ZXLD1356 Datasheet by Diodes Incorporated

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60V 550mA LED DRIVER and AUTOMOTIVE GRADE
Description
The ZXLD1356 is a continuous mode inductive step-down converter,
designed for driving single or multiple series connected LEDs efficiently
from a voltage source higher than the LED voltage. The device operates
from an input supply between 6V and 60V and provides an externally
adjustable output current of up to 550mA. Depending upon supply
voltage and external components, this can provide up to 30 watts of
output power.
The ZXLD1356 has been qualified to AECQ100 Grade 1 enabling
operation in ambient temperatures from -40°C to +125°C
Output current can be adjusted above, or below the set value, by
applying an external control signal to the 'ADJ' pin. Enhanced output
current dimming can be achieved by applying a PWM signal to the ‘ADJ’
pin.
Features
Typically better than 0.8% output current accuracy
Simple and with low part count
Single pin on/off and brightness control using DC voltage or PWM
PWM resolution up to 1000:1
High efficiency (up to 97%)
Wide input voltage range: 6V to 60V
Inherent open-circuit LED protection
Available in thermally enhanced packages
V-DFN3030-6 θJA 44°C/W
TSOT25 θJA 82°C/W
Available in “Green” Molding Compound (No Br, Sb) with lead Free
Finish/ RoHS Compliant
Totally Lead-Free & Fully RoHS Compliant (Notes 1 & 2)
Halogen and Antimony Free. “Green” Device (Note 3)
ZXLD1356QET5TA Automotive Grade qualified to AEC-Q100
Grade 1
Pin Assignments
(TOP VIEW)
TSOT25
I
SENSE
V
IN
2
1
34
5
ADJ
GND
LX
1
2
34
5
6
V-DFN3030-6
(TOP VIEW)
LX
GND
ADJ
V
IN
I
SENSE
GND
Applications
Low Voltage Halogen Replacement LEDs
Automotive Lighting
Low Voltage Industrial Lighting
LED Back-Up Lighting
Illuminated Signs
Emergency Lighting
SELV Lighting
Refrigeration Lights
Notes: 1. No purposely added lead. Fully EU Directive 2002/95/EC (RoHS) & 2011/65/EU (RoHS 2) compliant.
2. See http://www.diodes.com for more information about Diodes Incorporated’s definitions of Halogen and Antimony free, "Green" and Lead-Free.
3. Halogen and Antimony free "Green” products are defined as those which contain <900ppm bromine, <900ppm chlorine (<1500ppm total Br + Cl)
and <1000ppm antimony compounds.
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Typical Applications Circuit
V
IN
I
SENSE
LX
GND
ZXLD1356
ADJ
V
IN
(24V) Rs
0.36V
4.7µFC1
GND
100nF
D1
L1
Pin Descriptions
Pin
Name
Pin
Number Function
TSOT25 V-DFN3030-6
LX 1 1 Drain of NDMOS switch
GND 2 2, 5 Ground (0V)
ADJ 3 3
Multi-function On/Off and brightness control pin:
Leave floating for normal operation.(VADJ = VREF = 1.25V giving nominal average output
current
o I
OUTnom = 0.2V/RS)
Drive to voltage below 0.2V to turn off output current
Drive with DC voltage (0.3V<VADJ<2.5V) to adjust output current from 24% to 200% of
IOUTnom
Connect a capacitor from this pin to ground to define soft-start time.
Soft-start time is approx.0.2ms/nF
ISENSE 4 4
Connect resistor RS from this to VIN to define nominal average output current IOUTnom = 0.2/RS
(Note: RSMIN=0.36V with ADJ pin open circuit)
VIN 5 6
Input voltage (6V to 60V). Decouple to ground with 4.7µF of higher X7R ceramic capacitor close
to device
Pad — Pad
Exposed pad (EP) - connected to device substrate.
To improve thermal impedance of package the EP must be connected to power ground but
should not be used as the 0V (GND) current path.
It can be left floating but must not be connected to any other voltage other than 0V.
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Functional Block Diagram
Low voltage
detector
Voltage
regulator
LX
MN
L1
D1
I
SENSE
Adj
Gnd
V
IN
V
IN
50K 20K
1.25V
1.35V
0.2V
600KHz
+
-
+
-
+
-
R4 R5
R2
R3
R1
2
3
54 1
D1
+
-
R
S
C1
4.7μF
5V
Figure 1. Block Diagram – Pin Connections Shown for TSOT25 Package
Absolute Maximum Ratings (Voltages to GND, unless otherwise specified.)
Symbol Parameter Rating Unit
VIN Input Voltage -0.3 to +60
(65V for 0.5 sec) V
VSENSE I
SENSE Voltage +0.3 to -5.0
(measured with respect to VIN) V
VLX LX Output Voltage -0.3 to +60
(65V for 0.5 sec) V
VADJ Adjust Pin Input Voltage -0.3 to +6.0 V
ILX Switch Output Current 0.65 A
PTOT Power Dissipation
(Refer to package thermal de-rating curve on page 25)
TSOT25 1
W
V-DFN3030-6 1.8
TST Storage Temperature -55 to +150 °C
TJ MAX Junction Temperature 150 °C
These are stress ratings only. Operation outside the absolute maximum ratings may cause device failure.
