HumPRC™ Series 900MHz Data Guide~ Datasheet by Linx Technologies Inc.

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Lir'i)'(' TECHNOLOGIES Wireless made simple®
HumPRCTM Series
900MHz Remote Control
Transceiver Module
Data Guide
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Warning: Some customers may want Linx radio frequency (“RF”)
products to control machinery or devices remotely, including machinery
or devices that can cause death, bodily injuries, and/or property
damage if improperly or inadvertently triggered, particularly in industrial
settings or other applications implicating life-safety concerns (“Life and
Property Safety Situations”).
NO OEM LINX REMOTE CONTROL OR FUNCTION MODULE
SHOULD EVER BE USED IN LIFE AND PROPERTY SAFETY
SITUATIONS. No OEM Linx Remote Control or Function Module
should be modified for Life and Property Safety Situations. Such
modification cannot provide sufficient safety and will void the product’s
regulatory certification and warranty.
Customers may use our (non-Function) Modules, Antenna and
Connectors as part of other systems in Life Safety Situations, but
only with necessary and industry appropriate redundancies and
in compliance with applicable safety standards, including without
limitation, ANSI and NFPA standards. It is solely the responsibility of any
Linx customer who uses one or more of these products to incorporate
appropriate redundancies and safety standards for the Life and
Property Safety Situation application.
Do not use this or any Linx product to trigger an action directly
from the data line or RSSI lines without a protocol or encoder/
decoder to validate the data. Without validation, any signal from
another unrelated transmitter in the environment received by the module
could inadvertently trigger the action.
All RF products are susceptible to RF interference that can prevent
communication. RF products without frequency agility or hopping
implemented are more subject to interference. This module does have
a frequency hopping protocol built in, but the developer should still be
aware of the risk of interference.
Do not use any Linx product over the limits in this data guide.
Excessive voltage or extended operation at the maximum voltage could
cause product failure. Exceeding the reflow temperature profile could
cause product failure which is not immediately evident.
Do not make any physical or electrical modifications to any Linx
product. This will void the warranty and regulatory and UL certifications
and may cause product failure which is not immediately evident.
!
Table of Contents
1 Description
1 Features
2 Ordering Information
2 Absolute Maximum Ratings
3 Electrical Specifications
5 Typical Performance Graphs
10 Pin Assignments
11 Pin Descriptions
13 Module Dimensions
14 Theory of Operation
15 Module Description
16 Transceiver Operation
17 Transmit Operation
17 Receive Operation
18 System Operation
19 Reading the Transmitter Address
20 Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum
21 Addressing Modes
22 AES Encryption
23 The Join Process
26 Operation with the HumPROTM Series
27 Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA)
28 Acknowledgement
28 External Amplifier Control
29 Configuring the Status Lines
29 Using the LATCH_EN Line
30 Using the MODE_IND Line
31 Using the PB Line
32 Restore Factory Defaults
32 Using the Low Power Features
34 The Command Data Interface
35 Reading from Registers
36 Writing to Registers
37 Command Length Optimization
38 Example Code for Encoding Read/Write Commands
40 The Command Data Interface Command Set
78 Typical Applications
82 HumPRCTM Series Long-Range Handheld Transmitter
84 Usage Guidelines for FCC Compliance
84 Additional Testing Requirements
85 Information to the User
86 Product Labeling
86 FCC RF Exposure Statement
86 Antenna Selection
88 Castellation Version Reference Design
90 Power Supply Requirements
90 Antenna Considerations
91 Interference Considerations
92 Pad Layout
93 Microstrip Details
94 Board Layout Guidelines
95 Helpful Application Notes from Linx
96 Production Guidelines
96 Hand Assembly
96 Automated Assembly
98 General Antenna Rules
100 Common Antenna Styles
102 Regulatory Considerations
Lih'x Data Guide TECHNDLomEg
– –
1
Description
The HumPRCTM Series is the most complete
system to integrate bi-directional remote
control into many different applications. No
programming is required, and both module
and finished hardware options are available,
making it the easiest solution to implement.
The module provides long-range transmission
at 900MHz utilizing frequency hopping and
industry-standard encryption for secure and robust communications. The
HumPRCTM Series interoperates with Linx’s HumPROTM family, making it the
only remote control solution that simultaneously supports data applications
for seamless integration with sensor and control IoT applications.
Eight status lines can be set up in any combination of inputs and outputs
for the transfer of button or contact states. A selectable acknowledgement
indicates that the transmission was successfully received.
Primary settings are hardware-selectable, which eliminates the need for an
external microcontroller or other digital interface. For advanced features,
optional software configuration is provided by a UART interface.
Housed in a compact reflow-compatible SMD package, the transceiver
requires no external RF components except an antenna, which greatly
simplifies integration and lowers development and assembly costs.
Features
Add Bi-directional remote control
capabilities to any product
Pre-compiled software
No programming required
128-bit AES encryption
8 status lines
FHSS Algorithm
Selectable acknowledgements
FCC and IC Pre-certified versions
Fully interoperable with all
HumPROTM Series devices &
gateways
HumPRCTM Series 900MHz Remote
Control RF Transceiver Module
Data Guide
Figure 1: Packages
Revised 10/15/2018
– –
2
Ordering Information
Part Number Description
HUM-900-PRC 900MHz HumPRC™ Series Remote Control Transceiver,
Castellation Interface, External Antenna Connection
HUM-900-PRC-CAS
900MHz HumPRC™ Series Remote Control Transceiver,
Castellation Interface, External Antenna Connection, FCC & IC
Certified
HUM-900-PRC-UFL
900MHz HumPRC™ Series Remote Control Transceiver,
Castellation Interface, U.FL / MHF Compatible Connector, FCC &
IC Certified
EVM-900-PRC-CAS 900MHz HumPRC™ Series Carrier Board, Through-Hole Pin
Interface, RP-SMA Connector, FCC & IC Certified
EVM-900-PRC-UFL 900MHz HumPRC™ Series Carrier Board, Through-Hole Pin
Interface, U.FL / MHF Compatible Connector, FCC & IC Certified
MDEV-900-PRC 900MHz HumPRC™ Series Master Development System
Ordering Information
Figure 2: Ordering Information
Warning: This product incorporates numerous static-sensitive
components. Always wear an ESD wrist strap and observe proper ESD
handling procedures when working with this device. Failure to observe
this precaution may result in module damage or failure.
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Supply Voltage Vcc −0.3 to +3.9 VDC
Any Input or Output Pin −0.3 to VCC + 0.3 VDC
RF Input 0 dBm
Operating Temperature −40 to +85 ºC
Storage Temperature −40 to +85 ºC
Exceeding any of the limits of this section may lead to permanent damage to the device.
Furthermore, extended operation at these maximum ratings may reduce the life of this
device.
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Figure 3: Absolute Maximum Ratings
– –
3
HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Specifications
Parameter Symbol Min. Typ. Max. Units Notes
Power Supply
Operating Voltage VCC 2.0 3.6 VDC
TX Supply Current lCCTX
900MHz at +10dBm 40.5 41.5 mA 1,2
900MHz at 0dBm 22 24 mA 1,2
RX Supply Current lCCRX 23.5 24.5 mA 1,2,3
Power-Down Current lPDN 0.7 1.4 µA 1,2
RF Section
Operating Frequency Band FC902 928 MHz
Number of hop channels
@ 19.2kbps RF Rate 50/64
@ 152.34kbps RF Rate 26/32
Channel spacing
@ 19.2kbps RF Rate 375.9 kHz
@ 152.34kbps RF Rate 751.81 kHz
20 dB OBW
@ 19.2kbps RF Rate 64 kHz
@ 152.34kbps RF Rate 315 kHz
Receiver BW
@ 19.2kbps RF Rate 102 kHz
@ 152.34kbps RF Rate 232 kHz
FSK deviation
@ 19.2kbps RF Rate ± 19.2 kHz
@ 152.34kbps RF Rate ± 51 kHz
Scan time / channel (avg)
@ 19.2kbps RF Rate 1.2 ms
@ 152.34kbps RF Rate 0.335 ms
FHSS Lock time
@ 19.2kbps RF Rate 63 ms
@ 152.34kbps RF Rate 26 ms
Modulation 2FSK
Data Encoding 6/7 RLL
Number of Hop Sequences 6
Electrical Specifications
– –
4
HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Specifications
Parameter Symbol Min. Typ. Max. Units Notes
Receiver Section
Spurious Emissions –47 dBm
IF Frequency 304.7 kHz
Receiver Sensitivity 5
@min rate 98 –101 dBm 5
@max rate –91 –94 dBm 5
RSSI Dynamic Range 85 dB
CSMA RSSI Threshold –70 dBm
Transmitter Section
Max Output Power PO+8.5 +9.5 dBm 6
Harmonic Emissions PH–41 dBc 6
Output Power Range –5 9 dB 6
Antenna Port
RF Impedance RIN 50 Ω4
Environmental
Operating Temp. Range −40 +85 ºC 4
Timing
Module Turn-On Time
Via VCC 63 173 ms 4
Via POWER_DOWN 35 ms 4
Via Standby 4 ms 4
Serial Command Response
Volatile R/W 0.4 5 ms 8
NV Update 2.4 50 ms 8
Factory Reset 204 329 ms 13
Channel Dwell Time 400 ms
Interface Section
UART Data rate 9,600 115,200 bps
Input
Logic Low VIL 0.3*VCC VDC
Logic High VIH 0.7*VCC VDC
TX omnm Power mam)
– –
5
HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Specifications
Parameter Symbol Min. Typ. Max. Units Notes
Output
Logic Low, MODE_IND,
ACK_OUT VOLM 0.3*VCC VDC 1,9
Logic High, MODE_IND,
ACK_OUT VOHM 0.7*VCC VDC 1,9
Logic Low VOL 0.3*VCC 1,10
Logic High VOH 0.7*VCC 1,10
Flash (Non-Volatile) Memory Specifications
Flash Refresh Cycles 2,000 cycles 11
1. Measured at 3.3V VCC
2. Measured at 25ºC
3. Input power < -60dBm
4. Characterized but not tested
5. PER = 1%
6. Into a 50-ohm load
7. No RF interference
8. From end of command to start of
response
9. 60mA source/sink
10. 6mA source/sink
11. Number of non-volatile memory refresh
cycles. The number of write operations
per refresh cycle varies from 8 to 150.
12. With CSMA disabled
13. Start of factory reset command to end
of last ACK response
Figure 4: Electrical Specifications
Typical Performance Graphs
Figure 5: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Max Output Power vs. Supply Voltage
8.5
9.0
9.5
10.0
10.5
11.0
2.0 2.5 3.3
3.6
TX Output Power (dBm)
Supply Voltage (V)
85°C
25°C
-40°C
40 is. 5250 $35 is. .55 Exam
– –
6
15
20
25
30
35
40
-5
059
Supply Current (mA)
TX Output Power (dBm)
85°C
25°C
-40°C
Figure 6: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Average Current vs. Transmitter Output Power at 2.5V
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
-5
059
Supply Current (mA)
TX Output Power (dBm)
85°C
25°C
-40°C
Figure 7: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Average TX Current vs. Transmitter Output Power at 3.3V
Aom Supply Cunem (mA) 23.40 Supply Current (mA) ~..«......
– –
7
36.50
37.00
37.50
38.00
38.50
39.00
39.50
40.00
2V 2.5V 3.3V
3.6V
Supply Current (mA)
Supply Voltage (V)
85°C
25°C
-40°C
Figure 9: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver TX Current vs. Supply Voltage at Max Power
22.00
22.20
22.40
22.60
22.80
23.00
23.20
23.40
2V 2.5V 3.3V
3.6V
Supply Current (mA)
Supply Voltage (V)
85°C
25°C
-40°C
Figure 8: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver TX Current vs. Supply Voltage at 0dBm
Supply Current (mA) Suppvy Cunem (mm 24.5
– –
8
22.5
22.7
22.9
23.1
23.3
23.5
23.7
23.9
24.1
24.3
24.5
2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5
3.6
Supply Current (mA)
Supply Voltage (V)
85°C
25°C
-40°C
Figure 10: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver RX Scan Current vs. Supply Voltage, 9.6kbps
21
21.2
21.4
21.6
21.8
22
22.2
22.4
22.6
22.8
23
2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5
3.6
Supply Current (mA)
Supply Voltage (V)
85°C
25°C
-40°C
Figure 11: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver RX Scan Current vs. Supply Voltage, 115.2kbps
Current consumption while the module is scanning for a transmission. The current is
approximately 0.5mA higher when receiving data at 9.6kbps.
Current consumption while the module is scanning for a transmission. The current is
approximately 2mA higher when receiving data at 115.2kbps.
Slandby Cunenl WA) RSSI Readmg 1dBm) 140 715.00
– –
9
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
1.40
2.5 3.3
3.6
Standby Current (µA)
Supply Voltage (V)
-40°C
25°C
85°C
Figure 12: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Standby Current Consumption vs. Supply Voltage
-105.00
-95.00
-85.00
-75.00
-65.00
-55.00
-45.00
-35.00
-25.00
-15.00
-100.00 -90.00 -80.00 -70.00 -60.00 -50.00 -40.00 -30.00 -20.00 -10.00
0.00
RSSI Reading (dBm)
Input Power (dBm)
-40°C 25°C
85°C
Figure 13: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver RSSI Voltage vs. Input Power
Zion 530m ZBSJKMBOA 7 s
– –
10
Figure 15: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Standard Version Pin Assignments (Top View)
30
31
32
1
2
3
4
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
56789 10 11 12 13
29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21
ANT
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
ACK_OUT
MODE_IND
GND
S7
S4
S5
S6
S2
S3
S1
S0
C1
C0
GND
LATCH_EN
POWER_DOWN
ACK_EN
PB
CMD_DATA_IN
CMD_DATA_OUT
LNA_EN
PA_EN
GND
VCC
RESET
Pin Assignments
There are three version of the module. The standard version is the smallest.
The other versions have mostly the same pin assignments, but the antenna
is routed to either a castellation (-CAS) or a U.FL connector (-UFL),
depending on the part number ordered.
30
31
32
1
2
3
4
19 18
56789 10 11 12 13
29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21
ANT
GND
ACK_OUT
MODE_IND
GND
S7
S4
S5
S6
S2
S3
S1
S0
C1
C0
GND
LATCH_EN
POWER_DOWN
ACK_EN
PB
CMD_DATA_IN
CMD_DATA_OUT
LNA_EN
PA_EN
GND
VCC
RESET
NC
Figure 14: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Pre-certified Version Pin Assignments - Castellation Connection (Top View)
ss1591un12w E 3
– –
11
Pin Descriptions
Pin Number Name I/O Description
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8 S0–S71I/O
Status Lines. Each line can be configured
as either an input to register button or
contact closures or as an output to control
application circuitry.
9, 14, 15, 16,
17, 18, 20,
25, 32
GND — Ground
10 C0 I
This line sets the input/output direction for
status lines S0-S3. When low, the lines are
outputs; when high they are inputs. Do not
leave floating.
11 C1 I
This line sets the input/output direction for
status lines S4-S7. When low, the lines are
outputs; when high they are inputs. Do not
leave floating.
12 POWER_DOWN I
Power Down. Pulling this line low places the
module into a low-power state. The module
is not functional in this state. Pull high for
normal operation. Do not leave floating.
Pin Descriptions
30
31
32
1
2
3
4
19 18
56789 10 11 12 13
29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21
NC
GND
ACK_OUT
MODE_IND
GND
S7
S4
S5
S6
S2
S3
S1
S0
C1
C0
GND
LATCH_EN
POWER_DOWN
ACK_EN
PB
CMD_DATA_IN
CMD_DATA_OUT
LNA_EN
PA_EN
GND
VCC
RESET
ANT
Figure 16: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Pre-certified Version Pin Assignments - UFL Connection (Top View)
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12
Pin Descriptions
Pin Number Name I/O Description
13 LATCH_EN I
If this line is high, then the status line
outputs are latched (a received command
to activate a status line toggles the output
state). If this line is low, then the output lines
are momentary (active for as long as a valid
signal is received). Do not leave floating.
19 ANTENNA 50-ohm RF Antenna Port
21 VCC Supply Voltage
22 RESET2I
This line resets the module when pulled
low. It should be pulled high for normal
operation. Leave unconnected to minimize
leakage current.
23 LNA_EN 0
Low Noise Amplifier Enable. This line is
driven high when receiving. It is intended to
activate an optional external LNA.
24 PA_EN O
Power Amplifier Enable. This line is driven
high when transmitting. It is intended to
activate an optional external power amplifier.
26 CMD_DATA_OUT O Command Data Out. Output line for the
serial interface commands
27 CMD_DATA_IN I
Command Data In. Input line for the serial
interface commands. If serial control is not
used, this line should be tied to supply to
minimize current consumption.
28 ACK_EN I
Pull this line high to enable the module to
send an acknowledgement message after
a valid control message has been received.
Do not leave floating.
29 PB1I
A high on this line initiates the Join process,
which causes two units to accept each
other’s transmissions. It is also used with
a special sequence to reset the module to
factory default configuration.
30 MODE_IND O
This line indicates module activity. It can
source enough current to drive a small
LED, causing it to flash. The duration of the
flashes indicates the module’s current state.
31 ACK_OUT O
This line goes high when the module
receives an acknowledgement message
from another module after sending a control
message.
1. These lines have an internal 20kΩ pull-down resistor
2. These lines have an internal 10kΩ pull-up resistor
Figure 17: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Pin Descriptions
0.55“ 0.812"
– –
13
0.45"
(11.43)
0.812"
(20.62)
0.116"
(2.95)
0.271"
(6.88)
0.195"
(4.96)
0.078"
(1.98)
Module Dimensions
Figure 18: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Dimensions
0.45"
(11.43)
0.55"
(13.97)
0.07"
(1.78)
Figure 19: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Pre-certified Version Dimensions
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14
Theory of Operation
The HumPRCTM Series transceiver is a low-cost, high-performance
synthesized FSK transceiver. Figure 20 shows the module’s block diagram.
