MPLAB® XC32 Guide for Emmedded Engineers Datasheet by Microchip Technology

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2016 Microchip Technology Inc. DS50002509B-page 1
MPLAB® XC32 USERS GUIDE
FOR EMBEDDED ENGINEERS
MPLAB® XC32 Users Guide for Embedded Engineers
INTRODUCTION
This document presents five code examples for 32-bit devices and the MPLAB® XC32
C compiler. Some knowledge of microcontrollers and the C programming language is
necessary.
1. Turn LEDs On or Off
2. Flash LEDs Using a Delay Function
3. Count Up on LEDs Using Interrupts as Delay
4. Display Potentiometer Values on LEDs Using an ADC (MPLAB Harmony)
5. Display Potentiometer Values on LEDs Using an ADC (MCC)
6. Display Flash Memory Values on LEDs (MPLAB Harmony)
7. Display Flash Memory Values on LEDs (MCC)
A Run Code in MPLAB X IDE
B Get Software and Hardware
MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
DS50002509B-page 2 2016 Microchip Technology Inc.
1. TURN LEDS ON OR OFF
This example will light alternate LEDs on the Explorer 16/32 board with a
PIC32MX470F512L Plug-In Module (PIM). For more information, see Section B. “Get
Software and Hardware”.
// PIC32MX470F512L Configuration Bit Settings
// 'C' source line config statements
// DEVCFG3
// USERID = No Setting
#pragma config FSRSSEL = PRIORITY_7 // Shadow Register Set Priority 7
#pragma config PMDL1WAY = ON // Peripheral Module - One Reconfig
#pragma config IOL1WAY = ON // Peripheral Pin Select - One Reconfig
#pragma config FUSBIDIO = ON // USB USID Selection - Port Function
#pragma config FVBUSONIO = ON // USB VBUS ON Selection - Port Function
// DEVCFG2
#pragma config FPLLIDIV = DIV_12 // PLL Input Divider - 12x
#pragma config FPLLMUL = MUL_24 // PLL Multiplier - 24x
#pragma config UPLLIDIV = DIV_12 // USB PLL Input Divider - 12x
#pragma config UPLLEN = OFF // USB PLL Disabled and Bypassed
#pragma config FPLLODIV = DIV_256 // Sys PLL Output Divide by 256
// DEVCFG1
#pragma config FNOSC = FRCDIV // Oscillator - Fast RC Osc w/Div-by-N
#pragma config FSOSCEN = ON // Secondary Oscillator Enabled
#pragma config IESO = OFF // Internal/External Switch Over Disabled
#pragma config POSCMOD = OFF // Primary Oscillator Disabled
#pragma config OSCIOFNC = OFF // CLKO on OSCO Pin Disabled
#pragma config FPBDIV = DIV_8 // Peripheral Clock Divisor: Sys_Clk/8
#pragma config FCKSM = CSDCMD // Clock Switch Disable, FSCM Disabled
#pragma config WDTPS = PS1048576 // WDT Postscaler 1:1048576
#pragma config WINDIS = OFF // Watchdog Timer is in Non-Window Mode
#pragma config FWDTEN = OFF // WDT Disabled (SWDTEN Control)
#pragma config FWDTWINSZ = WINSZ_25 // Watchdog Timer Window 25%
// DEVCFG0
#pragma config DEBUG = OFF // Background Debugger Disabled
#pragma config JTAGEN = OFF // JTAG Disabled
#pragma config ICESEL = ICS_PGx2 // ICE/ICD Comm Channel PGEC2/PGED2
#pragma config PWP = OFF // Program Flash Write Protect Disabled
#pragma config BWP = OFF // Boot Flash Write Protect Disabled
#pragma config CP = OFF // Code Protect Disabled
// #pragma config statements should precede project file includes.
// Use project enums instead of #define for ON and OFF.
#include <xc.h>
#define LEDS_ON_OFF 0x55
int main(void) {
// Port A access
TRISA = 0x0000; // set all port bits to be output
LATA = LEDS_ON_OFF; // write to port latch
return 0;
}
see Section 1.1
see Section 1.2
see Section 1.3
see Section 1.4
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MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
2016 Microchip Technology Inc. DS50002509B-page 3
1.1 Configuration Bits
Microchip devices have configuration registers with bits that enable and/or set up
device features.
1.1.1 WHICH CONFIGURATION BITS TO SET
In particular, you need to look at:
Oscillator selection - this must match your hardwares oscillator circuitry. If this
selection is not correct, the device clock may not run. Typically, development
boards use high-speed crystal oscillators. From the example code:
#pragma config FNOSC = PRI
#pragma config POSCMOD = HS
Watchdog timer- it is recommended that you disable this timer until it is required.
This prevents unexpected resets. From the example code:
#pragma config FWDTEN = OFF
Code protection - turn off code protection until it is required. This ensures that
device memory is fully accessible. From the example code:
#pragma config CP = OFF
Different configuration bits may need to be set up to use another 32-bit device (rather
than the MCU used in this example). See your device data sheet for the number and
function of corresponding configuration bits. Use the part number to search
http://www.microchip.com for the appropriate data sheet.
For more about configuration bits that are available for each device, see the following
file in the location where MPLAB XC32 was installed:
MPLAB XC32 Installation Directory/docs/PIC32ConfigSet.html
1.1.2 HOW TO SET CONFIGURATION BITS
In MPLAB X IDE, you can use the Configuration Bits window to view and set these bits.
Select Window>PIC Memory Views>Configuration Bits to open this window.
FIGURE 1: CONFIGURATION WINDOW
Once you have the settings you want, click in your code where you want the pragma
directives placed, before main(), and then click the Insert Source Code in Editor
icon. Alternately you can click Generate Source Code to Output and then copy the
pragma directives from the Output window into your code.
