
16
6
–4
0
Figure 23. Range of Output Valid Delay or Hold vs. Load
Capacitance, C
L
(at Maximum Ambient Operating
Temperature)
TEST CONDITIONS
Output Disable Time
Output pins are considered to be disabled when they have
stopped driving and started a transition from the measured
output high or low voltage to a high impedance state. The out-
put disable time (t
DIS
) is the difference of t
MEASURED
and t
DECAY
,
as shown in the Output Enable/Disable diagram. The time is the
interval from when a reference signal reaches a high or low volt-
age level to when the output voltages have changed by 0.5 V
from the measured output high or low voltage. The decay time,
t
DECAY
, is dependent on the capacitive load, C
L
, and the current
load, i
L
, on the output pin. It can be approximated by the fol-
lowing equation:
t
DECAY
=C
L
×0.5V
i
L
from which
tDIS =tMEASURED tDECAY
is calculated. If multiple pins (such as the data bus) are dis-
abled, the measurement value is that of the last pin to stop
driving.
1.5V
INPUT
OR
OUTPUT
1.5V
Figure 24. Voltage Reference Levels for AC Measure-
ments (Except Output Enable/Disable)
Output Enable Time
Output pins are considered to be enabled when they have made
a transition from a high-impedance state to when they start
driving. The output enable time (t
ENA
) is the interval from when
a reference signal reaches a high or low voltage level to when
the output has reached a specified high or low trip point, as
shown in the Output Enable/Disable diagram. If multiple pins
(such as the data bus) are enabled, the measurement value is
that of the first pin to start driving.
2.0V
1.0V
tENA
REFERENCE
SIGNAL
OUTPUT
tDECAY
VOH
(MEASURED)
OUTPUT STOPS
DRIVING
OUTPUT STARTS
DRIVING
tDIS
tMEASURED
VOL
(MEASURED)
VOH (MEASURED) – 0.5V
VOL (MEASURED) +0.5V
HIGH-IMPEDANCE STATE. TEST CONDITIONS CAUSE
THIS VOLTAGE LEVEL TO BE APPROXIMATELY 1.5V.
VOH
(MEASURED)
VOL
(MEASURED)
Figure 25. Output Enable/Disable
TO
OUTPUT
PIN 50pF
+1.5V
IOH
IOL
Figure 26. Equivalent Device Loading for AC Measure-
ments (Including All Fixtures)
ADSP-2181
–27–
REV. D
ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
Ambient Temperature Rating:
T
AMB
=T
CASE
– (PD × θ
CA
)
T
CASE
= Case Temperature in °C
PD = Power Dissipation in W
θ
CA
= Thermal Resistance (Case-to-Ambient)
θ
JA
= Thermal Resistance (Junction-to-Ambient)
θ
JC
= Thermal Resistance (Junction-to-Case)
Package θ
JA
θ
JC
θ
CA
TQFP 50°C/W 2°C/W 48°C/W
PQFP 41°C/W 10°C/W 31°C/W
REV. D
ADSP-2181
–28–
128-Lead TQFP Package Pinout
1
128
IS
65
64
39
38
103
102
TOP VIEW
(PINS DOWN)
IAL
PF3
PF2
PF1
PF0
GND
A0
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
A7
XTAL
CLKIN
CLKOUT
GND
A8
A9
A10
A11
A12
A13
MMAP
WR
VDD
GND
BMODE
FL0
DT0
TFS0
RFS0
DR0
SCLK0
DR1/FI
SCLK1