Operation at the absolute maximum rating for extended periods may reduce device reliability.
ESD Susceptibility
Rating Unit
Human Body Model 500 V
Charged Device Model >1000 V
Machine Model <100 V
Semiconductor devices are ESD sensitive and may be damaged by exposure to ESD events. Suitable ESD precautions should be taken when handling and
transporting these devices.
The human body model is a 100pF capacitor discharge through a 1.5k resistor pin. The machine model is a 200pF capacitor discharged directly into each pin.
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Thermal Resistance
Symbol Parameter Rating Unit
TSOT25 V-DFN3030-6
JA Junction to Ambient 82 44 °C/W
JB Junction to Board 33 °C/W
JC Junction to Case 14 °C/W
Recommended Operating Conditions (@TA = +25°C, unless otherwise specified.)
Symbol Parameter Min Max Units
VIN Input voltage (Note 4) 6 60 V
tOFFMIN Minimum switch off-time 800 ns
tONMIN Minimum switch on-time 800 ns
fLX max Recommended maximum operating frequency (Note 5) 625 kHz
DLX Duty cycle range 0.01 0.99
TOP Operating temperature range -40 +125 °C
Notes: 4. VIN > 16V to fully enhance output transistor. Otherwise out current must be derated - see graphs. Operation at low supply may cause excessive heating
due to increased on-resistance. Tested at 7V guaranteed for 6V by design.
5. ZXLD1356 will operate at higher frequencies but accuracy will be affected due to propagation delays.
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Electrical Characteristics (VIN = 24V, @TAMB = +25°C, unless otherwise specified.)
Symbol Parameter Condition Min Typ Max Unit
VSU Internal regulator start-up threshold 4.85 5.2 V
VSD Internal regulator shutdown threshold 4.40 4.75 V
IINQoff Quiescent supply current with output off ADJ pin grounded 65 108 µA
IINQon Quiescent supply current with output switching
(Note 6)
ADJ pin floating, L = 68mH,
3 LEDsf = 360kHz 1.6 mA
VSENSE Mean current sense threshold voltage
(Defines LED current setting accuracy) Measured on ISENSE pin with respect
to VIN VADJ = 1.25V; VIN = 18V 195 200 205 mV
VSENSEHYS Sense threshold hysteresis ±15 %
ISENSE I
SENSE pin input current VSENSE = VIN -0.2 4 10 µA
VREF Internal reference voltage Measured on ADJ pin with pin
floating 1.25 V
ΔVREF/ΔT Temperature coefficient of VREF 50 ppm/°C
VADJ External control voltage range on ADJ pin for
DC brightness control (Note 7) 0.3 2.5 V
VADJoff DC voltage on ADJ pin to switch device from
active (on) state to quiescent (off) state VADJ falling 0.15 0.20 0.27 V
VADJon DC voltage on ADJ pin to switch device from
quiescent (off) state to active (on) state VADJ rising 0.2 0.25 0.3 V
RADJ Resistance between ADJ pin and VREF 0< VADJ < VREF, VADJ > VREF +100mV 30
10.4
50
14.2
65
18.0 k
ILXmean Continuous LX switch current 0.55 A
RLX LX switch ‘On’ resistance @ ILX = 0.55A 0.5 0.75
ILX(leak) LX switch leakage current 5 µA
DPWM(LF)
Duty cycle range of PWM signal applied to ADJ
pin during low frequency PWM dimming mode PWM frequency <300Hz PWM
amplitude = VREF
Measured on ADJ pin
0.001 1
Brightness control range 1000:1
DCADJ(*) DC Brightness control range Note 8 5:1
tSS Start up time
(See graphs for more details)
Time taken for output current to reach
90% of final value after voltage on
ADJ pin has risen above 0.3V.
Requires external capacitor 22nF.
2 ms
fLX Operating frequency
(See graphs for more details)
ADJ pin floating L= 68mH (0.36V)
IOUT = 0.55A @ VLED = 3.6V
Driving 3 LEDs
360 kHz
fLXmax Recommended maximum operating frequency 500 kHz
Notes: 6. Static current of device is approximately 700 µA, see Graph, Page 17.
7. 100% brightness corresponds to VADJ = VADJ(nom) = VREF. Driving the ADJ pin above VREF will increase the VSENSE. threshold and output current
proportionally.
8. Ratio of maximum brightness to minimum brightness before shutdown VREF =1.25/0.25. VREF externally driven to 2.5V, ratio 10.1.
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Device Description
The device, in conjunction with the coil (L1) and current sense resistor (RS), forms a self-oscillating continuous-mode buck converter.