The HumPRCTM Series transceiver operates in the 902 to 928MHz
frequency band. The transmitter output power is programmable. The
range varies depending on the antenna implementation and the local RF
environment.
The RF carrier is generated directly by a frequency synthesizer that includes
an on-chip VCO. The received RF signal is amplified by a low noise
amplifier (LNA) and down-converted to I/Q quadrature signals. The I/Q
signals are digitized by ADCs.
A low-power onboard communications processor performs the radio
control and management functions including Automatic Gain Control
(AGC), filtering, demodulation and packet synchronization. A control
processor performs the higher level functions and controls the serial and
hardware interfaces.
A crystal oscillator generates the reference frequency for the synthesizer
and clocks for the ADCs and the processor.
PA
LNA
0
90
FREQ
SYNTH
ADC
ADC
DEMODULATOR
MODULATOR
ANTENNA
PROCESSORGPIO /
INTERFACE
INTERFACE
Figure 20: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver RF Section Block Diagram
– –
15
Module Description
The HumPRCTM Series remote control transceiver module is a completely
integrated RF transceiver and processor that is designed to send the
logic state of its inputs to a remote unit and replicate the logic states of
the remote unit’s inputs. This allows for the easy creation of basic remote
control systems.
The module operates through a series of dedicated I/O lines, resulting in a
solution that does not need any software development. The module does
have a serial interface that allows for some configuration in applications that
need specific control. This interface is likely not needed for basic remote
control applications.
Since this module can act as both transmitter and receiver, terminology and
descriptions are important. This guide uses the term Initiating Unit (IU) to
describe a module that is transmitting commands. Responding Unit (RU) is
used to describe a module that is receiving commands.
The module has 8 status lines numbered S0 through S7. These can be set
as inputs for buttons or contacts or as outputs to drive application circuitry.
When S0 is taken high on the IU, S0 goes high on the RU, and so forth. A
line that is an input on one side needs to be set as an output on the other
side.
The HumPRCTM Series adds a remote control application layer to the
HumPROTM Series data modem protocol stack. This enables the simple
creation of remote control systems that benefit from the robust feature set
of the protocol stack, such as a fast locking Frequency Hopping Spread
Spectrum (FHSS) algorithm, AES128 encryption, 32-bit addressing,
assured delivery and a simple Join Process for associating multiple
modules with each other.
As a result, much of the HumPRCTM Series terminology is the same as the
HumPROTM Series. Likewise, most of the software registers are the same
though some do not apply to the remote control application.
A result of this common protocol stack is that HumPRCTM Series
transmissions can be received by another HumPRCTM Series module for
simple remote control applications or by a HumPROTM Series module for
applications that want to combine data transmissions (such as sensor
values) with remote control functionality.
– –
16
Transceiver Operation
The transceiver has two roles: Initiating Unit (IU) that transmits control
messages and Responding Unit (RU) that receives control messages. If all
of the status lines are set as inputs, then the module is set as an IU only.
In this role, the module stays in a low power sleep mode until a status line
goes high, starting the Transmit Operation.
If all of the status lines are set as outputs, then the module is set as an RU
only. It stays in Receive Operation looking for a valid transmission from a
paired IU.
A module with both input and output status lines can operate as an IU
and an RU. The module idles in Receive Operation until either a valid
transmission is received or a status line input goes high, initiating the
Transmit operation.
When an input goes high, the transceiver captures the logic state of each
of the status lines. The line states are placed into a packet and transmitted
using the configured addressing mode, hop sequence and encryption key
(if enabled).
An associated RU receives the packet and sets its status line outputs
according to the received packet. It then stays synchronized with the IU
and updates the states of its outputs with every packet. Its outputs can be
connected to external circuitry that activates when the lines go high.
The RU can also send an acknowledgement back to the IU. If the ACK_EN
line is high when a valid control packet is received, the RU sends back an
acknowledgement. When the IU receives the acknowledgement, it raises its
ACK_OUT line. The ACK_EN line can be connected to ground to disable
acknowledgements, connected to the power supply to acknowledge
on receipt of the valid command or controlled by external circuitry to
acknowledge when an action has taken place.
The ACK_EN can be connected to an LED as an indication to the user or
used by the system in other ways, such as updating a display or being
used to deactivate an automated system.
Note: Although the functionality of the HumPRCTM is very similar to the
HumRCTM, the underlying protocol and operation are very different. The
two families are not compatible.
– –
17
Transmit Operation
When a status line input goes high, the module enters the Initiating Unit
role. In this role, the module captures the logic states of the status line
inputs and automatically creates a REMOTE_ACTIVATE packet. The packet
is transmitted every 140ms nominally (240ms max) for as long as a status
line input is held high. After each transmission, the module listens for a
REMOTE_CONFIRM reply from the RU. This continues for as long as any
status line input is high.
The REMOTE_CONFIRM packet contains two values. One indicates how
long the ACK_OUT line should go high on the IU (20ms by default) and the
other indicates if the IU should stay awake after the status line inputs go
low (go to sleep by default). The module activates the ACK_OUT line for as
long as instructed and loops back to check the status line inputs and send
another REMOTE_ACTIVATE packet.
When all status line inputs go low, the module transmits two REMOTE_
ACTIVATE packets indicating that all lines are low. If all status lines are
inputs, it then goes to sleep after 760ms unless a REMOTE_CONFIRM
packet is received instructing the IU to stay awake longer.
Receive Operation
When the module is awake and not in transmit operation, it is in receive
operation listening for valid packets. When a REMOTE_ACTIVATE packet
is received, the module enters the Responding Unit role and processes the
received status line states. It remains in the RU mode until 760ms elapses
without an incoming REMOTE_ACTIVATE message.
Unlatched status line outputs are set to match the corresponding bit state
in the received packet.
For latched outputs, the line changes state (off ª on or on ª off) whenever
the corresponding bit changes from 0 to 1. All other combinations of
the new and old status bit do not change the status line. This normally
changes the output state every time that the associated transmitter input
changes from 0 to 1.
If the ACK_EN line is high when a valid message is received, a REMOTE_
CONFIRM message is transmitted to the IU with values to set the ACK_
OUT high for 20ms and go to sleep after the default 760ms. These values
cannot be changed in the HumPRCTM Series, but a packet with different
values can be generated using the HumPROTM Series and a microcontroller.
– –
18
System Operation
Transmitters and receivers are paired using the built-in Join Process (see
the Join Process for details). One device is configured as an Administrator
and creates the network address and encryption key. When Nodes join,
the Administrator sends them the encryption key, network address and
their unique address within the network. The addressing method used by
the HumPRCTM Series modules can support up to hundreds of nodes,
depending on the use model (duration of activations and how often they
are sent).
It is up to the designer to determine which device makes the most sense
as the Administrator in the final system, but there are some common
configurations. In a system with one transmitter and one receiver, it does
not matter which is the Administrator. In a system where one transmitter
is going to activate several receivers, the transmitter is normally the
Administrator (Figure 21 a). In a system with one receiver and multiple
transmitters, the receiver is normally the Administrator (Figure 21 b).
A system with multiple transmitters and receivers can use any of the
devices as an Administrator (Figure 22 a) or may use a separate device
that is only used to join new devices to the network (Figure 22 b). Once all
system nodes have received the key and their address, the Administrator
node operates the same as any other node.
By default, the Administrator and all Nodes broadcast to the entire network.
All transmitters can activate all receivers in the network. An external
microcontroller can be used to change the UDESTID0 register to activate
a specific Node in the network. This is a more advanced operation and
requires the microcontroller and custom firmware.
Administrator
Administrator
Figure 21: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Transmitter to Receiver Ratios
a b
– –
19
Reading the Transmitter Address
The HumPRCTM Series modules do not require any software for basic
operation. There is no compiler to get, no code to write and download into
the module. However, the built-in Command Data Interface (CDI) can be
used to add additional or advanced functionality to a system.
One such feature is the ability to read out of the receiver the identity of the
transmitter that sent the commands. This allows an external processor to
log access attempts or set additional controls over which transmitters are
allowed to activate the product outside of the module.
By default, the module automatically configures itself to respond to the
transmitting module (AUTOADDR = 0x07). This configuration takes the
source address from the received packet and writes it to the UDESTID
registers UDESTID[0-3]. Reading these registers after a valid transmission
has been received indicates the transmitter that sent the command.
Administrator
Figure 22: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Multiple TX and RX
a b
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20
Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum
The module uses Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum to allow operation
at higher power levels per regulations and to reduce interference with other
transmitters. The module is configured for operation in one of 6 different
hopping sequences. Each sequence uses 26 channels for the high RF data
rate or 50 channels for the low RF data rate. Modules must use the same
RF data rate and hopping sequence to communicate. Assigning different
hopping sequences to multiple networks in the same area minimizes the
interference.
When the module is awake and not transmitting, it rapidly scans all
channels for a packet preamble. When a module starts transmitting at the
beginning of a new channel, it transmits a packet with a long preamble of
alternating 0 and 1 bits. This long preamble is sufficient to allow receiving
modules to scan through all of the channels in the hopping sequence and
find it. Modules that are scanning detect the preamble and pause on that
channel, waiting for a valid packet.
If a packet is received with a valid CRC (unencrypted) or authentication
(encrypted), the header is examined to determine whether the module
should synchronize to the transmitter. Synchronization requires that the hop
sequence matches and that the message is addressed to the receiver.
When synchronized, the receiver stays on the current channel to either
transmit a packet or to receive an additional packet. Additional packets
transmitted on the same channel within the time slot use short preambles
since the receivers are already listening to the current channel.
At the end of the time slot for the current channel, all modules which locked
to the original transmission switch to the next channel in the hop sequence.
The first transmission on each new channel has a long preamble.
A receiver that has synchronized to a transmitter continues to stay in
synchronism by staying on the received channel until the expiration of the
time slot, then waiting on the next hop channel for the duration of the time
slot. If no further packets are received, the receiver loses lock and reverts
to scanning. This allows the receiver to stay synchronized for a short while
if a packet is not received correctly.
– –
21
Addressing Modes
The module has very flexible addressing methods selected with the
ADDMODE register. It can be changed during operation. The transmitting
module addresses packets according to the addressing mode
configuration. The receiving module processes all addressing types
regardless of the ADDMODE configuration. If the received message
matches the addressing criteria, it is output on the UART. Otherwise it is
discarded. The ADDMODE configuration also enables assured delivery.
There are three addressing modes: DSN, User and Extended User. Each
mode offers different communications methods, but all use source and
destination addressing. The source address is for the transmitting unit,
the destination address is the intended receiver. Each mode uses different
registers for the source and destination addresses.
Extended User Addressing mode uses the customer ID bytes
(CUSTID[1-0]) for unencrypted messages and the four user destination
address bytes (UDESTID[3-0]) as a destination address. The module’s local
address is contained in the four user source ID registers (USRCID[3-0]).
In normal operation, each module has a user ID mask (UMASK[3-0]) that
splits the 32 address bits into up to three fields to provide a network
address and address fields for sub-networks, supporting both individual
addressing and broadcast addressing within the user’s network.
The HumPRCTM Series is normally configured using the Join Process,
which sets the addressing mode to Extended User mode. The other modes
would normally only be used if the HumPRCTM Series is being implemented
in a mixed system that also uses the HumPROTM Series modules.
Please see the HumPROTM Series data guide for a description of the
other addressing modes. A detailed explanation and examples for each
addressing mode are given in Reference Guide RG-00105.
– –
22
AES Encryption
HumPRCTM Series modules offer 128-bit AES encryption. Encryption
algorithms are complex mathematical calculations that use a large number
called a key to scramble data before transmission. This is done so that
unauthorized persons who may intercept the signal cannot access the
data. To decrypt the data, the receiver must use the same key that was
used to encrypt it. It performs the same calculations as the transmitter and
if the key is the same, the data is recovered.
The HumPRCTM Series module has the option to use AES encryption,
arguably the most common encryption algorithm on the market. This is
implemented in a secure mode of operation to ensure the secrecy of the
transmitted data. It uses a 128-bit key to encrypt the transmitted data. The
source and destination addresses are sent in the clear.
There are two ways to enable encryption and set the key: sending serial
commands and using the Join Process.
Writing an encryption key to the module with the CDI
The module has no network key when shipped from the factory. An
encryption key can be written to the module using the CDI. The CMD
register is used to write or clear a key. The key cannot be read.
The same key must be written to all modules that are to be used together.
If they do not have the same key, then they will not communicate in
encrypted mode.
The Join Process
The Join Process can be used to generate and distribute the encryption
key and addresses through a series of button presses. The key is stored in
an Administrator device and the process uses a factory key to distribute the
key to node devices in a secure manner. See the Join Process section for
more information on this feature.
– –
23
The Join Process
The Join Process is a method of generating a random encryption key and
random network base address, then distributing the key and addresses to
associated modules through a series of button presses. This makes it very
simple to establish an encrypted network in the field or add new nodes to
an existing network without any additional equipment. It is also possible
to trigger the Join Process through commands on the Command Data
Interface.
All modules configured from the same administrator using the Join Process
can communicate with each other. Other modules are added to the
network one at a time.
The hardware required is a pushbutton that is connected to the PB
line. This takes the line to VCC when it is pressed and ground when it
is released. An LED connected to the MODE_IND line provides visual
indication of the module’s state.
A module is set as an administrator by pressing and holding the button for
30 seconds to start the Generate Key function. While the button is held,
the MODE_IND line is on. After 30s, the MODE_IND line repeats a double
blink, indicating that the function is selected. When the button is released
the key and address generation are performed and the module becomes
an administrator.
An alternative way to set a module as administrator is by briefly pressing
the button twice before holding it for 30 seconds. This method selects the
high UART (57600 bps) data rate and high RF data rate. When other units
are Joined, they will also be set to the high data rates.
When Generate Key is performed, the unit is set as the network
administrator. It generates a random 128-bit AES encryption key based on
ambient RF noise and scrambled by an encryption operation. If UMASK
is the default value (0xFFFFFFFF), it is set to 0x000000FF, supporting
up to 254 nodes, and ADDMODE is set to Extended User Address
with encryption (0x27) (or without encryption (0x07) if flag PGKEY in
the SECOPT register was set to 0 by serial command). UMASK and
ADDMODE are not changed if UMASK is not 0xFFFFFFFF. A random
32-bit address is generated. By default, the lower 8 bits are 0, forming the
network base address. Other nodes are assigned sequential addresses,
starting with network base address +1. UDESTID is set to the bitwise OR
of USRCID and UMASK, which is the network broadcast address.
– –
24
A module becomes a node by joining with an administrator. This is done
by pressing and releasing the PB button on both units. The modules
automatically search for each other using a special protocol. When
they find each other, the administrator sends the node the encryption
key, UMASK and its network address. The UDESTID is set to the
network broadcast address. The values are encrypted using a special
factory-defined key. Once the Join Process is complete, the MODE_IND
blinks on both units and they now operate together. This is shown in Figure
23 A.
If UMASK is pre-set when Generate Key is initiated, then the Join Process
uses that mask and sets the address accordingly. This can allow more
nodes in the network. This is shown in Figure 23 B. Likewise, the network
key can be written to the module with the CDI interface. If the PGKEY
bit in the SECOPT register is also set to 0, the Generate Key process
will generate a network address without changing the preset key. Or the
administrator can be completely configured through the CDI and the
Join Process used to associate nodes in the field. This gives the system
designer many options for configuration.
The SECOPT register is used to configure options related to the Join
Process. This allows the OEM to set desired values at the factory and allow
final network configuration in the field. This includes disabling the ability to
change the address, change the key, share the key or perform a factory
reset through the PB line. The built-in security prohibits changing a node to
an administrator without changing the key.
Please see Reference Guide RG-00107, The HumPROTM Series Join
Process for more details and examples of the Join Process.
Key Generation and Newark Jom lrom Facmry Defau‘l OdO OdQ OZDO O Q
– –
25
D
UMASK = FF FF FF FF
USRCID = FF FF FF FF
UDESTID = FF FF FF FF
No Key
A
UMASK = 00 00 00 FF
USRCID = 76 54 32 00
UDESTID = 76 54 32 FF
Network Key
Generate Key
D
UMASK = FF FF FF FF
USRCID = FF FF FF FF
UDESTID = FF FF FF FF
No Key
N
UMASK = 00 00 00 FF
USRCID = 76 54 32 01
UDESTID = 76 54 32 FF
Network Key
JOIN
A
UMASK = 00 00 00 FF
USRCID = 76 54 32 00
UDESTID = 76 54 32 FF
Network Key
P
UMASK = 00 00 0F FF
USRCID = FF FF FF FF
UDESTID = FF FF FF FF
No Key
A
UMASK = 00 00 0F FF
USRCID = 76 54 30 00
UDESTID = 76 54 3F FF
Network Key
Generate Key
D
UMASK = FF FF FF FF
USRCID = FF FF FF FF
UDESTID = FF FF FF FF
No Key
N
UMASK = 00 00 0F FF
USRCID = 76 54 30 01
UDESTID = 76 54 3F FF
Network Key
JOIN
A
UMASK = 00 00 0F FF
USRCID = 76 54 30 00
UDESTID = 76 54 3F FF
Network Key
Key Generation and Network Join from Factory Default
Key Generation and Network Join from Preset Mask
A)
B)
Figure 23: HumPRCTM Series and HumPRCTM Series Join Process Examples
D = Factory Default
A = Network Administrator
N = Network Node
P = OEM Preset Unit
– –
26
Operation with the HumPROTM Series
The commands from the HumPRCTM Series module can be received by
a HumPROTM Series transceiver and vice versa. The modules should be
joined using the normal Join Process. The IU sends a REMOTE_ACTIVATE
packet and accepts a REMOTE_CONFIRM reply.