FL1
FL2
RFS1/IRQ0
DT1/F0
TFS1/IRQ1
GND
PWDACK
GND
VDD
ERESET
GND
D23
D22
D21
D20
D19
GND
D18
D17
D16
D15
D14
D13
D12
D11
GND
D10
D9
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
GND
D2
D1
D0
ELIN
ECLK
ELOUT
VDD
VDD
IAD1
PF4
PF5
PF6
PF7
IAD0
IAD11
IAD12
IAD13
IAD14
IAD10
IAD9
GND
IAD15
IRD
IAD4
IAD5
IAD6
IAD7
IAD3
IAD2
IAD8
GND
VDD
VDD
RD
IOMS
BMS
DMS
CMS
PMS
IRQE
PWD
IRQ2
IACK
BGH
IRQL0
RESET
EE
EMS
IRQL1
EINT
EBR
BR
IWR
EBG
BG
ADSP-2181
–29–
REV. D
TQFP Pin Configurations
TQFP Pin TQFP Pin TQFP Pin TQFP Pin
Number Name Number Name Number Name Number Name
1 IAL 33 A12 65 ECLK 97 D19
2 PF3 34 A13 66 ELOUT 98 D20
3 PF2 35 IRQE 67 ELIN 99 D21
4 PF1 36 MMAP 68 EINT 100 D22
5 PF0 37 PWD 69 EBR 101 D23
6WR 38 IRQ2 70 BR 102 GND
7RD 39 BMODE 71 EBG 103 IWR
8IOMS 40 PWDACK 72 BG 104 IRD
9BMS 41 IACK 73 VDD 105 IAD15
10 DMS 42 BGH 74 D0 106 IAD14
11 CMS 43 VDD 75 D1 107 IAD13
12 GND 44 GND 76 D2 108 IAD12
13 VDD 45 IRQL0 77 D3 109 IAD11
14 PMS 46 IRQL1 78 D4 110 IAD10
15 A0 47 FL0 79 GND 111 IAD9
16 A1 48 FL1 80 D5 112 IAD8
17 A2 49 FL2 81 D6 113 IAD7
18 A3 50 DT0 82 D7 114 IAD6
19 A4 51 TFS0 83 D8 115 VDD
20 A5 52 RFS0 84 D9 116 GND
21 A6 53 DR0 85 D10 117 IAD5
22 A7 54 SCLK0 86 D11 118 IAD4
23 XTAL 55 DT1/F0 87 D12 119 IAD3
24 CLKIN 56 TFS1/IRQ1 88 D13 120 IAD2
25 GND 57 RFS1/IRQ0 89 D14 121 IAD1
26 CLKOUT 58 GND 90 GND 122 IAD0
27 GND 59 DR1/FI 91 VDD 123 PF7
28 VDD 60 SCLK1 92 GND 124 PF6
29 A8 61 ERESET 93 D15 125 PF5
30 A9 62 RESET 94 D16 126 PF4
31 A10 63 EMS 95 D17 127 GND
32 A11 64 EE 96 D18 128 IS
REV. D
ADSP-2181
–30–
128-Lead PQFP Package Pinout
128L PQFP
(28MM x 28MM)
1
128 97
96
65
64
33
32
TOP VIEW
(PINS DOWN)
PF0
GND
A0
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
A7
XTAL
CLKIN
CLKOUT
GND
A8
A9
A10
A11
A12
A13
MMAP
GND
VDD
VDD
WR
IOMS
PMS
CMS
DMS
BMS
RD
IRQE
PWDACK
BMODE
GND
FL0
RFS1/IRQ0
GND
DR1/FI
SCLK1
EE
ECLK
ELOUT
FL1
FL2
DT0
TFS0
RFS0
DR0
SCLK0
DT1/F0
TFS1/IRQ1
ELIN
VDD
PWD
IRQ2
IACK
EINT
EMS
RESET
ERESET
IRQL0
BGH
IRQL1
D22
D21
D20
D19
GND
D18
D17
D16
D15
D14
D13
D12
D11
GND
D10
D9
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
GND
D2
D1
D0
VDD
VDD
BG
EBG
BR
EBR
GND
IS
IAL
GND
GND
D23
IAD11
IAD12
IAD13
IAD15
PF4
PF5
PF6
IAD5
IAD14
IAD6
IAD7
IAD8
IAD10
IAD9
IAD4
PF7
IAD0
IAD1
IAD3
IAD2
PF1
PF2
PF3
VDD
IRD
IWR
ADSP-2181
–31–
REV. D
PQFP Pin Configurations
PQFP Pin PQFP Pin PQFP Pin PQFP Pin
Number Name Number Name Number Name Number Name
1 PF0 33 PWD 65 EBR 97 D23
2WR 34 IRQ2 66 BR 98 GND
3RD 35 BMODE 67 EBG 99 IWR
4IOMS 36 PWDACK 68 BG 100 IRD
5BMS 37 IACK 69 VDD 101 IAD15
6DMS 38 BGH 70 D0 102 IAD14
7CMS 39 VDD 71 D1 103 IAD13
8 GND 40 GND 72 D2 104 IAD12
9VDD 41IRQL0 73 D3 105 IAD11
10 PMS 42 IRQL1 74 D4 106 IAD10
11 A0 43 FL0 75 GND 107 IAD9
12 A1 44 FL1 76 D5 108 IAD8