Device operation (refer to Figure 1 - Block diagram and Figure 2 operating waveforms)
0V
V
IN
200mV230mV
0V
SENSE voltage
V
SENSE+
V
SENSE-
Toff Ton
170mV
0V
5V
V
IN
0.15V
ADJ
0.15V
ADJ
I
OUTnom
I
OUTnom
+15%
I
OUTnom
-15%
V
ADJ
LX voltage
Coil current
Comparator
input voltage
Comparator
output
Figure 2. Theoretical Operating Waveforms
Operation can be best understood by assuming that the ADJ pin of the device is unconnected and the voltage on this pin (VADJ) appears directly
at the (+) input of the comparator.
When input voltage VIN is first applied, the initial current in L1 and RS is zero and there is no output from the current sense circuit. Under this
condition, the (-) input to the comparator is at ground and its output is high. This turns MN on and switches the LX pin low, causing current to flow
from VIN to ground, via RS, L1 and the LED(s). The current rises at a rate determined by VIN and L1 to produce a voltage ramp (VSENSE) across
RS. The supply referred voltage VSENSE is forced across internal resistor R1 by the current sense circuit and produces a proportional current in
internal resistors R2 and R3. This produces a ground referred rising voltage at the (-) input of the comparator. When this reaches the threshold
voltage (VADJ), the comparator output switches low and MN turns off. The comparator output also drives another NMOS switch, which bypasses
internal resistor R3 to provide a controlled amount of hysteresis. The hysteresis is set by R3 to be nominally 15% of VADJ.
When MN is off, the current in L1 continues to flow via D1 and the LED(s) back to VIN. The current decays at a rate determined by the LED(s)
and diode forward voltages to produce a falling voltage at the input of the comparator. When this voltage returns to VADJ, the comparator output
switches high again. This cycle of events repeats, with the comparator input ramping between limits of VADJ ± 15%.
Switching Thresholds
With VADJ = VREF, the ratios of R1, R2 and R3 define an average VSENSE switching threshold of 200mV (measured on the ISENSE pin with respect
to VIN). The average output current IOUTnom is then defined by this voltage and RS according to:
IOUTnom = 200mV/RS
Nominal ripple current is ±30mV/RS
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Device Description (cont.)
Adjusting Output Current
The device contains a low pass filter between the ADJ pin and the threshold comparator and an internal current limiting resistor (50k nom)
between ADJ and the internal reference voltage. This allows the ADJ pin to be overdriven with either DC or pulse signals to change the VSENSE
switching threshold and adjust the output current.
Details of the different modes of adjusting output current are given in the applications section.
Output Shutdown
The output of the low pass filter drives the shutdown circuit. When the input voltage to this circuit falls below the threshold (0.2V nom.), the
internal regulator and the output switch are turned off. The voltage reference remains powered during shutdown to provide the bias current for
the shutdown circuit. Quiescent supply current during shutdown is nominally 60µA and switch leakage is below 5µA.
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Actual Operating Waveforms [VIN = 15V, RS = 0.36V, L = 68µH]
Normal operation. Output current (Ch3) and LX voltage (Ch2)
Actual Operating Waveforms [VIN = 30V, RS = 0.36V, L = 68µH]
Normal operation. Output current (Ch3) and LX voltage (Ch2)
Actual Operating Waveforms [VIN = 60V, RS = 0.36V, L = 68µH]
Normal operation. Output current (Ch3) and LX voltage (Ch2)
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Typical Operating Conditions
0.500
Output Current (A)
0.520
0.540
0.560
0.580
0.600
0.620
0.640
15 LEDs13 LEDs11 LE Ds9 LEDs7 LEDs5 LEDs3 LEDs
1 LED
040
50 6010 20 30
Supply Voltage (V)
ZXLD1356 Output Current
L = 68µH
ZXLD1356 Output Current Deviation (Normalized)
L = 68µH
15 LEDs13 LEDs11 LEDs9 LEDs7 LEDs5 LEDs3 LEDs
1 LED
040
50 6010 20 30
Supply Voltage (V)
10%
8%
-10%
-8%
-6%
6%
-4%
-2%
0%
2%
4%
Output Current Deviation (%)
15 LEDs13 LEDs11 LE Ds9 LEDs7 LEDs5 LEDs3 LEDs
1 LED
040
50 6010 20 30
Supply Voltage (V)
ZXLD1356 Efficienc
y
L = 68µH
100%
95%
50%
55%
60%
90%
65%
70%
75%
80%
85%
Efficiency (%)
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Typical Operating Conditions (cont.)
ZXLD1356 Switching Frequenc
y
L = 68µH
15 LEDs13 LEDs11 LEDs9 LEDs7 LEDs5 LEDs3 LEDs
1 LED
040
50 6010 20 30
Supply Voltage (V)
700
600
500
400
300
100
200
0
Switching Frequency (kHz)
15 LEDs13 LEDs11 LE Ds9 LEDs7 LEDs5 LEDs3 LEDs
1 LED
040
50 6010 20 30
Supply Voltage (V)
ZXLD1356 Duty Cycle
L = 68µH
0
100
10
90
20
80
30
70
40
60
50
Duty Cycle (%)
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Typical Operating Conditions (cont.)