A microcontroller connected to the HumPROTM Series can be programmed
to take action based on the STATUS byte in a REMOTE_ACTIVATE packet
that is received from a HumPRCTM Series module. It can also read out the
packet header and know the address of the sending module and respond
with a REMOTE_CONFIRM packet to activate the ACK_OUT line on the
HumPRCTM module.
Likewise, the microcontroller can be programmed to send a REMOTE_
ACTIVATE packet to a HumPRCTM Series module. This opens up many
options for creative mixed-mode design.
Remote Activation
The REMOTE_ACTIVATE packet consists of six bytes:
0x03 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x10 <STATUS>
The first byte is 0x03 with the next three bytes 0x00. Byte five is 0x10
which indicates a Remote Activation. Byte six is the STATUS byte, which is
a bit map of the status line states. Bit 0 corresponds to status line S0 and
so forth. Each bit is 1 if the corresponding line is high.
Remote Confirm
The REMOTE_CONFIRM packet has the following format:
0x03 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x11 <DURATION> <ALIVE>
The first byte is 0x03 with the next three bytes 0x00. Byte five is 0x11 and
indicates that the packet is a remote confirm packet.
The DURATION byte indicates the amount of time that the ACK_OUT line
should be held high. This value is multiplied by 10ms. If the value is 0, the
output is immediately taken low. The default value is 0x02 for 20ms. This
value overrides the effect of a previously received REMOTE_CONFIRM
packet.
– –
27
The ALIVE byte indicates how long after the transmission the IU module
should stay awake in receive mode. This value is multiplied by 0.1s. Once
this duration expires, the module returns to sleep mode.
This message is transmitted to the IU’s address. It must be received by the
IU within one second of initial transmission or within the ALIVE interval of
the previous REMOTE_CONFIRM packet.
Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA)
CSMA is an optional feature. It is a best-effort delivery system that listens
to the channel before transmitting a message. If CSMA is enabled and
the module detects another transmitter on the same channel, it waits until
the active transmitter finishes before sending its payload. This helps to
eliminate RF message corruption and make channel use more efficient.
When a module has data ready to transmit and CSMA is enabled, it listens
on the intended transmit channel for activity. If no signal is detected,
transmission is started.
If a carrier is detected with an RSSI above the CSMA threshold in the
CSRSSI register, transmission is inhibited. If a signal below the threshold is
detected that has a compatible preamble or packet structure, transmission
is also inhibited.
If the module is synchronized from a recent packet transfer, it waits for a
random interval, then checks again for activity. If the detected carrier lasts
longer than the time allowed for the current channel, the module hops to
the next channel in the hop sequence and again waits for a clear channel
before transmitting.
If the module is not synchronized, it hops to the next channel and again
checks for interference. When no activity is detected it starts transmitting.
This feature is disabled by default in the HumPRCTM so that the fastest
response time is obtained. Enabling it can impact transmission timing, so
care should be taken with its use.
– –
28
Acknowledgement
A responding module is able to send an acknowledgement to the
transmitting module. This allows the initiating module to know that the
responding side received the command.
When the Responding Unit receives a valid REMOTE_ACTIVATE packet,
it immediately checks the state of the ACK_EN line. If it is high the module
sends a REMOTE_CONFIRM packet.
When the Initiating Unit receives a REMOTE_CONFIRM packet, it pulls
the ACK_OUT line high for an amount of time specified by the REMOTE_
CONFIRM packet (20ms by default).
Connecting the ACK_EN line to VCC causes the RU to transmit REMOTE_
CONFIRM packets as soon as it receives a valid REMOTE_ACTIVATE
packet. Alternately this line can be controlled by an external circuit that
raises the line when a specific action has taken place. This confirms to the
IU that the action took place rather than just acknowledging receipt of the
signal.
External Amplifier Control
The HumPRCTM Series transceiver has two output lines that are designed
to control external amplifiers. The PA_EN line goes high when the module
activates the transmitter. This can be used to activate an external power
amplifier to boost the signal strength of the transmitter. The LNA_EN line
goes high when the module activates the receiver. This can be used to
activate an external low noise amplifier to boost the receiver sensitivity.
These external amplifiers can significantly increase the range of the system
at the expense of higher current consumption and system cost.
The states of the PA_EN and LNA_EN lines can be read in the LSTATUS
register. This offers a quick way to determine the current state of the radio.
Note: Only one RU should be enabled to transmit an acknowledgement
response for a given IU since multiple acknowledgements will interfere
with each other.
Note: Adding an external power amplifier and/or low noise amplifier to
the pre-certified module will invalidate its regulatory certifications.
– –
29
Configuring the Status Lines
Each of the eight status lines can operate as a digital input or output. The
line direction is determined by bit 0 (ENC01) in the RCCTL register. By
default, this bit is 1, meaning that the status line directions are determined
by the logic states of the C0 and C1 lines.
When C0 is low, S0 through S3 are outputs; when high, they are inputs.
Likewise, when C1 is low, S4 through S7 are outputs; when high, they
are inputs. This is shown in Figure 24. The C0 and C1 lines are sensed at
power-up and when the RCCTL register is changed.
When the ENC01 bit is 0 the status line direction is determined by the
RCDIR register. This register acts as a bit map of the status lines. When
bit n is 1, status line Sn is an input line. When bit n is 0, status line Sn is an
output line.
Using the LATCH_EN Line
The LATCH_EN line sets the outputs to either momentary operation or
latched operation. During momentary operation, the outputs go high for as
long as control messages are received instructing the module to take the
lines high. As soon as the control messages stop, the outputs go low.
During latched operation, when a signal is received to make a particular
status line high, it remains high until a separate activation is received to
make it go low. The controlling line on the IU must go low then high to
toggle the latched output on the RU.
Latch operation is controlled by bit 1 in the RCCTL register. When this bit is
a 1 all outputs are latched. When it is a 0, the state of the LATCH_EN line
sets the latching status. In this case, when the LATCH_EN line is high, all of
the outputs are latched.
HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Status Line Direction Configuration
Line 0 1
C0 S0 through S3 are outputs S0 through S3 are inputs
C1 S4 through S7 are outputs S4 through S7 are inputs
Figure 24: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Status Line Direction Configuration
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30
Figure 25: HumPRCTM Series MODE_IND Line Timing
Using the MODE_IND Line
The MODE_IND line is designed to be connected to an LED to provide
visual indication of the module’s status and current actions. The pattern of
blinks indicates the particular feedback from the module. Figure 25 shows
the different blink patterns and their meanings.
HumPRCTM Series Transceiver MODE_IND Line Timing
Display
[on/off time in seconds] Module Status
Join Operation
Two quick blinks Administrator Join. The administrator is looking for a node
to join with.
One quick blink Node Join. The node is looking for an administrator to join
with.
Quick blink Key Transfer Active. Key transfer is taking place
(administrator and node).
Slow Blink Key Transfer Complete. The module has completed a key
transfer (administrator and node).
Temporary On On when the PB line is high
Two quick blinks, one time Join Canceled.
Slow blink, repeat 3 times
Failure. For Share Key or Get Key, there are multiple
units attempting to pair, protocol error, or timeout without
response
Slow blink and two quick
blinks
Long Hold Acknowledgement. The long hold period for
Generate Key or Reset Sequence was recognized (PB is
asserted)
Key Test Results
One quick blink Three
times No Key. There is no network key or network address.
Two quick blinks Three
times
Key Set, node. The network key and network address are
set on a node.
Three quick blinks Three
times
Key Set, administrator. The network key and network
address are set on an administrator.
Normal operation
Off No activity
Temporarily on Transmitting or receiving packet
– –
31
Figure 26 shows the MODE_IND displays in a graphical format.
Using the PB Line
The PB Line is used to trigger functions associated with the Join Process.
This line should be connected to a momentary pushbutton that pulls the
line to VCC when it is pressed and opens the circuit when it is released.
The sequence of presses determines which function is triggered. Figure 27
shows the sequences.
Administrator Join
Node Join
Key Transfer Active
Repeats for 30 seconds or until JOIN is complete
Repeats for 30 seconds or until JOIN is complete
Repeats for the duration of the transfer
Key Transfer Complete
JOIN Cancelled
Long Hold
Repeats for as long as the PB line is asserted
after the long hold period has been recognized
Failure
No Key Set
Repeats, three times total
Key Set, Node
Repeats, three times total
Key Set, Administrator
Repeats, three times total
OperationMODE_IND Display Comments
Six blinks total
0 0.5 121.5 2.5
Time (seconds)
Figure 26: HumPRCTM Series MODE_IND Displays
HumPRCTM Series Transceiver PB Line Operation
Function Sequence
Join a network 1 short pulse
Cancel a Join Process that is in progress 1 short pulse
Generate a network key and address;
9,600bps Hold high for 30 seconds
Generate a network key and address;
57,600bps 2 short pulses and hold high for 30 seconds
Reset to factory defaults 4 short pulses and hold high for 3 seconds
Test key and address 3 short pulses
A short pulse is a logic high that is between 100 and 2,000ms in duration.
Figure 27: HumPRCTM Series PB Line Operation
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32
Restore Factory Defaults
The transceiver is reset to factory default by taking the PB line high briefly
4 times, then holding PB high for more than 3 seconds. Each brief interval
must be high 0.1 to 2 seconds and low 0.1 to 2 seconds. (1 second
nominal high / low cycle). The sequence helps prevent accidental resets.
Once the sequence is recognized, the MODE_IND line blinks in groups
of three until the PB line goes low. After PB goes low, the non-volatile
configurations are set to the factory default values and the module is
restarted. The default UART data rate is 9,600bps.
If the timing on PB does not match the limits, the sequence is ignored.
Another attempt can be made after lowering PB for at least 3 seconds.
Using the Low Power Features
The module supports a sleep state to save current in battery-powered
applications. During the sleep state, no module activity occurs and no
packets can be received but current consumption is less than 1µA typical.
There are two ways of putting the module to sleep. First, pulling the Power
Down (POWER_DOWN) line low puts the module to sleep. Taking the line
high wakes the module. Second, all of the following should be true:
1. There is no transmission in progress
2. All status lines are low and either
IDLE = 1 (default) and all status lines are configured as inputs, or
IDLE = 2 (allows sleeping when incoming control message can be
missed)
3. The internal KeepAlive timer has expired.
The internal KeepAlive timer is set by the following events:
1. On wakeup from a transition on the CMD_DATA_IN line, KeepAlive is
set to 2s. This allows time for an external unit to change IDLE to 0 to
keep the unit awake.
2. On each transmission, KeepAlive is set to 760ms if the remaining
KeepAlive time is less. [max(760ms, KeepAlive)]
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33
3. On reception of a REMOTE_CONFIRM packet, KeepAlive is
set to received ALIVE value multiplied by 0.1s if the remaining
KeepAlive time is less. The KeepAlive can be extended indefinitely
by periodic reception of REMOTE_CONFIRM messages.
max(REMOTE_CONFIRM.keepAlive * 100ms, KeepAlive)
During sleep mode, the output lines are in the states in Figure 28.
When the POWER_DOWN line is high, the module awakens when a status
line input goes high, the PB line goes high or there is a change on the
CMD_DATA_IN lines. If a negative-going pulse is needed to generate a
rising edge, the pulse width should be greater than 1 µs.
If the volatile registers have been corrupted during sleep, a software reset
is performed. This restarts the module as if power were cycled. This can be
caused by power surges or brownout among other things.
Pulsing RESET low causes the module to restart rather than continue from
sleep.
IDLE = 1 is used when the module is an IU only. This puts it to sleep when
all status line inputs are low.
IDLE = 2 is used when the module is primarily an IU, but can accept
activation commands from remote units. In this case, the module stays
asleep until a status line input goes high. While awake, the module can
receive activation commands and will remain awake while commands are
received. As soon as all status line inputs and outputs go low, the module
returns to sleep.
HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Output Line Sleep States
Output Line Sleep State
S0 - S7 output Low
LNA_EN Low
PA_EN Low
CMD_DATA_OUT Low
MODE_IND Low
ACK_OUT Low
Figure 28: HumPRCTM Series Output Line Sleep States
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34
The Command Data Interface
The HumPRCTM Series transceiver has a serial Command Data Interface
(CDI) that is used to configure and control the transceiver through
software commands. This interface consists of a standard UART with a
serial command set. The CMD_DATA_IN and CMD_DATA_OUT lines are
the interface to the module’s UART. The UART is configured for 1 start
bit, 1 stop bit, 8 data bits, no parity and a serial data rate set by register
UARTBAUD (default 9,600bps).
Configuration settings are stored in two types of memory inside the
module. Volatile memory is quick to access, but it is lost when power is
removed from the module. Non-volatile memory has a limited number of
write cycles, but is retained when power is removed. When a configuration
parameter has both a non-volatile and volatile register, the volatile register
controls the operation unless otherwise stated. The non-volatile register
holds the default value that is loaded into the volatile register on power-up.
Configuration settings are read from non-volatile memory on power up
and saved in volatile memory. The volatile and non-volatile registers have
different address locations, but the same read and write commands. The
two locations can be changed independently.
The general serial command format for the module is:
[FF] [Length] [Command]
The Length byte is the number of bytes in the Command field. The
Command field contains the register address that is to be accessed and,
in the case of a write command, the value to be written. Neither Length nor
Command can contain a 0xFF byte.
Byte values of 128 (0x80) or greater can be sent as a two-byte escape
sequence of the format:
0xFE, [value - 0x80]
For example, the value 0x83 becomes 0xFE, 0x03. The Length count
includes the added escape bytes.
A response is returned for all valid commands. The first response byte is
CMD_ACK (0x06) or CMD_NACK (0x15). Additional bytes may follow, as
determined by the specific command.
– –
35
Reading from Registers
A register read command is constructed by placing an escape character
(0xFE) before the register number. The module responds by sending an
ACK (0x06) followed by the register number and register value. The register
value is sent unmodified, so if the register value is 0x83, 0x83 is returned.
If the register number is invalid, the module responds with a NACK (0x15).
The command and response are shown in Figure 29.
Figure 29: HumPRCTM Series Read from Configuration Register Command and Response
HumPRCTM Series Read From Configuration Register
Command
Header Size Escape Address
0xFF 0x02 0xFE REG
Response
ACK Address Value
0x06 REG V
Command for an Address greater than 128 (0x80)
Header Size Escape Addr1 Addr2
0xFF 0x03 0xFE 0xFE REG-80
Response
ACK Address Value
0x06 REG V
– –
36
Writing to Registers
To allow any byte value to be written, values of 128 (0x80) or greater can
be encoded into a two-byte escape sequence of the format 0xFE, [value
- 0x80]. This includes register addresses as well as values to be written to
the registers. The result is that there are four possible packet structures
because of the possible escape sequences. These are shown in Figure 30.
Generally, there are three steps to creating the command.
1. Determine the register address and the value to be written.
2. Encode the address and value as either the number (N) or the encoded
number (0xFE, N-0x80) as appropriate.
3. Add the header (0xFF) and the size.
The module responds with an ACK (0x06). If the ACK is not received, the
command should be resent. The module responds with a NACK (0x15) if a
write is attempted to a read-only or invalid register.
As an example, to write 01 to register 0x83, send
FF 03 FE 03 01
Figure 30: HumPRCTM Series Write to Configuration Register Command
HumPRCTM Series Write to Configuration Register Command
Register and Value less than 128 (0x80)
Header Size Address Value
0xFF 0x02 REG V
Register less than 128 (0x80) and a Value greater than or equal to 128 (0x80)
Header Size Address Escape Value
0xFF 0x03 REG 0xFE V-0x80
Register greater than or equal to 128 (0x80) and a Value less than 128 (0x80)
Header Size Escape Address Value
0xFF 0x03 0xFE REG-0x80 V
Register and Value greater than or equal to 128 (0x80)
Header Size Escape Address Escape Value
0xFF 0x04 0xFE REG-0x80 0xFE V-0x80
Note: The non-volatile memory has a life expectancy with a limited
number of refresh cycles. Please see the electrical specifications.
– –
37
Command Length Optimization
Some commands may be shortened by applying the following rules:
1. Escape sequences are not required for byte values 0x00 to 0xEF
(besides 0xFE and 0xFF, bytes 0xF0 – 0xFD are reserved for future
use).
2. An escape byte inverts bit 7 of the following data byte.
3. The 0xFE as the first byte of the Read Register Command field is an
escape byte.
4. Two consecutive escape bytes cancel unless the following data byte
is 0xf0-0xff.
Examples:
FF 02 FE 02 (read nv:TXPWR) is equivalent to FF 01 82.
FF 03 FE FE 53 (read v:PKOPT) is equivalent to FF 01 53.
FF 03 1A FE 7F (write FF to nv:UMASK0) cannot be shortened.
FF 03 1A FE 40 (write C0 to nv:UMASK0) is equivalent to FF 02 1A
C0.
These rules are implemented in the sample code file EncodeProCmd.c,
which can be downloaded from the Linx website.
– –
38
Example Code for Encoding Read/Write Commands
This software example is provided as a courtesy in “as is” condition. Linx
Technologies makes no guarantee, representation, or warranty, whether
express, implied, or statutory, regarding the suitability of the software for
use in a specific application. The company shall not, in any circumstances,
be liable for special, incidental, or consequential damages, for any reason
whatsoever.