13 A2 45 FL2 77 D6 109 IAD7
14 A3 46 DT0 78 D7 110 IAD6
15 A4 47 TFS0 79 D8 111 VDD
16 A5 48 RFS0 80 D9 112 GND
17 A6 49 DR0 81 D10 113 IAD5
18 A7 50 SCLK0 82 D11 114 IAD4
19 XTAL 51 DT1/FO 83 D12 115 IAD3
20 CLKIN 52 TFS1/IRQ1 84 D13 116 IAD2
21 GND 53 RFS1/IRQ0 85 D14 117 IAD1
22 CLKOUT 54 GND 86 GND 118 IAD0
23 GND 55 DR1/FI 87 VDD 119 PF7
24 VDD 56 SCLK1 88 GND 120 PF6
25 A8 57 ERESET 89 D15 121 PF5
26 A9 58 RESET 90 D16 122 PF4
27 A10 59 EMS 91 D17 123 GND
28 A11 60 EE 92 D18 124 IS
29 A12 61 ECLK 93 D19 125 IAL
30 A13 62 ELOUT 94 D20 126 PF3
31 IRQE 63 ELIN 95 D21 127 PF2
32 MMAP 64 EINT 96 D22 128 PF1
REV. D
ADSP-2181
–32–
ORDERING GUIDE
Ambient Instruction
Temperature Rate Package Package
Part Number Range (MHz) Description Options*
ADSP-2181KST-115 0°C to +70°C 28.8 128-Lead TQFP ST-128
ADSP-2181BST-115 –40°C to +85°C 28.8 128-Lead TQFP ST-128
ADSP-2181KS-115 0°C to +70°C 28.8 128-Lead PQFP S-128
ADSP-2181BS-115 –40°C to +85°C 28.8 128-Lead PQFP S-128
ADSP-2181KST-133 0°C to +70°C 33.3 128-Lead TQFP ST-128
ADSP-2181BST-133 –40°C to +85°C 33.3 128-Lead TQFP ST-128
ADSP-2181KS-133 0°C to +70°C 33.3 128-Lead PQFP S-128
ADSP-2181BS-133 –40°C to +85°C 33.3 128-Lead PQFP S-128
ADSP-2181KST-160 0°C to +70°C 40 128-Lead TQFP ST-128
ADSP-2181KS-160 0°C to +70°C 40 128-Lead PQFP S-128
*S = Plastic Quad Flatpack (PQFP), ST = Plastic Thin Quad Flatpack (TQFP).
OUTLINE DIMENSIONS
Dimensions shown in mm and (inches).
128-Lead Metric Plastic Quad Flatpack (PQFP)
(S-128)
1
32
33
102
128 103
65
64
TOP VIEW
(PINS DOWN)
0.45 (0.018)
0.30 (0.012)
0.87 (0.034)
0.73 (0.029)
31.45 (1.238)
30.95 (1.219)
28.10 (1.106)
27.90 (1.098)
24.87 (0.979)
24.73 (0.974)
31.45 (1.238)
30.95 (1.219)
28.10 (1.106)
27.90 (1.098)
24.87 (0.979)
24.73 (0.974)
SEATING
PLANE
4.07
(0.160)
MAX
1.03 (0.041)
0.65 (0.031)
0.10 (0.004)
MAX
0.25 (0.010)
MIN
3.67 (0.144)
3.17 (0.125)
NOTE: THE ACTUAL POSITION OF EACH LEAD IS
WITHIN .20 (.008) FROM ITS IDEAL POSITION
WHEN MEASURED IN THE LATERAL DIRECTION.
UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED.
128-Lead Metric Thin Plastic Quad Flatpack (TQFP)
(ST-128)
TOP VIEW
(PINS DOWN)
0.27 (0.011)
0.17 (0.007)
16.25 (0.640)
15.75 (0.620)
18.50 (0.728) TYP
14.10 (0.555)
13.90 (0.547)
22.25 (0.876)
21.75 (0.856)
1
3839 65
64
102
128
12.50 (0.492) TYP
0.58 (0.023)
0.42 (0.017)
103
20.10 (0.792)
19.90 (0.783)
SEATING
PLANE
1.60 (0.063)
TYP
0.75 (0.030)
0.45 (0.018)
0.10
(0.004)
MAX
1.50 (0.059)
1.30 (0.051)
0.15 (0.006)
0.05 (0.002)
NOTE: THE ACTUAL POSITION OF EACH LEAD IS
WITHIN .08 (.0032) FROM ITS IDEAL POSITION
WHEN MEASURED IN THE LATERAL DIRECTION.
UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED.
C2041c–3–3/98
PRINTED IN U.S.A.

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