ZXLD1356 Output Current
L = 100µH
15 LEDs13 LEDs11 LE Ds9 LEDs7 LEDs5 LEDs3 LEDs
1 LED
040
50 6010 20 30
Supply Voltage (V)
0.500
Output Current (A)
0.520
0.540
0.560
0.580
0.600
0.620
0.640
ZXLD1356 Output Current Deviation (Normalized)
L = 100µH
10%
8%
-10%
-8%
-6%
6%
-4%
-2%
0%
2%
4%
Output Current Deviation (%)
15 LEDs13 LEDs11 LE Ds9 LEDs7 LEDs5 LEDs3 LEDs
1 LED
040
50 6010 20 30
Supply Voltage (V)
15 LEDs13 LEDs11 LE Ds9 LEDs7 LEDs5 LEDs3 LEDs
1 LED
040
50 6010 20 30
Supply Voltage (V)
ZXLD1356 Efficienc
y
L = 100µH
100%
95%
50%
55%
60%
90%
65%
70%
75%
80%
85%
Efficiency (%)
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Typical Operating Conditions (cont.)
ZXLD1356 Switching Frequenc
y
L = 100µH
15 LEDs13 LEDs11 LE Ds9 LEDs7 LEDs5 LEDs3 LEDs
1 LED
040
50 6010 20 30
Supply Voltage (V)
700
600
500
400
300
100
200
0
Switching Frequency (kHz)
15 LEDs13 LEDs11 LEDs9 LEDs7 LEDs5 LEDs3 LEDs
1 LED
040
50 6010 20 30
Supply Voltage (V)
ZXLD1356 Duty Cycle
L = 100µH
0
100
10
90
20
80
30
70
40
60
50
Duty Cycle (%)
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Typical Operating Conditions (cont.)
ZXLD1356 Output Current
L = 150µH
15 LEDs13 LEDs11 LE Ds9 LEDs7 LEDs5 LEDs3 LEDs
1 LED
040
50 6010 20 30
Supply Voltage (V)
0.500
Output Current (A)
0.520
0.540
0.560
0.580
0.600
0.620
0.640
15 LEDs13 LEDs11 LE Ds9 LEDs7 LEDs5 LEDs3 LEDs
1 LED
040
50 6010 20 30
Supply Voltage (V)
10%
8%
-10%
-8%
-6%
6%
-4%
-2%
0%
2%
4%
Output Current Deviation (%)
ZXLD1356 Output Current Deviation (Normalized)
L = 150µH
15 LEDs13 LEDs11 LE Ds9 LEDs7 LEDs5 LEDs3 LEDs
1 LED
040
50 6010 20 30
Supply Voltage (V)
ZXLD1356 Efficienc
y
L = 150µH
100%
95%
50%
55%
60%
90%
65%
70%
75%
80%
85%
Efficiency (%)
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Typical Operating Conditions (cont.)
15 LEDs13 LEDs11 LE Ds9 LEDs7 LEDs5 LEDs3 LEDs
1 LED
040
50 6010 20 30
Supply Voltage (V)
ZXLD1356 Switching Frequenc
y
L = 150µH
700
600
500
400
300
100
200
0
Switching Frequency (kHz)
15 LEDs13 LEDs11 LE Ds9 LEDs7 LEDs5 LEDs3 LEDs
1 LED
040
50 6010 20 30
Supply Voltage (V)
0
100
10
90
20
80
30
70
40
60
50
Duty Cycle (%)
ZXLD1356 Duty Cycle
L = 150µH
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Typical Operating Conditions (cont.)
ZXLD1356 Output Current
L = 220µH
15 LEDs13 LEDs11 LE Ds9 LEDs7 LEDs5 LEDs3 LEDs
1 LED
040
50 6010 20 30
Supply Voltage (V)
0.500
Output Current (A)
0.520
0.540
0.560
0.580
0.600
0.620
0.640
ZXLD1356 Output Current Deviation (Normalized)
L = 220µH
15 LEDs13 LEDs11 LE Ds9 LEDs7 LEDs5 LEDs3 LEDs
1 LED
040
50 6010 20 30
Supply Voltage (V)
10%
8%
-10%
-8%
-6%
6%
-4%
-2%
0%
2%
4%
Output Current Deviation (%)
ZXLD1356 Efficienc
L = 220µH
15 LEDs13 LEDs11 LE Ds9 LEDs7 LEDs5 LEDs3 LEDs
1 LED
040
50 6010 20 30
Supply Voltage (V)
100%
95%
50%
55%
60%
90%
65%
70%
75%
80%
85%
Efficiency (%)
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Typical Operating Conditions (cont.)