File EncodeProCmd.c
/* Sample C code for encoding HUM-fff-PRO commands
**
** Copyright 2015 Linx Technologies
** 159 Ort Lane
** Merlin, OR, US 97532
** www.linxtechnologies.com
**
** License:
** Permission is granted to use and modify this code, without royalty, for
** any purpose, provided the copyright statement and license are included.
*/
#include “EncodeProCmd.h”
/* Function: HumProCommand
** Description: This function encodes a command byte sequence.
** If len = 1, a read command is generated.
** If len > 1, a write command is generated.
** rcmd[0] = register number
** rcmd[1..(n-1)] = bytes to write
*/
unsigned char /* number of encoded bytes, n+2 to 2*n+2 */
HumProCommand(
unsigned char *ecmd, /* out: encoded command, length >= 2*n + 2 */
const unsigned char *rcmd, /* in: sequence of bytes to encode */
unsigned char n /* number of bytes in rcmd, 1..32 */
) {
unsigned char dx; /* destination index */
unsigned char sx; /* source index */
unsigned char v; /* value to be encoded */
dx = 2;
sx = 0;
while (n--) {
v = rcmd[sx++];
if (v >= 0xf0) {
ecmd[dx++] = 0xfe;
v &= 0x7f;
}
ecmd[dx++] = v;
}
ecmd[0] = 0xff;
ecmd[1] = dx - 2;
– –
39
return dx;
}
/* Function: HumProRead
** Description: This function encodes a read command to the specified
** register address.
*/
unsigned char /* number of encoded bytes, 3 to 4 */
HumProRead(
unsigned char *cmd, /* out: encoded read command, length >= 4 */
unsigned char reg /* register number to read, 0..0xff */
) {
unsigned char ra; /* read register byte */
ra = reg ^ 0x80;
return HumProCommand(cmd, &ra, 1);
}
/* Function: HumProWrite
** Description: This function encodes a command to write a single byte to
** a specified register address.
*/
unsigned char /* number of encoded bytes, 4 to 6 */
HumProWrite(
unsigned char *cmd, /* out: encoded read command, length >= 6 */
unsigned char reg, /* register number to write, 0..0xff */
unsigned char val /* value byte, 0..0xff */
) {
unsigned char cs[2];
cs[0] = reg;
cs[1] = val;
return HumProCommand(cmd, &cs, 2);
}
– –
40
The Command Data Interface Command Set
The following sections describe the registers.
HumPRCTM Series Configuration Registers
Name NV
Addr
Vol
Addr R/W Default
Value Description
CRCERRS 0x40 R/W 0x00 CRC Error Count
HOPTABLE 0x00 0x4B R/W 0xFF Channel Hop Table
TXPWR 0x02 0x4D R/W 0x03 Transmit Power
UARTBAUD 0x03 0x4E R/W 0x01 UART data rate
ADDMODE 0x04 0x4F R/W 0x0F Addressing mode
DATATO 0x05 0x50 R/W 0x10 Data timeout
MAXTXRETRY 0x07 0x52 R/W 0x02 Maximum Transmit Retries
ENCRC 0x08 0x53 R/W 0x01 Enable CRC checking
BCTRIG 0x09 0x54 R/W 0x40 Byte Count trigger
ENCSMA 0x0B 0x56 R/W 0x01 Enable CSMA
IDLE 0x0D 0x58 R/W 0x01 Idle Mode
WAKEACK 0x0E 0x59 R/W 0x01 UART Acknowledge on Wake
UDESTID3 0x0F 0x5A R/W 0xFF Destination Address for User Packet
Type, extended
UDESTID2 0x10 0x5B R/W 0xFF Destination Address for User Packet
Type, extended
UDESTID1 0x11 0x5C R/W 0xFF Destination Address for User Packet
Type
UDESTID0 0x12 0x5D R/W 0xFF Destination Address for User Packet
Type
USRCID3 0x13 0x5E R/W 0xFF Source Address for User Packet Type,
extended
USRCID2 0x14 0x5F R/W 0xFF Source Address for User Packet Type,
extended
USRCID1 0x15 0x60 R/W 0xFF Source Address for User Packet Type
USRCID0 0x16 0x61 R/W 0xFF Source Address for User Packet Type
UMASK3 0x17 0x62 R/W 0xFF Address Mask for User Packet Type,
extended
UMASK2 0x18 0x63 R/W 0xFF Address Mask for User Packet Type,
extended
UMASK1 0x19 0x64 R/W 0xFF Address Mask for User Packet Type
UMASK0 0x1A 0x65 R/W 0xFF Address Mask for User Packet Type
DESTDSN3 0x1D 0x68 R/W 0xFF Destination Device Serial Number
DESTDSN2 0x1E 0x69 R/W 0xFF Destination Device Serial Number
DESTDSN1 0x1F 0x6A R/W 0xFF Destination Device Serial Number
DESTDSN0 0x20 0x6B R/W 0xFF Destination Device Serial Number
– –
41
RCCTL 0x22 0x6D R/W 0x01 RC control
CMDHOLD 0x23 0x6E R/W 0x01 Hold RF data when nCMD pin is low
RCDIR 0x24 0x6F R/W 0xFF RC status line direction select
COMPAT 0x25 0x70 R/W 0x02 Compatibility
AUTOADDR 0x26 0x71 R/W 0x07 Automatic Reply Address
MYDSN3 0x34 R Factory programmed Serial Number
MYDSN2 0x35 R Factory programmed Serial Number
MYDSN1 0x36 R Factory programmed Serial Number
MYDSN0 0x37 R Factory programmed Serial Number
CUSTID1 0x39 R 0xFF Factory programmed customer ID
CUSTID0 0x3A R 0xFF Factory programmed customer ID
CSRSSI 0x3F R/W 0xBA Carrier Sense minimum RSSI
RELEASE 0x78 R Release number
RCSLS 0x7A R 0x00 RC status line state
PRSSI 0x7B R 0x00 Packet RSSI
ARSSI 0x7C R 0x00 Ambient RSSI
FWVER3 0xC0 R Firmware version, major
FWVER2 0xC1 R Firmware version, minor
FWVER1 0xC2 R Firmware version, increment
FWVER0 0xC3 R Firmware version, suffix
NVCYCLE1 0xC4 R NV Refresh Cycles, MS
NVCYCLE0 0xC5 R NV Refresh Cycles, LS
LSTATUS 0xC6 R Status lines
CMD 0xC7 W 0x00 Command register
SECSTAT 0xC9 R Security Status
JOINST 0xCA R 0x00 Join Status
EEXFLAG2 0xCD R/W 0x00 Extended exception flags
EEXFLAG1 0xCE R/W 0x00 Extended exception flags
EEXFLAG0 0xCF R/W 0x00 Extended exception flags
EEXMASK2 0x80 0xD0 R/W 0x00 Extended exception mask
EEXMASK1 0x81 0xD1 R/W 0x00 Extended exception mask
EEXMASK0 0x82 0xD2 R/W 0x00 Extended exception mask
PKTOPT 0x83 0xD3 R/W 0x01 Packet options
SECOPT 0x84 0xD4 R/W 0xFF Security Options
LASTNETAD[3] 0x8C R/W 0x00 Last Network Address Assigned
LASTNETAD[2] 0x8D R/W 0x00 Last Network Address Assigned
LASTNETAD[1] 0x8E R/W 0x00 Last Network Address Assigned
LASTNETAD[0] 0x8F R/W 0x00 Last Network Address Assigned
Figure 31: HumPRCTM Series Configuration Registers
– –
42
CRCERRS - CRC Error Count
Volatile Address = 0x40
The value in the CRCERRS register is incremented each time a packet with
a valid header is received that fails the CRC check on the payload. This
check applies only to unencrypted packets. Overflows are ignored. Writing
0x00 to this register initializes the count. Figure 32 shows the command
and response.
HOPTABLE - Channel Hop Table
Volatile Address = 0x4B; Non-Volatile Address = 0x00
The module supports 6 different hop sequences with minimal correlation.
The sequence is set by the value in the HOPTABLE register. Changing the
hop sequence changes the band utilization, much the same way that a
channel does for a non-hopping transmitter. The hop table selection must
match between the transmitter and receiver. Valid values are 0-5. The
default value of 0xFF must be changed before communication can occur.
This is normally done by the Join Process. Figure 33 shows the command
and response.
Figure 32: HumPRCTM Series CRC Error Count Command and Response
Figure 33: HumPRCTM Series Channel Hop Table Command and Response
HumPRCTM Series CRC Error Count
Read Command Read Response
Header Size Escape Address ACK Address Value
0xFF 0x02 0xFE 0x40 0x06 0x40 V
Write Command
Header Size Address Value
0xFF 0x02 0x40 V
HumPRCTM Series Channel Hop Table
Read Command Read Response
Header Size Escape Address ACK Address Value
0xFF 0x02 0xFE 0x4B
0x00 0x06 0x4B
0x00 V
Write Command
Header Size Address Value
0xFF 0x02 0x4B
0x00 V
– –
43
HumPRCTM Series RF Channels
Channel Number Frequency (MHz) Channel Number Frequency (MHz)
0 902.971 32 915.000
1 903.347 33 915.376
2 903.723 34 915.752
3 904.099 35 916.128
4 904.475 36 916.504
5 904.851 37 916.880
6 905.227 38 917.255
7 905.602 39 917.631
8 905.978 40 918.007
9 906.354 41 918.383
10 906.730 42 918.759
11 907.106 43 919.135
12 907.482 44 919.511
13 907.858 45 919.887
14 908.234 46 920.263
15 908.610 47 920.639
16 908.986 48 921.014
17 909.361 49 921.390
18 909.737 50 921.766
19 910.113 51 922.142
20 910.489 52 922.518
21 910.865 53 922.894
22 911.241 54 923.270
23 911.617 55 923.646
24 911.993 56 924.022
25 912.369 57 924.398
26 912.745 58 924.773
27 913.120 59 925.149
28 913.496 60 925.525
29 913.872 61 925.901
30 914.248 62 926.277
31 914.624 63 926.653
Figure 34: HumPRCTM Series RF Channels
Figure 34 shows the RF channels used by the HumPRCTM Series. When
the baud rate is set to 9,600 or 19,200 bps, the module uses 50 hopping
channels. Figure 35 shows the hop sequences referenced by channel
number. When the baud rate is 38,400bps and higher, the module uses 26
hopping channels and only even channels are used. Figure 36 shows the
hop sequences referenced by channel number. The default hop sequence
is 0.
– –
44
HumPRCTM Series Hop Sequences by Channel Number for 19,200bps and below
0 1 2 3 4 5
25 30 11 58 52 35
63 60 12 11 10 23
28 59 0 52 54 41
26 14 62 37 62 45
16 16 23 36 21 7
61 32 43 42 33 42
4 4 25 25 44 63
29 47 34 15 51 24
0 26 61 1 61 9
44 43 26 55 36 27
46 1 24 2 34 10
22 25 6 12 2 17
36 36 31 26 57 20
34 15 7 27 50 22
24 57 32 41 12 18
2 10 55 9 29 32
21 48 39 8 6 3
11 21 1 31 8 8
27 8 41 49 46 15
1 17 29 13 48 4
35 37 15 47 11 0
37 45 57 14 39 48
55 44 3 33 4 13
8 13 42 48 45 61
10 33 47 38 22 31
54 0 2 45 56 56
13 46 56 59 18 52
32 62 33 3 43 54
43 34 9 46 60 55
12 7 14 0 31 62
23 24 30 39 47 6
48 22 21 57 0 37
14 58 4 56 20 36
39 42 54 5 37 38
40 50 59 40 59 51
15 12 51 23 35 59
57 20 22 62 7 5
18 39 38 24 15 43
60 27 58 54 25 21
41 2 60 17 16 40
9 35 52 22 23 14
49 5 45 32 42 12
58 28 37 7 24 30
38 49 13 61 32 16
45 29 35 34 28 34
56 18 36 63 26 46
50 38 8 50 13 60
42 3 46 30 3 39
62 52 40 43 5 58
47 40 49 28 49 33
Figure 35: HumPRCTM Series Hop Sequences for UART rate of 19,200bps and below
– –
45
HumPRCTM Series Hop Sequences by Channel Number for 38,400bps and Above
0 1 2 3 4 5
32 30 6 56 44 18
2 60 40 22 14 48
4 58 42 20 16 46
10 52 48 14 22 40
20 42 58 4 32 30
42 20 16 46 54 8
22 40 60 2 34 28
46 16 20 42 58 4
28 34 2 60 40 22
58 4 32 30 6 56
54 8 28 34 2 60
44 18 18 44 56 6
24 38 62 0 36 26
48 14 22 40 60 2
34 28 8 54 46 16
6 56 44 18 18 44
14 48 52 10 26 36
30 32 4 58 42 20
62 0 36 26 10 52
60 2 34 28 8 54
56 6 30 32 4 58
50 12 24 38 62 0
38 24 12 50 50 12
12 50 50 12 24 38
26 36 0 62 38 24
52 10 26 36 0 62
Figure 36: HumPRCTM Series Hop Sequences for UART rates of 38,400bps and above
– –
46
TXPWR - Transmitter Output Power
Volatile Address = 0x4D; Non-Volatile Address = 0x02
The value in the TXPWR register sets the module’s output power. Figure 37
shows the command and response and Figure 38 available power settings
and typical power outputs for the module. The default setting is 0x03.
HumPRCTM Series Transmitter Output Power Mode Register Settings
PWR Typical Output Power (dBm)
0x00 -5
0x01 0
0x02 +5
0x03 +9
Figure 37: HumPRCTM Series Transmitter Output Power Mode Command and Response
Figure 38: HumPRCTM Series Transmitter Output Power Mode Settings
HumPRCTM Series Transmitter Output Power Mode
Read Command Read Response
Header Size Escape Address ACK Address Value
0xFF 0x02 0xFE 0x4D
0x02 0x06 0x4D
0x02 PWR
Write Command
Header Size Address Value
0xFF 0x02 0x4D
0x02 PWR
ADDMODE - Addressing Mode
Volatile Address = 0x4F; Non-Volatile Address = 0x04
This register is controlled automatically by the HumPRCTM application and
the Join Process, so should not be changed by external commands.
DATATO - Transmit Wait Timeout
Volatile Address = 0x50; Non-Volatile Address = 0x05
This register selects options for transferring packet data in the HumPROTM
Series. These options are controlled automatically by the HumPRCTM
application and do not have any effect on its operation.
– –
47
UARTBAUD - UART Baud Rate
Volatile Address = 0x4E; Non-Volatile Address = 0x03
The value in UARTBAUD sets the data rate of the UART interface.
Changing the non-volatile register changes the data rate on the following
power-up or reset. Changing the volatile register changes the data rate
immediately following the command acknowledgement. Figure 39 shows
the command and response and Figure 40 shows the valid settings.
If the module’s UART baud rate is different than the host processor UART
baud rate then the module will not communicate correctly. If mismatched,
every rate can be tested until the correct one is found or the module can be
reset to factory defaults. The default baud rate is 9,600bps (0x01).
Figure 39: HumPRCTM Series UART Baud Rate Command and Response
Figure 40: HumPRCTM Series UART Baud Rate Settings
HumPRCTM Series UART Baud Rate Register Settings
V Baud Rate (bps) RF Data Rate (bps)
0x01 9,600 19,200
0x02 19,200 19,200
0x03 38,400 153,600
0x04 57,600 153,600
0x05 115,200 153,600
0x06 10,400* 153,600
0x07 31,250* 153,600
* These data rates are not supported by PC serial ports. Selection of these rates may
cause the module to fail to respond to a PC, requiring a reset to factory defaults.
HumPRCTM Series UART Baud Rate
Read Command Read Response
Header Size Escape Address ACK Address Value
0xFF 0x02 0xFE 0x4E
0x03 0x06 0x4E
0x03 V
Write Command
Header Size Address Value
0xFF 0x02 0x4E
0x03 V
– –
48
MAXTXRETRY - Maximum Transmit Retries
Volatile Address = 0x52; Non-Volatile Address = 0x07
The value in the MAXTXRETRY register sets the number of transmission
retries performed if an acknowledgement is not received. If an
acknowledgement is not received after the last retry, exception EX_
NORFACK is raised. Figure 41 shows examples of the command.
The time between retries depends on the current baud rate. Figure 42
shows the time between retries based on baud rate. The elapsed transmit
and acknowledgment time is (retries+1) × (PacketTransmitTime + Timeout).
Figure 41: HumPRCTM Series Maximum Transmit Retries Command and Response
HumPRCTM Series Acknowledgement Timeout Times
Baud Rate Timeout Time
9,600 50ms
19,200 50ms
38,400 30ms
57,600 30ms
115,200 30ms
Figure 42: HumPRCTM Series Acknowledgement Timeout Times
HumPRCTM Series Maximum Transmit Retries
Read Command Read Response
Header Size Escape Address ACK Address Value
0xFF 0x02 0xFE 0x52
0x07 0x06 0x52
0x07 V
Write Command
Header Size Address Value
0xFF 0x02 0x52
0x07 V
– –
49
ENCRC - CRC Enable
Volatile Address = 0x53; Non-Volatile Address = 0x08
The protocol includes a Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) on the received
unencrypted packets to make sure that there are no errors. Encrypted
packets use a key-based error detection method. Any packets with errors
are discarded and not output on the UART. This feature can be disabled
if it is desired to perform error checking outside the module. Set the
ENCRC register to 0x01 to enable CRC checking, or 0x00 to disable it. The
default CRC mode setting is enabled. Figure 43 shows examples of the
commands and Figure 44 shows the available values.
Although disabling CRC checking allows receiving packets with errors
in the payload, errors in the header can still prevent packets from being
output by the module.
BCTRIG - UART Byte Count Trigger
Volatile Address = 0x54; Non-Volatile Address = 0x09
This register selects options for transferring packet data in the HumPROTM
Series. These options are controlled automatically by the HumPRCTM
application and do not have any effect on its operation.