15 LEDs13 LEDs11 LE Ds9 LEDs7 LEDs5 LEDs3 LEDs
1 LED
040
50 6010 20 30
Supply Voltage (V)
ZXLD1356 Switching Frequency
L = 220µH
700
600
500
400
300
100
200
0
Switching Frequency (kHz)
ZXLD1356 Duty Cycle
L = 220µH
15 LEDs13 LEDs11 LE Ds9 LEDs7 LEDs5 LEDs3 LEDs
1 LED
040
50 6010 20 30
Supply Voltage (V)
0
100
10
90
20
80
30
70
40
60
50
Duty Cycle (%)
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Typical Operating Conditions (cont.)
LED Current vs
V
ad
j
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
0123
ADJ Pin Voltage (V)
LED Current (mA)
R=0.36R=0.56R=1.33
Vref
1.238
1.2385
1.239
1.2395
1.24
1.2405
1.241
1.2415
1.242
1.2425
1.243
010203040506070
ADJ pin voltage (V)
Supply current
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
010203040506070
Supply voltage (V)
Supply voltage (V)
Supply voltage (V)
Supply current (mA)
Shutdown current
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
0 102030 40506070
Shutdown current (mA)
Output transistor
fully enhanced
Output transistor
not fully enhanced
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Typical Operating Conditions (cont.)
Lx on-resistance vs die temperature
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
-50 0 50 100 150 200
Die Temperature (C)
On-resistance (Oh
m
s)
7V
9V
12V
20V
30V
Vadj vs Temperature
1.244
1.246
1.248
1.25
1.252
1.254
1.256
1.258
1.26
1.262
-50 0 50 100 150 200
Temperature (C)
Vadj (V)
7V
9V
12V
20V
30V
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
0 10203040506070
Supply Voltage (V)
On-resistance (Ohms)
-40
o
C
25
o
C
125
o
C
Lx on-resistance vs supply voltage
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Application Information
Setting Nominal Average Output Current with External Resistor RS
The nominal average output current in the LED(s) is determined by the value of the external current sense resistor (RS) connected between VIN
and ISENSE and is given by:
IOUTnom = 0.2/RS [for RS > 0.36]
The table below gives values of nominal average output current for several preferred values of current setting resistor (RS) in the typical
application circuit shown on page 1:
RS() Nominal Average Output
Current (mA)
0.36 555
0.56 357
1.33 150
The above values assume that the ADJ pin is floating and at a nominal voltage of VREF (= 1.25V). Note that RS = 0.36V is the minimum allowed
value of sense resistor under these conditions to maintain switch current below the specified maximum value.
It is possible to use different values of RS if the ADJ pin is driven from an external voltage. (See next section).
Output Current Adjustment by External DC Control Voltage
The ADJ pin can be driven by an external dc voltage (VADJ), as shown, to adjust the output current to a value above or below the nominal
average value defined by RS.
GND
ZXLD1356
ADJ
GND
+
DC
The nominal average output current in this case is given by:
IOUTdc = (VADJ /1.25) x (0.2/RS) [for 0.3< VADJ <2.5V]
Note that 100% brightness setting corresponds to VADJ = VREF. When driving the ADJ pin above 1.25V, RS must be increased in proportion to
prevent IOUTdc exceeding 550mA maximum.
The input impedance of the ADJ pin is 50k ±25% for voltages below VREF and 14.2k ±25% for voltages above VREF +100mV.
Output Current Adjustment by PWM Control
Directly driving ADJ input
A Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) signal with duty cycle DPWM can be applied to the ADJ pin, as shown below, to adjust the output current to a
value above or below the nominal average value set by resistor RS:
PWM
GND
0V
V
ADJ
GND
ZXLD1356
A
DJ
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Application Information (cont.)
Driving the ADJ Input via Open Collector Transistor
The recommended method of driving the ADJ pin and controlling the amplitude of the PWM waveform is to use a small NPN switching transistor
as shown below:
PWM
GND
ZXLD1356
ADJ
GND
This scheme uses the 50k resistor between the ADJ pin and the internal voltage reference as a pull-up resistor for the external transistor eg
MMBT3904.
Driving the ADJ Input from a Microcontroller
Another possibility is to drive the device from the open drain output of a microcontroller. The diagram below shows one method of doing this:
GND
ZXLD1356
ADJ
MCU 3.3k
If the NMOS transistor within the microcontroller has high Gate / Drain capacitance, this arrangement can inject a negative spike into ADJ input
of the ZXLD1356 and cause erratic operation but the addition of a Schottky clamp diode (eg Diodes Inc. SD103CWS) to ground and inclusion of
a series resistor (3.3k) will prevent this. See the section on PWM dimming for more details of the various modes of control using high frequency
and low frequency PWM signals.
Shutdown Mode
Taking the ADJ pin to a voltage below 0.2V for more than approximately 100µs will turn off the output and supply current to a low standby level of
65µA nominal.