HumPRCTM Series CRC Enable Register Settings
V Mode
0x00 CRC Disabled
0x01 CRC Enabled
Figure 43: HumPRCTM Series CRC Enable Command and Response
Figure 44: HumPRCTM Series CRC Enable Register Settings
HumPRCTM Series CRC Enable
Read Command Read Response
Header Size Escape Address ACK Address Value
0xFF 0x02 0xFE 0x53
0x08 0x06 0x53
0x08 V
Write Command
Header Size Address Value
0xFF 0x02 0x53
0x08 V
– –
50
ENCSMA - CSMA Enable
Volatile Address = 0x56; Non-Volatile Address = 0x0B
Carrier-Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) is a best-effort transmission protocol
that listens to the channel before transmitting a message. If another
device is already transmitting on the same channel when a message is
ready to send, the module waits before sending its payload or changes
to an unused channel. This helps to eliminate RF message corruption at
the expense of additional latency. By default, CSMA is enabled. Figure
45 shows examples of the commands and Figure 46 shows the available
values.
See the Carrier Sense Multiple Access section for details.
Figure 45: HumPRCTM Series CSMA Enable Command and Response
HumPRCTM Series CSMA Enable Register Settings
V Mode
0x00 Disable CSMA
0x01 Enable CSMA
Figure 46: HumPRCTM Series CSMA Enable Register Settings
HumPRCTM Series CSMA Enable
Read Command Read Response
Header Size Escape Address ACK Address Value
0xFF 0x02 0xFE 0x56
0x0B 0x06 0x56
0x0B V
Write Command
Header Size Address Value
0xFF 0x02 0x56
0x0B V
– –
51
IDLE - Idle Mode
Volatile Address = 0x58; Non-Volatile Address = 0x0D
The value in the IDLE register sets the operating mode of the transceiver.
If the module remains properly powered, and is awakened from a low
power mode properly, the volatile registers retain their values. If the volatile
registers become corrupted during low power, a software reset is forced
and the module reboots.
Awake is the normal operating setting. This is the only setting in which the
RF circuitry is able to receive and transmit RF messages.
Sleep disables all circuitry on-board the module. This is the lowest-power
setting available for the module.
Please see the Low Power States section for more details. Figure 47 shows
examples of the commands and Figure 48 shows the available values.
Figure 47: HumPRCTM Series Idle Mode Command and Response
HumPRCTM Series Idle Mode Register Settings
V Mode
0x00 Awake
0x01 Sleep when all status lines are inputs and low
0x02 Sleep when all status lines are low
Figure 48: HumPRCTM Series Idle Mode Register Settings
HumPRCTM Series Idle Mode
Read Command Read Response
Header Size Escape Address ACK Address Value
0xFF 0x02 0xFE 0x58
0x0D 0x06 0x58
0x0D V
Write Command
Header Size Address Value
0xFF 0x02 0x58
0x0D V
– –
52
WAKEACK - ACK on Wake
Volatile Address = 0x59; Non-Volatile Address = 0x0E
When UART Acknowledge on Wake is enabled, the module sends an ACK
(0x06) character out of the CMD_DATA_OUT line after the module resets or
wakes from sleep. This indicates that the module is ready to accept data
and commands. A value of 0x01 enables this feature; 0x00 disables it. The
default value is 0x01. Figure 49 shows examples of the commands and
Figure 50 shows the available values.
Figure 49: HumPRCTM Series ACK on Wake Command and Response
HumPRCTM Series ACK on Wake Register Settings
V Mode
0x00 Disable ACK
0x01 Enable ACK
Figure 50: HumPRCTM Series ACK on Wake Register Settings
HumPRCTM Series ACK on Wake
Read Command Read Response
Header Size Escape Address ACK Address Value
0xFF 0x02 0xFE 0x59
0x0E 0x06 0x59
0x0E V
Write Command
Header Size Address Value
0xFF 0x02 0x59
0x0E V
– –
53
UDESTID - User Destination Address
Volatile Address = 0x5A-0x5D; Non-Volatile Address = 0x0F-0x12
These registers contain the address of the destination module when User
Addressing mode or Extended User Addressing mode are enabled. User
Addressing mode uses bytes 0 and 1 to determine the destination address.
Extended User Addressing mode uses all four bytes. These registers are
automatically filled with the source address from a received message if the
received message address type matches the value in AUTOADDR. Please
see the Addressing Modes section for more details. Each register byte
is read and written separately. Figure 51 shows the User Destination ID
registers.
HumPRCTM Series User Destination Address Registers
Name Volatile
Address
Non-Volatile
Address Description
UDESTID3 0x5A 0x0F MSB of the extended destination address
UDESTID2 0x5B 0x10 Byte 2 of the extended destination address
UDESTID1 0x5C 0x11 Byte 1 of the extended destination address,
MSB of the short destination address
UDESTID0 0x5D 0x12 LSB of the extended destination address and
short destination address
Figure 51: HumPRCTM Series User Destination Address Registers
– –
54
USRCID - User Source Address
Volatile Address = 0x5E-0x61; Non-Volatile Address = 0x13-0x16
These registers contain the address of the module when User Addressing
mode or Extended User Addressing mode are enabled. User Addressing
mode uses bytes 0 and 1 to determine the source address for both
transmitted messages and matching received messages. Extended User
Addressing mode uses all four bytes. When the COMPAT register is 0x02 in
User Address mode, bytes 3 and 2 must be 0. Please see the Addressing
Modes section for more details. Each register byte is read and written
separately. Figure 52 shows the User Source ID registers.
HumPRCTM Series User Source Address Registers
Name Volatile
Address
Non-Volatile
Address Description
USRCID3 0x5E 0x13 MSB of the extended source address
USRCID2 0x5F 0x14 Byte 2 of the extended source address
USRCID1 0x60 0x15 Byte 1 of the extended source address
MSB of the short source address
USRCID0 0x61 0x16 LSB of the extended source address and short
source address
Figure 52: HumPRCTM Series User Source Address Registers
– –
55
UMASK - User ID Mask
Volatile Address = 0x62-0x65; Non-Volatile Address = 0x17-0x1A
These registers contain the user ID mask when User Addressing mode or
Extended User Addressing mode are enabled. Please see the Addressing
Modes section for more details. Each register byte is read and written
separately.
Figure 53 shows the User ID Mask registers.
Figure 53: HumPRCTM Series User ID Mask Registers
HumPRCTM Series User ID Mask Registers
Name Volatile
Address
Non-Volatile
Address Description
UMASK3 0x62 0x17 MSB of the extended mask
UMASK2 0x63 0x18 Byte 2 of the extended mask
UMASK1 0x64 0x19 Byte 1 of the extended mask
MSB of the short mask
UMASK0 0x65 0x1A LSB of the extended mask and short mask
– –
56
DESTDSN - Destination Serial Number
Volatile Address = 0x68-0x6B; Non-Volatile Address = 0x1D-0x20
These registers contain the serial number of the destination module when
DSN Addressing Mode is enabled. Please see the Addressing Modes
section for more details. Each register byte is read and written separately.
Figure 54 shows the Destination DSN registers.
HumPRCTM Series Destination DSN Registers
Name Volatile
Address
Non-Volatile
Address Description
DESTDSN3 0x68 0x1D MSB of the destination DSN
DESTDSN2 0x69 0x1E Byte 2 of the destination DSN
DESTDSN1 0x6A 0x1F Byte 1 of the destination DSN
DESTDSN0 0x6B 0x20 LSB of the destination DSN
Figure 54: HumPRCTM Series Destination DSN Registers
– –
57
RCCTL - RC Control
Volatile Address = 0x6D; Non-Volatile Address = 0x22
This register controls RC behavior.
When ENC01 is 1, the C0 and C1 lines control the status line direction.
When 0, register RCDIR controls the status line direction. Please see the
Configuring the Status Lines section for more details.
When LATCHOP is 1, all output status lines are latched, regardless of the
LATCH_EN line state. When 0, the LATCH_EN line determines the latching
status of the output lines.
Figure 55: HumPRCTM Series RC Control Command and Response
Figure 56: HumPRCTM Series RC Control Register Settings
HumPRCTM Series RC Control
Read Command Read Response
Header Size Escape Address ACK Address Value
0xFF 0x02 0xFE 0x6D
0x22 0x06 0x6D
0x22 V
Write Command
Header Size Address Value
0xFF 0x02 0x6D
0x22 V
HumPRCTM Series RC Control Values
RCCTL Bit Control
0 ENC01 – Enable C0 and C1 control inputs
1 LATCHOP – latch outputs
2 Reserved
3 Reserved
4 Reserved
5 Reserved
6 Reserved
7 Reserved
– –
58
CMDHOLD - CMD Halts Traffic
Volatile Address = 0x6E; Non-Volatile Address = 0x23
This register selects options for transferring packet data in the HumPROTM
Series. These options are controlled automatically by the HumPRCTM
application and do not have any effect on its operation.
COMPAT - Compatibility Mode
Volatile Address = 0x70; Non-Volatile Address = 0x25
This register selects options for transferring packet data in the HumPROTM
Series. These options are controlled automatically by the HumPRCTM
application and do not have any effect on its operation.
AUTOADDR - Auto Addressing
Volatile Address = 0x71; Non-Volatile Address = 0x26
This register is controlled automatically by the HumPRCTM application, so
should not be changed by external commands.
– –
59
RCDIR - RC Status Line Direction Select
Volatile Address = 0x6F; Non-Volatile Address = 0x24
This register controls the direction of the associated status line. When bit
n is 1, status line Sn is an input line. When bit n is 0, status line Sn is an
output line.
On startup, if the ENC01 bit in the RCCTL register is 0, v:RCDIR is set to
nv:RCDIR. If ENC01 is 1 on startup, nv:RCDIR is set by control lines C0
and C1.
An attempt to write this register when nv:RCCTL.ENC01 = 1 results in a
CMD_NACK response.
Figure 57: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver RC Status Line Direction Select Command and Response
HumPRCTM Series RC Status Line Direction Select
Read Command Read Response
Header Size Escape Address ACK Address Value
0xFF 0x02 0xFE 0x6F
0x24 0x06 0x6F
0x24 V
Write Command
Header Size Address Value
0xFF 0x02 0x6F
0x24 V
HumPRCTM Series RC Status Line Direction Select Values
RCDIR Bit Status Line Value
0 S0 Direction
0 = Output
1 = Input
1 S1 Direction
2 S2 Direction
3 S3 Direction
4 S4 Direction
5 S5 Direction
6 S6 Direction
7 S7 Direction
Figure 58: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver RC Status Line Direction Select Values
– –
60
MYDSN - Local Device Serial Number
Non-Volatile Address = 0x34-0x37
These registers contain the factory-programmed read-only Device Serial
Number. This address is unique for each module and is included in all
packet types as a unique origination address.
Figure 59 shows the Device Serial Number registers.
CUSTID - Customer ID
Non-Volatile Address = 0x39-0x3A
These registers contain the factory-programmed customer ID. A unique
value is assigned to a specific customer and that value is programmed
into that customer’s modules. The unencrypted User and Extended User
Addressing modes use these bytes as part of the addressing. The unique
value ensures that the custom modules will not communicate with any
other systems. Contact Linx for details. Figure 60 shows the Customer ID
registers.
HumPRCTM Series DSN Registers
Name Non-Volatile
Address Description
MYDSN3 0x34 MSB of the serial number
MYDSN2 0x35 Byte 2 of the serial number
MYDSN1 0x36 Byte 1 of the serial number
MYDSN0 0x37 LSB of the serial number
Figure 59: HumPRCTM Series DSN Registers
HumPRCTM Series Customer ID Registers
Name Non-Volatile
Address Description
CUSTID1 0x39 MSB of the customer ID
CUSTID0 0x3A LSB of the customer ID
Figure 60: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Customer ID Registers
pedo
– –
61
CSRSSI - Carrier Sense Minimum RSSI
Non-Volatile Address = 0x3F
This value is the minimum RSSI that causes the module to wait for a
clear channel when CSMA is enabled. Figure 61 shows examples of the
commands.
The value is a negative number in two’s complement from -128 (0x80) to -1
(0xff). The default value is -70dBm.
HumPRCTM Series Carrier Sense Minimum RSSI
Read Command Read Response
Header Size Escape Address ACK Address Value
0xFF 0x02 0xFE 0x3F 0x06 0x3F V
Write Command
Header Size Address Value
0xFF 0x02 0x3F V
Figure 61: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Carrier Sense Minimum RSSI Command and Response
Warning: The CRSSI value can have a significant impact on the
performance of the module. Setting it too low could prevent the module
from ever transmitting. Setting it too high can result in transmission
collisions. Care must be taken if this value is adjusted.
!
– –
62
RELEASE - Release Number
Non-Volatile Address = 0x78
This register contains a number designating the firmware series and
hardware platform. Figure 62 shows examples of the commands and
Figure 63 lists current releases to date.
A more detailed firmware version is available for versions 0x20 and above in
the FWVER register.
HumPRCTM Series Release Number Register Settings
V Release Number
0x24 HUM-868-PRC
0x25 HUM-900-PRC
HumPRCTM Series Release Number
Read Command Read Response
Header Size Escape Address ACK Address Value
0xFF 0x02 0xFE 0x78 0x06 0x78 V
Figure 62: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Release Number Command and Response
Figure 63: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Release Number Register Settings
– –
63
RCSLS - RC Status Line States
Volatile Address = 0x7A
This register contains the debounced state of the status lines. When status
line Sn is high, bit n is 1. When low, bit n is 0. The register reflects the
state of both input and output status lines.
Figure 64 shows examples of the commands.
Figure 64: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver RC Status Line States Command and Response
HumPRCTM Series RC Status Line States
Read Command Read Response
Header Size Escape Address ACK Address Value
0xFF 0x02 0xFE 0x7A 0x06 0x7A V
– –
64
PRSSI - Last Good Packet RSSI
Volatile Address = 0x7B
This register holds the received signal strength in dBm of the last
successfully received packet. A successful packet reception is one that
causes payload data to be output on the UART interface. The value in this
register is overwritten each time a new packet is successfully processed.
The register value is an 8-bit signed integer representing the RSSI in dBm.
It is accurate to ±3dB.
ARSSI - Ambient RSSI
Volatile Address = 0x7C
This register returns the ambient receive signal strength on the current
channel in dBm. The signal strength is measured as soon as the command
is received. The register value is an 8-bit signed integer representing the
RSSI in dBm. It is accurate to ±3dB at the high RF data rate, and +3 to
-20 dB at the low RF data rate. The channel being read may be any of the
channels in the selected hopping sequence.
Figure 65: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Last Good Packet RSSI Command and Response
Figure 66: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Ambient RSSI Command and Response
HumPRCTM Series Last Good Packet RSSI
Read Command Read Response
Header Size Escape Address ACK Address Value
0xFF 0x02 0xFE 0x7B 0x06 0x7B V
HumPRCTM Series Ambient RSSI
Read Command Read Response
Header Size Escape Address ACK Address Value
0xFF 0x02 0xFE 0x7C 0x06 0x7C V
– –
65
FWVER - Firmware Version
Non-Volatile Address = 0xC0 - 0xC3
These read-only registers contain the firmware version number currently
on the module. Each byte is a hexadecimal value: 12 03 01 00 indicates
version 18.3.1.0. Each register byte is read separately. Figure 67 shows the
Firmware Version registers.
HumPRCTM Series Firmware Version Registers
Name Non-Volatile
Address Description
FWVER3 0xC0 Major version number
FWVER2 0xC1 Minor version number
FWVER1 0xC2 Incremental version number
FWVER0 0xC3 Suffix
Figure 67: HumPRCTM Series Firmware Version Registers
– –
66
NVCYCLE - Non-Volatile Refresh Cycles
Non-Volatile Address = 0xC4-0xC5
These read-only non-volatile registers contain the number of lifetime
refresh cycles performed for the non-volatile memory. The minimum lifetime
refreshes is 2,000 refresh cycles. Beyond this the refreshes may not be
complete and the module’s operation can become unpredictable.
Between 8 and 150 non-volatile write operations can be made before
a refresh cycle is necessary. Writing the registers from lowest to highest
address maximizes the number of write operations per refresh cycle.
It is recommended to write the desired default values to non-volatile
memory and use the volatile registers for values that change frequently.
These registers show the total number of refresh cycles that have occurred.
This gives an indication of the remaining life expectancy of the memory.
Figure 68 shows the Non-Volatile Refresh Cycles registers.
HumPRCTM Series Non-Volatile Refresh Cycles Registers
Name Non-Volatile
Address Description
NVCYCLE1 0xC4 MSB of the number of refresh cycles
NVCYCLE0 0xC5 LSB of the number of refresh cycles
Figure 68: HumPRCTM Series Non-Volatile Refresh Cycles Registers
– –
67
LSTATUS - Output Line Status
Volatile Address = 0xC6
This register contains the logic states of the HumPROTM indicator lines.
Many of these status lines are not connected to an external line in the
HumPRCTM Series, but this register shows their logical state. Please see the
HumPROTM Series Data guide for a full description of these lines.
Each bit in the byte that is returned by the read represents the logic state
of one of the output indicator lines. Figure 70 shows which line each bit
represents.
Figure 69: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Output Line Status Command and Response
HumPRCTM Series Output Line Status
Read Command Read Response
Header Size Escape Escape Address ACK Address Value
0xFF 0x03 0xFE 0xFE 0x46 0x06 0xC6 LSTATUS
HumPRCTM Series Output Line Status LSTATUS Values
LSTATUS Bit Line Status
0 EX – Exception, 1 = exception has occurred
1 PA_EN – PA Enable, 1 = the transmitter is active
2 LNA_EN – LNA Enable, 1 = the receiver is active
3 CTS – Clear To Send, undefined
4 MODE_IND – Mode Indicator, 1 = RF data transfer is active (TX or RX)
5 BE – Buffer Empty, 1 = UART buffer is empty
6 ACK_OUT – Acknowledgement Output, 1 = ACK was received
7 Reserved, 0
Figure 70: HumPRCTM Series Output Line Status LSTATUS Values
– –
68
CMD - Command Register
Volatile Address = 0xC7
This volatile write-only register is used to issue special commands.
Value V is chosen from among the options in Figure 72.
The Join Process Control command allows the software to initiate or stop
the secure Join process. It has the following subcommands.
These operations are equivalent to the push-button initiated operation.
If the Join Process is started by the serial command (CMD:JOINCTL[2]),
push-button operation is ignored until the Join Process finishes.
Register write operations are inhibited when a Join Process is active
except that a Halt Join command is never inhibited. A Halt Join operation
completes before the ACK is sent.
HumPRCTM Series CMD Values
CMD Value Operation
0x10 JOINCTL – Join Process Control
0x11 WRKEY – Write Key
0x12 CLRKEY – Clear Key
0x13 RLDKEY – Reload Key
0x20 0xAA 0xBB NVRESET – Reset non-volatile registers to factory default
Figure 71: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Command Register Command and Response
HumPRCTM Series Command Register
Write Command
Header Size Escape Address Value
0xFF Size 0xFE 0x47 V
Figure 72: HumPRCTM Series Command Register Values
HumPRCTM Series JOINCTL Subcommand Values
Subcommand Value Operation
0 Halt Join Process
1Generate a random network key and address. This sets the
module as the network administrator (SECOPT:KEYRCV=0)
2 Perform the Join Process with another module
Figure 73: HumPRCTM Series JOINCTL Subcommand Values
– –
69
When the Join Process is started the KEYRCV flag in the SECOPT register
determines whether the module is an administrator or node and whether
a key can be sent or changed. The Join Process uses and modifies
the non-volatile address registers. After a successful Join, the modified
non-volatile registers are copied to the corresponding volatile registers.
The Write Key command writes a 16-byte AES key to the selected key
register. As with most of the registers, the encryption key has both volatile
and non-volatile registers. The volatile register is used during run time, but
is lost on a power cycle or reset. When the module powers up, the volatile
register is loaded from the non-volatile register. This makes the non-volatile
register value the default on power-up.
The key value of all zero bytes is reserved as a “no key” indication.
Figure 74 shows the command for writing the AES key to the module.
If KeyN is 0x01, the command writes to the volatile key register. If it is 0x02,
it writes to the non-volatile key register.
The Clear Key command sets the selected key to all zeros. Figure 75
shows the structure of this command.
If KeyN is 0x01, the command clears the volatile key registers. If it is 0x02,
it clears the non-volatile key registers.
The Reload Key command copies the key in non-volatile memory (NKN)
Figure 74: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Write Key Command
HumPRCTM Series Write Key Command
Write Command
Header Size Escape Address Value KeyN Key0 ... Key15
0xFF Size 0xFE 0x47 0x11 KeyN Key0 ... Key15
Figure 75: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Clear Key Command
HumPRCTM Series Clear Key Command
Write Command
Header Size Escape Address Value KeyN
0xFF 0x04 0xFE 0x47 0x12 KeyN
– –
70
to the volatile location (NKV). This allows a sophisticated system to change
the keys during operation and quickly revert back to the default key.
The Non-volatile Reset command (FF 07 FE 47 20 FE 2A FE 3B) sets
all non-volatile registers to their default values. When the configuration is
reset, the following message, shown in quotes, is sent out the UART at the
current baud rate, then the module is reset, similar to a power cycle:
“\r\nConfiguration Reset\r\n”.
This reset can also be done by toggling the PB line as described in the
Restore Factory Defaults section.
SECSTAT - Security Status
Volatile Address = 0xC9
This volatile read-only register provides status of the security features.
The command returns a single byte. Figure 77 shows the meanings of the
bits in the returned value byte.
Figure 76: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Security Status Command and Response
HumPRCTM Series Security Status
Read Command Read Response
Header Size Escape Escape Address ACK Address Value
0xFF 0x03 0xFE 0xFE 0x49 0x06 0xC9 V
HumPRCTM Series Security Status Value
Bit Status
0 Reserved
10 = No volatile key is set
1 = A volatile key is set
20 = No non-volatile key is set
1 = A non-volatile key is set
3 Reserved
4 Reserved
5 Reserved
6 Reserved
7 Reserved
Figure 77: HumPRCTM Series Security Status Values
– –
71
JOINST - Join Status
Volatile Address = 0xCA
This volatile read-only register shows the current or previous state of Join
activity since the module was last reset.
The command returns a single byte. Figure shows the meanings of the
returned value byte.
Figure 78: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Join Status Command and Response
HumPRCTM Series Join Status
Read Command Read Response
Header Size Escape Escape Address ACK Address Value
0xFF 0x03 0xFE 0xFE 0x4A 0x06 0xCA V
HumPRCTM Series Join Status Value
Bit Status
0 - 5
Last Join Result (decimal):
Last Operation Successful
0x00: Module unpaired since restart
0x01: New key generated
0x02: Successfully sent address to another unit
0x03: Successfully sent address and key to another unit
0x04: Successfully obtained key from administrator
0x05: Successfully obtained address from administrator
0x06: Successfully obtained key and address from administrator
0x07: New address generated without key
0x08: New key generated without address
Last Operation Failed
0x0A: Fail: operation canceled
0x0B: Fail: timeout
0x0C: Fail: Invalid Generate Key and Address request
0x0D: Fail: Assignment message didn’t contain key
0x0E: Fail: Administrator has no key to send when SECOPT:PSHARE=1
0x0F: Fail: Administrator has no address to send
0x10: Fail: Inconsistent Network Address Registers USRC, UMASK, LASTNETAD
0x11: Fail: LASTNETAD overflow
0x12: Fail: GET_KEY key and address change disabled.
Current Operation
0x20: Detecting PB sequence
0x21: Waiting for joining unit
0x22: Another joining unit detected. Joining is in progress.
6+0x40: JOINACT – MODE_IND is active with pairing status, serial write
operations are inhibited
Figure 79: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Join Status Value
– –
72
EEXFLAG - Extended Exception Flags
Volatile Address = 0xCD - 0xCF
These volatile registers contain flags for various events. They provide a
separate bit for each exception.
When an exception occurs, the associated bit is set in this register. If the
corresponding bit in the EEXMASK is set and EXMASK is zero, the EX
status line is set. Reading an EEXFLAG register does not clear the register.
Writing to an EEXFLAG register causes the register to be set to the
BIT_AND(current_value, new_value). This provides a way of clearing bits
that have been serviced without clearing a bit that has been set since the
flag register was read. This prevents a loss of notification of an exception.
Register bits can only be cleared, not set, from the write command though
some flags are also cleared internally. Unless otherwise noted, exceptions
are cleared by writing a zero to the corresponding register bit.
Flag EX_TXDONE is set when a data packet has been transmitted. If the
packet was sent with acknowledgement enabled, this flag indicates that
the acknowledgment has also been received.
Flag EX_RXWAIT is 1 when there are buffered incoming data bytes
which have not been sent to the UART. It is cleared automatically by the
HumPRCTM application.
Flag EX_UNENCRYPT is 1 when a received packet is not encrypted. This
can only occur when SECOPT:EN_UNC=1.
Flag EX_SEQDEC is 1 when a received encrypted packet has a smaller
sequence number than the previously received packet. Possible causes
are an attempt to replay a previous message by an attacker, receiving a
message from a different transmitter or restarting the transmitter.
Figure 80: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Extended Exception Code Registers
HumPRCTM Series Extended Exception Flags Registers
Name Volatile
Address Description
EEXFLAG2 0xCD Byte 2 of the extended exception flags
EEXFLAG1 0xCE Byte 1 of the extended exception flags
EEXFLAG0 0xCF LSB of the extended exception flags
– –
73
HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Extended Exception Codes
Bit Exception Name Description
EEXFLAG0 (0xCF)
0 EX_BUFOVFL Internal UART buffer overflowed.
1 EX_RFOVFL Internal RF packet buffer overflowed.
2 EX_WRITEREGFAILED Attempted write to register failed.
3 EX_NORFACK Acknowledgement packet not received after
maximum number of retries.
4 EX_BADCRC Bad CRC detected on incoming packet.
5 EX_BADHEADER Bad CRC detected in packet header.
6 EX_BADSEQID Sequence ID was incorrect in ACK packet.
7 EX_BADFRAMETYPE Unsupported frame type specified.
EEXFLAG1 (0xCE)
0 EX_TXDONE A data packet has been transmitted.
1 EX_RXWAIT Received data bytes are waiting to be read.
2 EX_UNENCRYPT Received packet was not encrypted. This can
only occur when SECOPT: EN_UNENC=1.
3 EX_SEQDEC Received encrypted packet sequence number is
less than previous.
4 EX_SEQSKIP Received encrypted sequence number is more
than one higher the previous sequence number.
5 EX_JOIN The Join Process has been started, which can
result in register changes and write lockouts.
6 - 7 Reserved
EEXFLAG2 (0xCD)
0 - 7 Reserved
Figure 81: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Extended Exception Codes
Flag EX_SEQSKIP is 1 when a received encrypted packet has a sequence
number that is more than one higher than the previously received packet.
Possible causes are an attempt to replay a previous message by an
attacker, receiving a message from a different transmitter or restarting the
transmitter.
– –
74
EEXMASK - Extended Exception Mask
Volatile Address = 0xD0-0xD2; Non-Volatile Address = 0x80-0x82
These registers contain a mask for the events in EEXFLAG, using the same
offset and bit number.
To use this value, register EXMASK must be zero. If EXMASK is non-zero,
this register has no effect on the EX line.
When an exception bit is set in EEXFLAG, the corresponding EEXMASK
bit is set, and EXMASK is zero, the EX status line is set, otherwise the
EX line is reset. Mask bits for unassigned flags should be zero for future
compatibility.
PKTOPT - Packet Options
Volatile Address = 0xD3; Non-Volatile Address = 0x83
This register selects options for transferring packet data in the HumPROTM
Series. These options are controlled automatically by the HumPRCTM
application and do not have any effect on its operation.
Figure 82: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Extended Exception Mask Registers
HumPRCTM Series Extended Exception Mask Registers
Name Volatile
Address
Non-Volatile
Address Description
EEXMASK2 0xD0 0x80 Byte 2 of the extended exception mask
EEXMASK1 0xD1 0x81 Byte 1 of the extended exception mask
EEXMASK0 0xD2 0x82 Byte 0 of the extended exception mask
– –
75
LASTNETAD - Last Network Address Assigned
Non-Volatile Address = 0x8C-0x8F
These bytes contain the last address assigned using the Join Process.
When a new unit joins the network, it is assigned the next address
and this value is incremented in the administrator. It is initially set to the
administrator address when a network key is generated.
Figure 83: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Extended Exception Mask Registers
HumPRCTM Series Extended Exception Mask Registers
Name Non-Volatile
Address Description
LASTNETAD3 0x8C MSB of the last network address assigned
LASTNETAD2 0x8D Byte 2 of the last network address assigned
LASTNETAD1 0x8E Byte 1 of the last network address assigned
LASTNETAD0 0x8F LSB of the last network address assigned
– –
76
SECOPT - Security Options
Volatile Address = 0xD4; Non-Volatile Address = 0x84
This register selects options for security features.
Each bit in the register sets an option as shown in Figure 85. Unlike other
registers, the non-volatile register (0x84) affects all Join operations. The
EN_UNENC bit in the volatile register affects data packet reception.
When PB_RESET is 1 the Factory Reset function is enabled from the PB
input. This allows a user to reset the module configurations back to the
factory defaults with 4 short presses and a 3 second hold of a button
connected to the PB input.
When PSHARE is 1 the Share Network Key function is enabled during the
Join Process. This allows an administrator to share the encryption key it
created. When 0, a Join Process sends the network address, but no key.
Figure 84: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Packet Options Command and Response
HumPRCTM Series Security Options
Read Command Read Response
Header Size Escape Escape Address ACK Address Value
0xFF 0x03 0xFE 0xFE 0x54
0x04 0x06 0xD4
0x84 V
Write Command
Header Size Escape Address Value
0xFF 0x03 0xFE 0x54
0x04 V
HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Security Option Codes
Bit Name Description
0 PB_RESET Permit factory reset from PB input sequence
1 PSHARE Permit key sharing
2 PGKEY Permit clearing key and changing key
3 CHGADDR Permit changing an address
4 KEYRCV 1: Receive key and address during Join Process (node)
0: Send key and address during Join Process (admin)
5 EN_UNENC Enable receiving unencrypted packets
6 Reserved Reserved (must be 1)
7 EN_CHANGE Enable changes to security options
Figure 85: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Security Option Codes
– –
77
When PGKEY is 1 the Join Process is allowed to change or clear the
network key. The key can always be changed through serial commands.
When CHGADDR is 1 the Join Process is allowed to generate a random
network address if the module is an administrator. If the module is a node it
is allowed to accept an address assignment from the administrator.
When KEYRCV is 1 the module is set to receive a network key from an
administrator and act as a node. When it is 0, the module is set as an
administrator and sends a network key and assigns an address to the
node.
In order for this bit to change from 1 to 0, both volatile and non-volatile
copies of the network key must be cleared, preventing nodes from being
manipulated to transmit the key. This bit is cleared by the GENERATE_KEY
push-button function.
When EN_UNENC is 1 the module accepts unencrypted packets. If this bit
is 0, unencrypted received packets are ignored.
When EN_CHANGE is 1, changes are permitted to the SECOPT register,
except as noted for KEYRCV changes.
Clearing this bit prohibits the following SECOPT changes to enhance
security:
1. changing PSHARE from 0 to 1
2. changing EN_CHANGE from 0 to 1.
3. changing EN_UNENC from 0 to 1.
An attempt to make a prohibited change causes a NACK command
response.
When EN_CHANGE is 0, these restrictions can only be removed by
resetting the module configuration to the factory default.
– –
78
Typical Applications
The following steps describe how to use the HumPRCTM Series module
with hardware only.
1. Set the C0 and C1 lines opposite on both sides.
2. Press and hold the PB button for 30s on the unit chosen as
Administrator. When MODE_IND flashes, release PB. The unit is set
as the Administrator.
3. Press the PB button on both sides. The MODE_IND LED begins
flashing slowly to indicate that the module is searching for another
module.
4. Once the pairing is complete, the MODE_IND LED flashes quickly to
indicate that the pairing was successful.
5. The modules are now paired and ready for normal use.
6. Pressing a status line button on one module (the IU) activates the
corresponding status line output on the second module (the RU).
7. Taking the ACK_EN line high on the RU causes the module to send an
acknowledgement to the IU. The ACK_OUT line on the IU goes high to
indicate that the acknowledgement has been received. Tying the line
to Vcc causes the module to send an acknowledgement as soon as a
command message is received.
This is suitable for basic remote control or command systems. No
programming is necessary for basic hardware operation.
Basic application circuits for one-way remote control are shown in Figure
86. Circuits for bi-directional remote control are shown in Figure 87.
EkEE TTTITHI mow
– –
79
S4
S5
S6
S7
GND
VCC
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND GND
GND
VCC
VCCVCCVCCVCC
GND
VCC VCC
GND
GND
VCC
GND 17
VCC 21
GND 18
RESET 22
LNA_EN 23
PA_EN 24
CMD_DATA_OUT 26
CMD_DATA_IN 27
ACK_EN 28
PB 29
S6
2
GND 25
S7
1
MODE_IND
30
ACK_OUT
31
GND
32
S5
3
S4
4
ANT 19
GND 20
S3
5
S2
6
S1
7
S0
8
C0
10
C1
11
POWER_DOWN
12
LATCH_EN
13
GND
9
GND 16
GND 15
GND 14
GND
VCC
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND GND
GND
GND
S0
S1
S2
S3
GND
VCC
GND
VCC
GND
VCC
VCC
GND 17
VCC 21
GND 18
RESET 22
LNA_EN 23
PA_EN 24
CMD_DATA_OUT 26
CMD_DATA_IN 27
ACK_EN 28
PB 29
S6
2
GND 25
S7
1
MODE_IND
30
ACK_OUT
31
GND
32
S5
3
S4
4
ANT 19
GND 20
S3
5
S2
6
S1
7
S0
8
C0
10
C1
11
POWER_DOWN
12
LATCH_EN
13
GND
9
GND 16
GND 15
GND 14
VCC
VCC
VCC
VCC
VCC
VCC
Figure 86: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Basic Application Circuits for Remote Control
A
B
R‘ TTTITHIHH W31 ' a 37 mg 3 Hill {MIN
– –
80
GND
VCC
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND GND
GND
GNDVCC
S4
S5
S6
S7
VCC
VCCVCCVCCVCC
GND
VCC VCC
GND
VCC
GND
VCC
GND 17
VCC 21
GND 18
RESET 22
LNA_EN 23
PA_EN 24
CMD_DATA_OUT 26
CMD_DATA_IN 27
ACK_EN 28
PB 29
S6
2
GND 25
S7
1
MODE_IND
30
ACK_OUT
31
GND
32
S5
3
S4
4
ANT 19
GND 20
S3
5
S2
6
S1
7
S0
8
C0
10
C1
11
POWER_DOWN
12
LATCH_EN
13
GND
9
GND 16
GND 15
GND 14
GND
VCC
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND GND
GND
GNDVCC
S0
S1
S2
S3
VCC
VCC
VCC
VCC
GND
VCC
GND
VCC
GND
VCC
VCC
GND 17
VCC 21
GND 18
RESET 22
LNA_EN 23
PA_EN 24
CMD_DATA_OUT 26
CMD_DATA_IN 27
ACK_EN 28
PB 29
S6
2
GND 25
S7
1
MODE_IND
30
ACK_OUT
31
GND
32
S5
3
S4
4
ANT 19
GND 20
S3
5
S2
6
S1
7
S0
8
C0
10
C1
11
POWER_DOWN
12
LATCH_EN
13
GND
9
GND 16
GND 15
GND 14
VCC
Figure 87: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Basic Application Circuits for Bi-directional Remote Control
A
B
– –
81
Figure 88 shows a typical circuit using the HumPRCTM Series transceiver
with an external microcontroller.