Note that the ADJ pin is not a logic input. Taking the ADJ pin to a voltage above VREF will increase output current above the 100% nominal
average value. (See page 17 graphs for details).
Soft-Start
An external capacitor from the ADJ pin to ground will provide a soft-start delay, by increasing the time taken for the voltage on this pin to rise to
the turn-on threshold and by slowing down the rate of rise of the control voltage at the input of the comparator. Adding capacitance increases this
delay by approximately 0.2ms/nF. The graph on the next page shows the variation of soft-start time for different values of capacitor.
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Application Information (cont.)
Soft-Start (cont.)
Soft Start Time vs Capacitance from ADJ pin to Ground
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
0 20406080100120
Capacitance (nf)
Soft Start Time (ms)
Actual Operating Waveforms [VIN = 60V, RS = 0.36V, L = 68µH, 22nF on ADJ]
Soft-start operation. LX voltage (Ch2) and Output current (Ch3) using a 22nF external capacitor on the ADJ pin.
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Application Information (cont.)
VIN Capacitor Selection
A low ESR capacitor should be used for input decoupling, as the ESR of this capacitor appears in series with the supply source impedance and
lowers overall efficiency. This capacitor has to supply the relatively high peak current to the coil and smooth the current ripple on the input
supply.
To avoid transients into the IC, the size of the input capacitor will depend on the VIN voltage:
VIN = 6 to 40V CIN = 2.2µF
VIN = 40 to 50V CIN = 4.7µF
VIN = 50 to 60V CIN = 10µF
When the input voltage is close to the output voltage the input current increases which puts more demand on the input capacitor. The minimum
value of 2.2µF may need to be increased to 4.7µF; higher values will improve performance at lower input voltages, especially when the source
impedance is high. The input capacitor should be placed as close as possible to the IC.
For maximum stability over temperature and voltage, capacitors with X7R, X5R, or better dielectric is recommended. Capacitors with Y5V
dielectric are not suitable for decoupling in this application and should NOT be used.
When higher voltages are with CIN = 10µF, an electrolytic capacitor can be used provided that a suitable 1mF ceramic capacitor is also used and
positioned as close to the VIN pin as possible.
A suitable capacitor would be NACEW100M1006.3x8TR13F (NIC Components).
The following web sites are useful when finding alternatives:
www.murata.com
www.niccomp.com
www.kemet.com
Inductor Selection
Recommended inductor values for the ZXLD1356 are in the range 68 µH to 220 µH.
Higher values of inductance are recommended at higher supply voltages in order to minimize errors due to switching delays, which result in
increased ripple and lower efficiency. Higher values of inductance also result in a smaller change in output current over the supply voltage range.
(see graphs pages 10-16). The inductor should be mounted as close to the device as possible with low resistance connections to the LX and VIN
pins.
The chosen coil should have a saturation current higher than the peak output current and a continuous current rating above the required mean
output current.
Suitable coils for use with the ZXLD1356 may be selected from the MSS range manufactured by Coilcraft, or the NPIS range manufactured by
NIC components. The following websites may be useful in finding suitable components.
www.coilcraft.com
www.niccomp.com
www.wuerth-elektronik.de
The inductor value should be chosen to maintain operating duty cycle and switch 'on'/'off' times within the specified limits over the supply voltage
and load current range.
Figures 3 and 4 (following) can be used to select a recommended inductor based on maintaining the ZXLD1356 case temperature below 60°C
for the different package types. For detailed performance characteristics for the inductor values 68, 100, 150 and 220µH see graphs on pages
10-16.
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Application Information (cont.)
Inductor Selection (cont.)
Minimum Recommended Inductor
2% Accuracy, <60°C Case Temperature
0 102030405060
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Number of LEDs
Supply Voltage (V)
Legend
68uH
100uH
150uH
220uH
Figure 3. ZXLD1356 Minimum Recommended Inductor
Diode Selection
For maximum efficiency and performance, the rectifier (D1) should be a fast low capacitance Schottky diode* with low reverse leakage at the
maximum operating voltage and temperature.
They also provide better efficiency than silicon diodes, due to a combination of lower forward voltage and reduced recovery time.
It is important to select parts with a peak current rating above the peak coil current and a continuous current rating higher than the maximum
output load current. It is very important to consider the reverse leakage of the diode when operating above 85°C. Excess leakage will increase
the power dissipation in the device and if close to the load may create a thermal runaway condition.
The higher forward voltage and overshoot due to reverse recovery time in silicon diodes will increase the peak voltage on the LX output. If a
silicon diode is used, care should be taken to ensure that the total voltage appearing on the LX pin including supply ripple, does not exceed the
specified maximum value.
*A suitable Schottky diode would be B1100B (Diodes Inc).
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Application Information (cont.)