In this example, C0 is low and C1 is high, so S0–S3 are outputs and S4–S7
are inputs. The inputs are connected to buttons that pull the lines high.
Internal pull-down resistors keep the lines from floating when the buttons
are open. The outputs are connected to external application circuitry.
LATCH_EN is low, so the outputs are momentary.
ACK_OUT and MODE_IND are connected to LEDs to provide visual
indication to the user.
PB is connected to a button and pull-down resistor to initiate the Join
Process when the button is pressed.
In this circuit, the Command Data Interface is connected to a
microcontroller for using some of the advanced features.
The microcontroller controls the state of the ACK_EN line. It can receive
a command, perform an action and then take the line high to send
Acknowledgement packets. This lets the user on the other end know that
the action took place and not just that the command was received.
Figure 88: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Basic Application Circuit with a Microcontroller
µ
RXD
TXD
GND
VCC
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND GND
GNDVCC
S0
S1
S2
S3
GND
VCC
GPIO
GND 17
VCC 21
GND 18
RESET 22
LNA_EN 23
PA_EN 24
CMD_DATA_OUT 26
CMD_DATA_IN 27
ACK_EN 28
PB 29
S6
2
GND 25
S7
1
MODE_IND
30
ACK_OUT
31
GND
32
S5
3
S4
4
ANT 19
GND 20
S3
5
S2
6
S1
7
S0
8
C0
10
C1
11
POWER_DOWN
12
LATCH_EN
13
GND
9
GND 16
GND 15
GND 14
GND
GND
GND
VCC
VCC
VCC
VCC
GPIO
GPIO
– –
82
HumPRCTM Series Long-Range Handheld Transmitter
The HumPRCTM Series Long-Range Handheld
Transmitter is ideal for general-purpose
remote control and command applications.
It incorporates the HumPRCTM Series remote
control transceiver, antenna and a coin-cell
battery into a plastic enclosure. A membrane
switch array is used to activate the unit. An LED
embedded into the membrane switch indicates
acknowledgement from the remote device. It has
a transmission range of up to 1,300m (0.8 mile)
depending on the receiver antenna and operating
environment.
The transmitter is available in 868MHz and
900MHz for multi-region operation. The 868MHz
version has been tested to European ETSI
requirements and received its CE mark. The 900MHz version has been
certified by the United States FCC and Industry Canada. This reduces
development costs and time to market.
The membrane switch array can
be customized to have specific
artwork, logos, colors, number of
buttons (up to eight) and button
positions. A one-time NRE is
required to create the custom
switch, but minimum order
quantities can be as low as 200
pieces. Contact Linx for more information.
2
1
3
4
A
B
C
D
ON
ON
ON
ON
FASCO
Lights
Spa
ON
ON
ON
OFF
OFF
OFF
Pool
Ordering Information
Part Number Description
OTX-***-HH-LR8-PRC HumPRCTM Long-Range Handheld Transmitter
*** = 868, 900MHz
Figure 89: HumPRCTM Series Long-Range Handheld Transmitter Ordering Information
– –
83
Key Features
S0 S7
S1 S6
S2 S5
S3 S4
15.24 mm
(0.60 in)
5.08 mm
(0.20 in)
34.93 mm
(1.38 in)
71.37 mm
(2.81 in)
41.15 mm
(1.62 in)
50.80 mm
(2.00 in)
34.29 mm
(1.35 in)
R 5.08 mm
(0.20 in)
MODE_IND
PAIR Button
Up to 8 buttonsSmall Package
CR2032 Coin Cell BatteryJoin Process Pairing
– –
84
Usage Guidelines for FCC Compliance
The pre-certified versions of the HumPRCTM Series module
(HUM-900-PRC-UFL and HUM-900-PRC-CAS) are provided with an FCC
and Industry Canada Modular Certification. This certification shows that
the module meets the requirements of FCC Part 15 and Industry Canada
license-exempt RSS standards for an intentional radiator. The integrator
does not need to conduct any further intentional radiator testing under
these rules provided that the following guidelines are met:
An approved antenna must be directly coupled to the module’s U.FL
connector through an approved coaxial extension cable or to the
module’s castellation pad using an approved reference design and
PCB layer stack.
Alternate antennas can be used, but may require the integrator to
perform certification testing.
The module must not be modified in any way. Coupling of external
circuitry must not bypass the provided connectors.
End product must be externally labeled with “Contains FCC ID:
OJM900MCA / IC: 5840A-900MCA”.
The end product’s user’s manual must contain an FCC statement
equivalent to that listed on page 85 of this data guide.
The antenna used for this transceiver must not be co-located or
operating in conjunction with any other antenna or transmitter.
The integrator must not provide any information to the end-user on
how to install or remove the module from the end-product.
Any changes or modifications not expressly approved by Linx Technologies
could void the user’s authority to operate the equipment.
Additional Testing Requirements
The HUM-900-PRC-UFL and HUM-900-PRC-CAS have been tested
for compliance as an intentional radiator, but the integrator is required to
perform unintentional radiator testing on the final product per FCC sections
15.107 and 15.109 and Industry Canada license-exempt RSS standards.
Additional product-specific testing might be required. Please contact
the FCC or Industry Canada regarding regulatory requirements for the
application. Ultimately is it the integrator’s responsibility to show that their
product complies with the regulations applicable to their product. Versions
other than the -UFL and -CAS have not been tested and require full
compliance testing in the end product as it will go to market.
– –
85
Information to the User
The following information must be included in the product’s user manual.
FCC / IC NOTICES
This product contains FCC ID: OJM900MCA / IC: 5840A-900MCA.
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC rules and Industry Canada
license-exempt RSS standards. Operation of this device is subject to the
following two conditions:
1. This device may not cause harmful interference, and
2. this device must accept any interference received, including interference that
may cause undesired operation.
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class
B digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed
to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential
installation. This equipment generates, uses and can radiate radio frequency
energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions,
may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is
no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this
equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which
can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged
to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures:
Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.
Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which
the receiver is connected.
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
Any modifications could void the user’s authority to operate the equipment.
Le présent appareil est conforme aux CNR d’Industrie Canada applicables
aux appareils radio exempts de licence. L’exploitation est autorisée aux deux
conditions suivantes:
1. l’appareil ne doit pas produire de brouillage, et
2. ’utilisateur de l’appareil doit accepter tout brouillage radioélectrique subi,
même si le brouillage est susceptible d’en compromettre le fonctionnement.
– –
86
Product Labeling
The end product containing the HUM-900-PRC-UFL or
HUM-900-PRC-CAS must be labeled to meet the FCC and IC product
label requirements. It must have the below or similar text:
Contains FCC ID: OJM900MCA / IC: 5840A-900MCA
The label must be permanently affixed to the product and readily visible to
the user. ‘‘Permanently affixed’’ means that the label is etched, engraved,
stamped, silkscreened, indelibly printed, or otherwise permanently marked
on a permanently attached part of the equipment or on a nameplate of
metal, plastic, or other material fastened to the equipment by welding,
riveting, or a permanent adhesive. The label must be designed to last
the expected lifetime of the equipment in the environment in which the
equipment may be operated and must not be readily detachable.
FCC RF Exposure Statement
To satisfy RF exposure requirements, this device and its antenna must
operate with a separation distance of at least 20cm from all persons and
must not be co-located or operating in conjunction with any other antenna
or transmitter.
Antenna Selection
Under FCC and Industry Canada regulations, the HUM-900-PRC-UFL and
HUM-900-PRC-CAS radio transmitters may only operate using an antenna
of a type and maximum (or lesser) gain approved for the transmitter by
the FCC and Industry Canada. To reduce potential radio interference
to other users, the antenna type and its gain should be so chosen that
the equivalent isotropically radiated power (e.i.r.p.) is not more than that
necessary for successful communication.
The HUM-900-PRC-UFL and HUM-900-PRC-CAS radio transmitters
have been approved by the FCC and Industry Canada to operate with the
antenna types listed in Figure 90 with the maximum permissible gain and
required antenna impedance for each antenna type indicated. Antenna
types not included in this list, having a gain greater than the maximum gain
indicated for that type, are strictly prohibited for use with this device.
Conformément à la réglementation d’Industrie Canada, le présent émetteur
radio peut fonctionner avec une antenne d’un type et d’un gain maximal
(ou inférieur) approuvé pour l’émetteur par Industrie Canada. Dans le but
de réduire les risques de brouillage radioélectrique à l’intention des autres
– –
87
utilisateurs, il faut choisir le type d’antenne et son gain de sorte que la
puissance isotrope rayonnée équivalente (p.i.r.e.) ne dépasse pas l’intensité
nécessaire à l’établissement d’une communication satisfaisante.
Le présent émetteur radio (HUM-900-PRC-UFL, HUM-900-PRC-CAS)
a été approuvé par Industrie Canada pour fonctionner avec les types
d’antenne énumérés la Figure 90 et ayant un gain admissible maximal et
l’impédance requise pour chaque type d’antenne. Les types d’antenne
non inclus dans cette liste, ou dont le gain est supérieur au gain maximal
indiqué, sont strictement interdits pour l’exploitation de l’émetteur.
Figure 90: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Approved Antennas
Antennas / Antennes
Linx Part Number
Référence Linx Type Gain Impedance
Impédance Valid For
Tested Antennas
ANT-916-CW-QW ¼ Wave Whip 1.8dBi 50Ω–CAS
ANT-916-CW-HW ½ Wave Dipole Helical 1.2dBi 50ΩBoth
ANT-916-PW-LP ¼ Wave Whip 2.4dBi 50Ω–CAS
ANT-916-PW-QW-UFL ¼ Wave Whip 1.8dBi 50Ω–UFL
ANT-916-SP ¼ Wave Planar 1.4dBi 50Ω–CAS
ANT-916-WRT-RPS
ANT-916-WRT-UFL ½ Wave Dipole Helical –0.1dBi 50Ω–CAS
–UFL
Antennas of the same type and same or lesser gain
ANT-916-CW-HD ¼ Wave Whip –0.3dBi 50ΩBoth
ANT-916-PW-QW ¼ Wave Whip 1.8dBi 50ΩBoth
ANT-916-CW-RCL ¼ Wave Whip –2.0dBi 50ΩBoth
ANT-916-CW-RH ¼ Wave Whip –1.3dBi 50ΩBoth
ANT-916-CW-HWR-RPS ½ Wave Dipole Helical 1.2dBi 50ΩBoth
ANT-916-PML ½ Wave Dipole Helical –0.4dBi 50ΩBoth
ANT-916-PW-RA ¼ Wave Whip 0.0dBi 50Ω–CAS
ANT-916-USP ¼ Wave Planar 0.3dBi 50Ω–CAS
Cable Assemblies / Assemblages de Câbles
Linx Part Number
Référence Linx Description
CSI-RSFB-300-UFFR* RP-SMA Bulkhead to U.FL with 300mm cable
CSI-RSFE-300-UFFR* RP-SMA External Mount Bulkhead to U.FL with 300mm cable
* Also available in 100mm and 200mm cable length
La ev Name T La ev Mid»La 9! 1 Mid»La 9! 2 Bollom La 9!
– –
88
Castellation Version Reference Design
The castellation connection for the antenna on the pre-certified version
allows the use of embedded antennas as well as removes the cost of
a cable assembly for the U.FL connector. However, the PCB design
and layer stack must follow one of the reference designs for the
certification on the HUM-900-PRC-CAS to be valid. Figure 91 shows
the PCB layer stack that should be used. Figure 92 shows the layout and
routing designs for the different antenna options. Please see the antenna
data sheets for specific ground plane counterpoise requirements.
Top Layer
Dielectric 1
Mid-Layer 1
Dielectric 2
Mid-Layer 2
Dielectric 3
Bottom Layer
Layer Name Thickness Material
1.4mil
1.4mil
1.4mil
1.4mil
14.00mil
14.00mil
28.00mil
Copper
Copper
Copper
Copper
FR-4 (Er = 4.6)
FR-4 (Er = 4.6)
FR-4 (Er = 4.6)
Figure 91: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Castellation Version Reference Design PCB Stack
Note: The PCB design and layer stack for the HUM-900-PRC-CAS
must follow these reference designs for the pre-certification to be valid.
The HUM-900-PRC-UFL and the HUM-900-PRC-CAS must use one of
the antennas in Figure 108 in order for the certification to be valid.
The HUM-900-PRC has not been tested and requires full compliance
testing in the end product as it will go to market.
All modules require unintentional radiator compliance testing in the end
product as it will go to market.
– –
89
140
200
165
470
230
230 165
ANT-916-SP
ANT-916-PW-LP
ANT-916-PW-RA
ANT-916-CW-QW
ANT-916-CW-HW
ANT-916-WRT-RPS
Microstrip Width = 24mil
Ground plane on Mid-Layer 1
Units are in mils
619 361
72
35 35
CONREVSMA003.062
380
320
216
Figure 92: HumPRCTM Series Transceiver Castellation Version Reference Design
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– –
90
Power Supply Requirements
The module does not have an internal
voltage regulator, therefore it requires a clean,
well-regulated power source. The power supply
noise should be less than 20mV. Power supply
noise can significantly affect the module’s
performance, so providing a clean power supply
for the module should be a high priority during
design.
A 10Ω resistor in series with the supply followed by a 10µF tantalum
capacitor from Vcc to ground helps in cases where the quality of supply
power is poor (Figure 93). This filter should be placed close to the module’s
supply lines. These values may need to be adjusted depending on the
noise present on the supply line.
Antenna Considerations
The choice of antennas is a
critical and often overlooked
design consideration. The range,
performance and legality of an RF
link are critically dependent upon the
antenna. While adequate antenna
performance can often be obtained
by trial and error methods, antenna
design and matching is a complex
task. Professionally designed antennas such as those from Linx (Figure
94) help ensure maximum performance and FCC and other regulatory
compliance.
Linx transmitter modules typically have an output power that is higher
than the legal limits. This allows the designer to use an inefficient antenna
such as a loop trace or helical to meet size, cost or cosmetic requirements
and still achieve full legal output power for maximum range. If an efficient
antenna is used, then some attenuation of the output power will likely be
needed.
It is usually best to utilize a basic quarter-wave whip until your prototype
product is operating satisfactorily. Other antennas can then be evaluated
based on the cost, size and cosmetic requirements of the product.
Additional details are in Application Note AN-00500.
+
10
10µF
Vcc IN
Vcc TO
MODULE
Figure 93: Supply Filter
Figure 94: Linx Antennas
– –
91
Interference Considerations
The RF spectrum is crowded and the potential for conflict with unwanted
sources of RF is very real. While all RF products are at risk from
interference, its effects can be minimized by better understanding its
characteristics.
Interference may come from internal or external sources. The first step
is to eliminate interference from noise sources on the board. This means
paying careful attention to layout, grounding, filtering and bypassing in
order to eliminate all radiated and conducted interference paths. For
many products, this is straightforward; however, products containing
components such as switching power supplies, motors, crystals and other
potential sources of noise must be approached with care. Comparing your
own design with a Linx evaluation board can help to determine if and at
what level design-specific interference is present.
External interference can manifest itself in a variety of ways. Low-level
interference produces noise and hashing on the output and reduces the
link’s overall range.
High-level interference is caused by nearby products sharing the same
frequency or from near-band high-power devices. It can even come from
your own products if more than one transmitter is active in the same area.
It is important to remember that only one transmitter at a time can occupy
a frequency, regardless of the coding of the transmitted signal. This type of
interference is less common than those mentioned previously, but in severe
cases it can prevent all useful function of the affected device.
Although technically not interference, multipath is also a factor to be
understood. Multipath is a term used to refer to the signal cancellation
effects that occur when RF waves arrive at the receiver in different phase
relationships. This effect is a particularly significant factor in interior
environments where objects provide many different signal reflection paths.
Multipath cancellation results in lowered signal levels at the receiver and
shorter useful distances for the link.
0. 520" .o 3 m IZHIIIIIJT T%IIIIIIIII 0.100" a" x \ ;"IIIIIIII%II1 4p 4 . 1 7:5-HIIIIIIIIII907”
– –
92
Pad Layout
The pad layout diagrams below are designed to facilitate both hand and
automated assembly. Figure 95 shows the footprint for the standard
version and Figure 96 shows the footprint for the pre-certified version.
0.420"
0.015"
0.028"
0.050"
0.060"
0.070"
0.015"
0.136"
0.100"
0.101"
0.060"
0.065"
0.090"
0.015"
0.420"
0.015"
0.028"
0.050"
0.520"
0.070"
0.015"
Figure 95: HUM-***-PRC Recommended PCB Layout
Figure 96: HUM-***-PRC-UFL/CAS Recommended PCB Layout
( Ku w G w * F M ‘ 20w F + I wuusm- “(L +| 440) .1 : Dmlecmc comlzm m rcn mammal m
– –
93
Microstrip Details
A transmission line is a medium whereby RF energy is transferred from
one place to another with minimal loss. This is a critical factor, especially in
high-frequency products like Linx RF modules, because the trace leading
to the module’s antenna can effectively contribute to the length of the
antenna, changing its resonant bandwidth. In order to minimize loss and
detuning, some form of transmission line between the antenna and the
module should be used unless the antenna can be placed very close (<18in)
to the module. One common form of transmission line is a coax cable and
another is the microstrip. This term refers to a PCB trace running over a
ground plane that is designed to serve as a transmission line between the
module and the antenna. The width is based on the desired characteristic
impedance of the line, the thickness of the PCB and the dielectric constant
of the board material. For standard 0.062in thick FR-4 board material, the
trace width would be 111 mils. The correct trace width can be calculated
for other widths and materials using the information in Figure 97 and
examples are provided in Figure 98. Software for calculating microstrip lines
is also available on the Linx website.