Reducing Output Ripple
Peak to peak ripple current in the LED(s) can be reduced, if required, by shunting a capacitor, Cled, across the LED(s) as shown below:
V
IN
V
IN
I
SENSE
LX
ZXLD1356
Rs
L1
CledLED
D1
A value of 1µF will reduce the supply ripple current by a factor three (approx.). Proportionally lower ripple can be achieved with higher capacitor
values. Note that the capacitor will not affect operating frequency or efficiency, but it will increase start-up delay, by reducing the rate of rise of
LED voltage.
By adding this capacitor the current waveform through the LED(s) changes from a triangular ramp to a more sinusoidal version without altering
the mean current value.
Operation at Low Supply Voltage
Below the under-voltage lockout threshold (VSD) the drive to the output transistor is turned off to prevent device operation with excessive on-
resistance of the output transistor. The output transistor is not full enhanced until the supply voltage exceeds approximately 17V. At supply
voltages between VSD and 17V care must be taken to avoid excessive power dissipation due to the on-resistance.
Note that when driving loads of two or more LEDs, the forward drop will normally be sufficient to prevent the device from switching below
approximately 6V. This will minimize the risk of damage to the device.
Thermal Considerations
When operating the device at high ambient temperatures, or when driving maximum load current, care must be taken to avoid exceeding the
package power dissipation limits. The graph below gives details for power derating. This assumes the device to be mounted on a (25mm)2 PCB
with 1oz copper standing in still air.
TSOT23-5
DFN3030-6
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
-40 -25 -10 5 20 35 50 65 80 95 110 125
Ambient Temperature (°C) 140
Maximum Power Dissipation
Power Dissipation (W)
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Application Information (cont.)
Thermal Considerations (cont.)
Note that the device power dissipation will most often be a maximum at minimum supply voltage. It will also increase if the efficiency of the circuit
is low. This may result from the use of unsuitable coils, or excessive parasitic output capacitance on the switch output.
Thermal Compensation of Output Current
High luminance LEDs often need to be supplied with a temperature compensated current in order to maintain stable and reliable operation at all
drive levels. The LEDs are usually mounted remotely from the device so, for this reason, the temperature coefficients of the internal circuits for
the ZXLD1356 have been optimized to minimize the change in output current when no compensation is employed. If output current
compensation is required, it is possible to use an external temperature sensing network - normally using Negative Temperature Coefficient (NTC)
thermistors and/or diodes, mounted very close to the LED(s). The output of the sensing network can be used to drive the ADJ pin in order to
reduce output current with increasing temperature.
Layout Considerations
LX pin
The LX pin of the device is a fast switching node, so PCB tracks should be kept as short as possible. To minimize ground 'bounce', the ground
pin of the device should be soldered directly to the ground plane.
Coil and Decoupling Capacitors and Current Sense Resistor
It is particularly important to mount the coil and the input decoupling capacitor as close to the device pins as possible to minimize parasitic
resistance and inductance, which will degrade efficiency. It is also important to minimize any track resistance in series with current sense resistor
RS. Its best to connect VIN directly to one end of RS and Isense directly to the opposite end of RS with no other currents flowing in these tracks. It
is important that the cathode current of the Schottky diode does not flow in a track between RS and VIN as this may give an apparent higher
measure of current than is actual because of track resistance.
ADJ Pin
The ADJ pin is a high impedance input for voltages up to 1.35V so, when left floating, PCB tracks to this pin should be as short as possible to
reduce noise pickup. A 100nF capacitor from the ADJ pin to ground will reduce frequency modulation of the output under these conditions. An
additional series 3.3k resistor can also be used when driving the ADJ pin from an external circuit (see below). This resistor will provide filtering
for low frequency noise and provide protection against high voltage transients.
GND
ZXLD1356
ADJ
3.3k
100nF
GND
High Voltage Tracks
Avoid running any high voltage tracks close to the ADJ pin, to reduce the risk of leakage currents due to board contamination. The ADJ pin is
soft-clamped for voltages above 1.35V to desensitize it to leakage that might raise the ADJ pin voltage and cause excessive output current.
However, a ground ring placed around the ADJ pin is recommended to minimize changes in output current under these conditions.
Evaluation Boards
ZXLD1356 evaluation boards are available on request, which have connection terminals that allow customers to connect their own LED products
to the board.
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Application Information (cont.)
Dimming Output Current Using PWM
Low Frequency PWM Mode
When the ADJ pin is driven with a low frequency PWM signal (eg 100Hz), with a high level voltage VADJ and a low level of zero, the output of
the internal low pass filter will swing between 0V and VADJ, causing the input to the shutdown circuit to fall below its turn-off threshold
(200mV nom) when the ADJ pin is low. This will cause the output current to be switched on and off at the PWM frequency, resulting in an
average output current IOUTavg proportional to the PWM duty cycle. (See Figure 4 - Low frequency PWM operating waveforms).