Trace
Board
Ground plane
Figure 97: Microstrip Formulas
Example Microstrip Calculations
Dielectric Constant Width / Height
Ratio (W / d)
Effective Dielectric
Constant
Characteristic
Impedance (Ω)
4.80 1.8 3.59 50.0
4.00 2.0 3.07 51.0
2.55 3.0 2.12 48.8
Figure 98: Example Microstrip Calculations
– –
94
Board Layout Guidelines
The module’s design makes integration straightforward; however, it
is still critical to exercise care in PCB layout. Failure to observe good
layout techniques can result in a significant degradation of the module’s
performance. A primary layout goal is to maintain a characteristic
50-ohm impedance throughout the path from the antenna to the module.
Grounding, filtering, decoupling, routing and PCB stack-up are also
important considerations for any RF design. The following section provides
some basic design guidelines.
During prototyping, the module should be soldered to a properly laid-out
circuit board. The use of prototyping or “perf” boards results in poor
performance and is strongly discouraged. Likewise, the use of sockets
can have a negative impact on the performance of the module and is
discouraged.
The module should, as much as reasonably possible, be isolated from
other components on your PCB, especially high-frequency circuitry such as
crystal oscillators, switching power supplies, and high-speed bus lines.
When possible, separate RF and digital circuits into different PCB regions.
Make sure internal wiring is routed away from the module and antenna and
is secured to prevent displacement.
Do not route PCB traces directly under the module. There should not be
any copper or traces under the module on the same layer as the module,
just bare PCB. The underside of the module has traces and vias that could
short or couple to traces on the product’s circuit board.
The Pad Layout section shows a typical PCB footprint for the module. A
ground plane (as large and uninterrupted as possible) should be placed on
a lower layer of your PC board opposite the module. This plane is essential
for creating a low impedance return for ground and consistent stripline
performance.
Use care in routing the RF trace between the module and the antenna
or connector. Keep the trace as short as possible. Do not pass it under
the module or any other component. Do not route the antenna trace on
multiple PCB layers as vias add inductance. Vias are acceptable for tying
together ground layers and component grounds and should be used in
multiples. The -CAS version must follow the layout in Figure 92.
– –
95
Each of the module’s ground pins should have short traces tying
immediately to the ground plane through a via.
Bypass caps should be low ESR ceramic types and located directly
adjacent to the pin they are serving.
A 50-ohm coax should be used for connection to an external antenna.
A 50-ohm transmission line, such as a microstrip, stripline or coplanar
waveguide should be used for routing RF on the PCB. The Microstrip
Details section provides additional information.
In some instances, a designer may wish to encapsulate or “pot” the
product. There are a wide variety of potting compounds with varying
dielectric properties. Since such compounds can considerably impact
RF performance and the ability to rework or service the product, it is
the responsibility of the designer to evaluate and qualify the impact and
suitability of such materials.
Helpful Application Notes from Linx
It is not the intention of this manual to address in depth many of the issues
that should be considered to ensure that the modules function correctly
and deliver the maximum possible performance. We recommend reading
the application notes listed in Figure 99 which address in depth key areas
of RF design and application of Linx products. These applications notes
are available online at www.linxtechnologies.com or by contacting the Linx
literature department.
Helpful Application Note Titles
Note Number Note Title
AN-00100 RF 101: Information for the RF Challenged
AN-00126 Considerations for Operation Within the 902–928MHz Band
AN-00130 Modulation Techniques for Low-Cost RF Data Links
AN-00140 The FCC Road: Part 15 from Concept to Approval
AN-00500 Antennas: Design, Application, Performance
AN-00501 Understanding Antenna Specifications and Operation
Figure 99: Helpful Application Note Titles
– –
96
Production Guidelines
The module is housed in a hybrid SMD package that supports hand and
automated assembly techniques. Since the modules contain discrete
components internally, the assembly procedures are critical to ensuring
the reliable function of the modules. The following procedures should be
reviewed with and practiced by all assembly personnel.
Hand Assembly
Pads located on the bottom
of the module are the primary
mounting surface (Figure 100).
Since these pads are inaccessible
during mounting, castellations
that run up the side of the module
have been provided to facilitate
solder wicking to the module’s
underside. This allows for very
quick hand soldering for prototyping and small volume production. If the
recommended pad guidelines have been followed, the pads will protrude
slightly past the edge of the module. Use a fine soldering tip to heat the
board pad and the castellation, then introduce solder to the pad at the
module’s edge. The solder will wick underneath the module, providing
reliable attachment. Tack one module corner first and then work around the
device, taking care not to exceed the times in Figure 101.
Automated Assembly
For high-volume assembly, the modules are generally auto-placed.
The modules have been designed to maintain compatibility with reflow
processing techniques; however, due to their hybrid nature, certain aspects
of the assembly process are far more critical than for other component
types. Following are brief discussions of the three primary areas where
caution must be observed.
Castellations
PCB Pads
Soldering Iron
Tip
Solder
Figure 100: Soldering Technique
Warning: Pay attention to the absolute maximum solder times.
Figure 101: Absolute Maximum Solder Times
Absolute Maximum Solder Times
Hand Solder Temperature: +427ºC for 10 seconds for lead-free alloys
Reflow Oven: +255ºC max (see Figure 102)
– –
97
Reflow Temperature Profile
The single most critical stage in the automated assembly process is the
reflow stage. The reflow profile in Figure 102 should not be exceeded
because excessive temperatures or transport times during reflow will
irreparably damage the modules. Assembly personnel need to pay careful
attention to the oven’s profile to ensure that it meets the requirements
necessary to successfully reflow all components while still remaining
within the limits mandated by the modules. The figure below shows the
recommended reflow oven profile for the modules.
Shock During Reflow Transport
Since some internal module components may reflow along with the
components placed on the board being assembled, it is imperative that
the modules not be subjected to shock or vibration during the time solder
is liquid. Should a shock be applied, some internal components could be
lifted from their pads, causing the module to not function properly.
Washability
The modules are wash-resistant, but are not hermetically sealed. Linx
recommends wash-free manufacturing; however, the modules can be
subjected to a wash cycle provided that a drying time is allowed prior
to applying electrical power to the modules. The drying time should be
sufficient to allow any moisture that may have migrated into the module
to evaporate, thus eliminating the potential for shorting damage during
power-up or testing. If the wash contains contaminants, the performance
may be adversely affected, even after drying.
125°C
185°C
217°C
255°C
235°C
60 12030 150180 210240 270300 330360090
50
100
150
200
250
300
Recommended RoHS Profile
Max RoHS Profile
Recommended Non-RoHS Profile
180°C
Temperature (oC)
Time (Seconds)
Figure 102: Maximum Reflow Temperature Profile
– –
98
General Antenna Rules
The following general rules should help in maximizing antenna performance.
1. Proximity to objects such as a user’s hand, body or metal objects will
cause an antenna to detune. For this reason, the antenna shaft and tip
should be positioned as far away from such objects as possible.
2. Optimum performance is obtained from a ¼- or ½-wave straight whip
mounted at a right angle to the ground plane (Figure 103). In many
cases, this isn’t desirable for practical or ergonomic reasons, thus,
an alternative antenna style such as a helical, loop or patch may be
utilized and the corresponding sacrifice in performance accepted.
3. If an internal antenna is to be used, keep it away from other metal
components, particularly large items like transformers, batteries,
PCB tracks and ground planes. In many cases, the space around the
antenna is as important as the antenna itself. Objects in close proximity
to the antenna can cause direct detuning, while those farther away will
alter the antenna’s symmetry.
4. In many antenna designs, particularly ¼-wave whips, the ground plane
acts as a counterpoise, forming, in essence,
a ½-wave dipole (Figure 104). For this reason,
adequate ground plane area is essential.
The ground plane can be a metal case or
ground-fill areas on a circuit board. Ideally, it
should have a surface area less than or equal
to the overall length of the ¼-wave radiating
element. This is often not practical due to
size and configuration constraints. In these
instances, a designer must make the best use
of the area available to create as much ground
OPTIMUM
USABLE
NOT RECOMMENDED
NUT GROUND PLANE
(MAY BE NEEDED)
CASE
Figure 103: Ground Plane Orientation
I
EDIPOLE
ELEMENT
GROUND
PLANE
VIRTUAL λ/4
DIPOLE
λ/4
λ/4
VERTICAL λ/4 GROUNDED
ANTENNA (MARCONI)
Figure 104: Dipole Antenna
– –
99
plane as possible in proximity to the base of the antenna. In cases
where the antenna is remotely located or the antenna is not in close
proximity to a circuit board, ground plane or grounded metal case, a
metal plate may be used to maximize the antenna’s performance.
5. Remove the antenna as far as possible from potential interference
sources. Any frequency of sufficient amplitude to enter the receiver’s
front end will reduce system range and can even prevent reception
entirely. Switching power supplies, oscillators or even relays can also
be significant sources of potential interference. The single best weapon
against such problems is attention to placement and layout. Filter the
module’s power supply with a high-frequency bypass capacitor. Place
adequate ground plane under potential sources of noise to shunt noise
to ground and prevent it from coupling to the RF stage. Shield noisy
board areas whenever practical.
6. In some applications, it is advantageous to place the module and
antenna away from the main equipment (Figure 105). This can avoid
interference problems and allows the antenna to be oriented for
optimum performance. Always use 50Ω coax, like RG-174, for the
remote feed.
OPTIMUM
USABLE NOT RECOMMENDED
NUT GROUND PLANE
(MAY BE NEEDED)
CASE
Figure 105: Remote Ground Plane
– –
100
Common Antenna Styles
There are hundreds of antenna styles and variations that can be employed
with Linx RF modules. Following is a brief discussion of the styles most
commonly utilized. Additional antenna information can be found in Linx
Application Notes AN-00100, AN-00140, AN-00500 and AN-00501. Linx
antennas and connectors offer outstanding performance at a low price.
Whip Style
A whip style antenna (Figure 106) provides
outstanding overall performance and stability.
A low-cost whip can be easily fabricated from
a wire or rod, but most designers opt for the
consistent performance and cosmetic appeal of
a professionally-made model. To meet this need,
Linx offers a wide variety of straight and reduced
height whip style antennas in permanent and
connectorized mounting styles.
The wavelength of the operational frequency determines
an antenna’s overall length. Since a full wavelength
is often quite long, a partial ½- or ¼-wave antenna
is normally employed. Its size and natural radiation
resistance make it well matched to Linx modules.
The proper length for a straight ¼-wave can be easily
determined using the formula in Figure 107. It is also
possible to reduce the overall height of the antenna by
using a helical winding. This reduces the antenna’s bandwidth but is a great
way to minimize the antenna’s physical size for compact applications. This
also means that the physical appearance is not always an indicator of the
antenna’s frequency.
Specialty Styles
Linx offers a wide variety of specialized antenna
styles (Figure 108). Many of these styles utilize
helical elements to reduce the overall antenna size
while maintaining reasonable performance. A helical
antenna’s bandwidth is often quite narrow and the
antenna can detune in proximity to other objects, so
care must be exercised in layout and placement.
L =
234
F
MHz
Figure 106: Whip Style Antennas
Figure 107:
L = length in feet of
quarter-wave length
F = operating frequency
in megahertz
Figure 108: Specialty Style
Antennas
S; m», Andra/7555A»
– –
101
Loop Style
A loop or trace style antenna is normally printed
directly on a product’s PCB (Figure 109). This
makes it the most cost-effective of antenna
styles. The element can be made self-resonant or
externally resonated with discrete components,
but its actual layout is usually product specific.
Despite the cost advantages, loop style antennas
are generally inefficient and useful only for short
range applications. They are also very sensitive to changes in layout and
PCB dielectric, which can cause consistency issues during production.
In addition, printed styles are difficult to engineer, requiring the use of
expensive equipment including a network analyzer. An improperly designed
loop will have a high VSWR at the desired frequency which can cause
instability in the RF stage.
Linx offers low-cost planar (Figure 110) and chip
antennas that mount directly to a product’s PCB.
These tiny antennas do not require testing and
provide excellent performance despite their small
size. They offer a preferable alternative to the often
problematic “printed” antenna.
Figure 109: Loop or Trace Antenna
Figure 110: SP Series
“Splatch” and uSP
“MicroSplatch” Antennas
– –
102
Regulatory Considerations
When working with RF, a clear distinction must be made between what
is technically possible and what is legally acceptable in the country where
operation is intended. Many manufacturers have avoided incorporating RF
into their products as a result of uncertainty and even fear of the approval
and certification process. Here at Linx, our desire is not only to expedite the
design process, but also to assist you in achieving a clear idea of what is
involved in obtaining the necessary approvals to legally market a completed
product.
For information about regulatory approval, read AN-00142 on the Linx
website or call Linx. Linx designs products with worldwide regulatory
approval in mind.
In the United States, the approval process is actually quite straightforward.
The regulations governing RF devices and the enforcement of them are
the responsibility of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). The
regulations are contained in Title 47 of the United States Code of Federal
Regulations (CFR). Title 47 is made up of numerous volumes; however,
all regulations applicable to this module are contained in Volume 0-19.
It is strongly recommended that a copy be obtained from the FCC’s
website, the Government Printing Office in Washington or from your local
government bookstore. Excerpts of applicable sections are included
with Linx evaluation kits or may be obtained from the Linx Technologies
website, www.linxtechnologies.com. In brief, these rules require that any
device that intentionally radiates RF energy be approved, that is, tested for
compliance and issued a unique identification number. This is a relatively
painless process. Final compliance testing is performed by one of the many
independent testing laboratories across the country. Many labs can also
provide other certifications that the product may require at the same time,
such as UL, CLASS A / B, etc. Once the completed product has passed,
an ID number is issued that is to be clearly placed on each product
manufactured.
Note: Linx RF modules are designed as component devices that require
external components to function. The purchaser understands that
additional approvals may be required prior to the sale or operation of
the device, and agrees to utilize the component in keeping with all laws
governing its use in the country of operation.
– –
103
Questions regarding interpretations of the Part 2 and Part 15 rules or the
measurement procedures used to test intentional radiators such as Linx RF
modules for compliance with the technical standards of Part 15 should be
addressed to:
Federal Communications Commission
Equipment Authorization Division
Customer Service Branch, MS 1300F2
7435 Oakland Mills Road
Columbia, MD, US 21046
Phone: + 1 301 725 585 | Fax: + 1 301 344 2050
Email: labinfo@fcc.gov
International approvals are slightly more complex, although Linx modules
are designed to allow all international standards to be met. If the end
product is to be exported to other countries, contact Linx to determine the
specific suitability of the module to the application.
All Linx modules are designed with the approval process in mind and thus
much of the frustration that is typically experienced with a discrete design is
eliminated. Approval is still dependent on many factors, such as the choice
of antennas, correct use of the frequency selected and physical packaging.
While some extra cost and design effort are required to address these
issues, the additional usefulness and profitability added to a product by RF
makes the effort more than worthwhile.
Lir'ix TECHNOLOGIES
Disclaimer
Linx Technologies is continually striving to improve the quality and function of its products. For this reason, we
reserve the right to make changes to our products without notice. The information contained in this Data Guide
is believed to be accurate as of the time of publication. Specifications are based on representative lot samples.
Values may vary from lot-to-lot and are not guaranteed. “Typical” parameters can and do vary over lots and
application. Linx Technologies makes no guarantee, warranty, or representation regarding the suitability of any
product for use in any specific application. It is the customer’s responsibility to verify the suitability of the part for
the intended application. NO LINX PRODUCT IS INTENDED FOR USE IN ANY APPLICATION WHERE THE SAFETY
OF LIFE OR PROPERTY IS AT RISK.
Linx Technologies DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE. IN NO EVENT SHALL LINX TECHNOLOGIES BE LIABLE FOR ANY OF CUSTOMER’S INCIDENTAL OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING IN ANY WAY FROM ANY DEFECTIVE OR NON-CONFORMING PRODUCTS
OR FOR ANY OTHER BREACH OF CONTRACT BY LINX TECHNOLOGIES. The limitations on Linx Technologies’
liability are applicable to any and all claims or theories of recovery asserted by Customer, including, without
limitation, breach of contract, breach of warranty, strict liability, or negligence. Customer assumes all liability
(including, without limitation, liability for injury to person or property, economic loss, or business interruption) for
all claims, including claims from third parties, arising from the use of the Products. The Customer will indemnify,
defend, protect, and hold harmless Linx Technologies and its officers, employees, subsidiaries, affiliates,
distributors, and representatives from and against all claims, damages, actions, suits, proceedings, demands,
assessments, adjustments, costs, and expenses incurred by Linx Technologies as a result of or arising from any
Products sold by Linx Technologies to Customer. Under no conditions will Linx Technologies be responsible for
losses arising from the use or failure of the device in any application, other than the repair, replacement, or refund
limited to the original product purchase price. Devices described in this publication may contain proprietary,
patented, or copyrighted techniques, components, or materials. Under no circumstances shall any user be
conveyed any license or right to the use or ownership of such items.
©2018 Linx Technologies. All rights reserved.
The stylized Linx logo, Wireless Made Simple, WiSE, CipherLinx and the stylized CL logo are trademarks of Linx Technologies.
Linx Technologies
159 Ort Lane
Merlin, OR, US 97532
Phone: +1 541 471 6256
Fax: +1 541 471 6251
www.linxtechnologies.com

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