Figure 4. Low Frequency PWM Operating Waveforms
The average value of output current in this mode is given by:
S
PWM
OUTavg R
D2.0
I= for DPWM > 0.001
This mode is preferable if optimum LED 'whiteness' is required. It will also provide the widest possible dimming range (approx. 1000:1) and
higher efficiency at the expense of greater output ripple.
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Ordering Information
Device Part
mark Package
Code Packaging Reel size
(inches) Reel Width
(mm) Quantity per
Reel Part Number
Suffix Automotive
Grade
ZXLD1356DACTC 1356 DAC V-DFN3030-6 13 12 3000 TC
ZXLD1356ET5TA 1356 ET5 TSOT25 7 8 3000 TA
ZXLD1356QET5TA 1356 ET5 TSOT25 7 8 3000 TA Y (Note 9)
Note: 9. For Automotive grade with AEC-Q100 Grade 1 qualification the ZXLD1356QET5TA should be ordered.
Package Outline Dimensions (All dimensions in mm.)
Please see AP02002 at http://www.diodes.com/datasheets/ap02002.pdf for latest version.
V-DFN3030-6
TSOT25
V-DFN3030-6
Dim Min Max Typ
A 0.80 0.90 0.85
A1 0 0.05 -
A3 - - 0.203
b 0.30 0.40 0.35
D 2.95 3.05 3.00
D2 1.95 2.05 2.00
E 2.95 3.05 3.00
E2 1.15 1.25 1.20
e - - 0.95
e1 - - 1.90
L 0.45 0.55 0.50
All Dimensions in mm
TSOT25
Dim Min Max Typ
A 1.00
A1 0.01 0.10
A2 0.84 0.90
D 2.90
E 2.80
E1 1.60
b 0.30 0.45
c 0.12 0.20
e 0.95
e1 1.90
L 0.30 0.50
L2 0.25
θ 0° 8°
θ1 4° 12°
All Dimensions in mm
c
A1
L
E1 E
A2
D
e1
e
5x b
θ
4x 1
θ
L2
A
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Suggested Pad Layout
Please see AP02001 at http://www.diodes.com/datasheets/ap02001.pdf for the latest version.
V-DFN3030-6
TSOT25
Dimensions Value
(in mm)
C 0.950
X 0.450
X1 2.100
Y 0.630
Y1 1.300
Y2 3.160
Dimensions Value (in mm)
C 0.950
X 0.700
Y 1.000
Y1 3.199
Y1
C C
X (5x)
Y (5x)
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IMPORTANT NOTICE
DIODES INCORPORATED MAKES NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WITH REGARDS TO THIS DOCUMENT,
INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
(AND THEIR EQUIVALENTS UNDER THE LAWS OF ANY JURISDICTION).
Diodes Incorporated and its subsidiaries reserve the right to make modifications, enhancements, improvements, corrections or other changes
without further notice to this document and any product described herein. Diodes Incorporated does not assume any liability arising out of the
application or use of this document or any product described herein; neither does Diodes Incorporated convey any license under its patent or
trademark rights, nor the rights of others. Any Customer or user of this document or products described herein in such applications shall assume
all risks of such use and will agree to hold Diodes Incorporated and all the companies whose products are represented on Diodes Incorporated
website, harmless against all damages.
Diodes Incorporated does not warrant or accept any liability whatsoever in respect of any products purchased through unauthorized sales
channel.
Should Customers purchase or use Diodes Incorporated products for any unintended or unauthorized application, Customers shall indemnify and
hold Diodes Incorporated and its representatives harmless against all claims, damages, expenses, and attorney fees arising out of, directly or
indirectly, any claim of personal injury or death associated with such unintended or unauthorized application.
Products described herein may be covered by one or more United States, international or foreign patents pending. Product names and markings
noted herein may also be covered by one or more United States, international or foreign trademarks.
This document is written in English but may be translated into multiple languages for reference. Only the English version of this document is the
final and determinative format released by Diodes Incorporated.
LIFE SUPPORT
Diodes Incorporated products are specifically not authorized for use as critical components in life support devices or systems without the express
written approval of the Chief Executive Officer of Diodes Incorporated. As used herein:
A. Life support devices or systems are devices or systems which:
1. are intended to implant into the body, or
2. support or sustain life and whose failure to perform when properly used in accordance with instructions for use provided in the
labeling can be reasonably expected to result in significant injury to the user.
B. A critical component is any component in a life support device or system whose failure to perform can be reasonably expected to cause the
failure of the life support device or to affect its safety or effectiveness.
Customers represent that they have all necessary expertise in the safety and regulatory ramifications of their life support devices or systems, and
acknowledge and agree that they are solely responsible for all legal, regulatory and safety-related requirements concerning their products and
any use of Diodes Incorporated products in such safety-critical, life support devices or systems, notwithstanding any devices- or systems-related
information or support that may be provided by Diodes Incorporated. Further, Customers must fully indemnify Diodes Incorporated and its
representatives against any damages arising out of the use of Diodes Incorporated products in such safety-critical, life support devices or
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