Note: If you do not set Configuration bits correctly, your device will not operate at
all or at least not as expected.
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1.2 Header File <xc.h>
This header file allows code in the source file to access compiler- or device-specific
features. This and other header files may be found in the MPLAB XC32 installation
directory in the pic32mx/include subdirectory.
Based on your selected device, the compiler will set macros that allow xc.h to vector
to the correct device-specific header file. Do not include a device-specific header in
your code or your code will not be portable.
1.3 Define Macro for LED Values
The value to be written to the LEDs, as explained in the next section, has been
assigned to a descriptive macro (LEDS_ON_OFF), i.e., LEDs D3, D5, D7, and D9 will
be on and LEDs D4, D6, D8, and D10 will be off. See Section B.5 “Get and Set Up
the Explorer 16/32 Board” for the link to Explorer 16/32 documentation, including the
board schematic.
1.4 Port Access
Digital I/O device pins may be multiplexed with peripheral I/O pins. To ensure that you
are using digital I/O only, disable the other peripheral(s). Do this by using the pre-
defined C variables that represent the peripheral registers and bits. These variables are
listed in the device-specific header file, pic32mx/include/proc, in the compiler’s
directory. To determine which peripherals share which pins, refer to your device data
sheet.
For the example in this section, Port A pins are multiplexed with peripherals that are
disabled by default. Also, Port A has no analog I/O so all pins are digital I/O by default.
For devices with ports that have analog I/O, the analog must be disabled (e.g., using
the ADxPCFT register) to ensure digital I/O operation.
A device pin is connected to either a digital I/O port (PORT) or latch (LAT) register in the
device. For the example, LATA is used. The variable portValue is assigned a value
that is then assigned to the latch:
LATA = portValue; // write to port latch
In addition, there is a register for specifying the directionality of the pin – either input or
output – called a TRIS register. For the example in this section, TRISA is used. Setting
a bit to 0 makes the pin an output, and setting a bit to 1 makes the pin an input. For this
example:
TRISA = 0x0000; // set all port bits to be output
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2. FLASH LEDs USING A DELAY FUNCTION
This example is a modification of the previous code. Instead of just turning on LEDs,
this code will flash alternating LEDs. Code that has been added is red.
// PIC32MX470F512L Configuration Bit Settings
// 'C' source line config statements
// DEVCFG3
// USERID = No Setting
#pragma config FSRSSEL = PRIORITY_7 // Shadow Register Set Priority 7
#pragma config PMDL1WAY = ON // Peripheral Module - One Reconfig
#pragma config IOL1WAY = ON // Peripheral Pin Select - One Reconfig
#pragma config FUSBIDIO = ON // USB USID Selection - Port Function
#pragma config FVBUSONIO = ON // USB VBUS ON Selection - Port Function
// DEVCFG2
#pragma config FPLLIDIV = DIV_12 // PLL Input Divider - 12x
#pragma config FPLLMUL = MUL_24 // PLL Multiplier - 24x
#pragma config UPLLIDIV = DIV_12 // USB PLL Input Divider - 12x
#pragma config UPLLEN = OFF // USB PLL Disabled and Bypassed
#pragma config FPLLODIV = DIV_256 // Sys PLL Output Divide by 256
// DEVCFG1
#pragma config FNOSC = FRCDIV // Oscillator - Fast RC Osc w/Div-by-N
#pragma config FSOSCEN = ON // Secondary Oscillator Enabled
#pragma config IESO = OFF // Internal/External Switch Over Disabled
#pragma config POSCMOD = OFF // Primary Oscillator Disabled
#pragma config OSCIOFNC = OFF // CLKO on OSCO Pin Disabled
#pragma config FPBDIV = DIV_8 // Peripheral Clock Divisor: Sys_Clk/8
#pragma config FCKSM = CSDCMD // Clock Switch Disable, FSCM Disabled
#pragma config WDTPS = PS1048576 // WDT Postscaler 1:1048576
#pragma config WINDIS = OFF // Watchdog Timer is in Non-Window Mode
#pragma config FWDTEN = OFF // WDT Disabled (SWDTEN Control)
#pragma config FWDTWINSZ = WINSZ_25 // Watchdog Timer Window 25%
// DEVCFG0
#pragma config DEBUG = OFF // Background Debugger Disabled
#pragma config JTAGEN = OFF // JTAG Disabled
#pragma config ICESEL = ICS_PGx2 // ICE/ICD Comm Channel PGEC2/PGED2
#pragma config PWP = OFF // Program Flash Write Protect Disabled
#pragma config BWP = OFF // Boot Flash Write Protect Disabled
#pragma config CP = OFF // Code Protect Disabled
// #pragma config statements should precede project file includes.
// Use project enums instead of #define for ON and OFF.
#include <xc.h>
#define LEDS_ON_OFF 0x55
#define LEDS_OFF_ON 0xAA
void delay (void)
{
int n = 50000;
while(n>0) {n--;}
}
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int main(void) {
// Port A access
TRISA = 0x0; // set all port bits to be output
while(1) {
LATA = LEDS_ON_OFF; // write to port latch
// delay value change
delay();
LATA = LEDS_OFF_ON; // write to port latch
// delay value change
delay();
}
return -1;
}
2.1 The while() Loop and Variable Values
To make the LEDs on Port A change, the variable portValue is assigned a value in
the first part of the loop, and a complementary value in the second part of the loop. To
perform the loop, while(1) { } was used.
If the main function returns, it means there was an error, as the while loop should not
normally end. Therefore a -1 is returned.
2.2 The delay() Function
Because the speed of execution will, in most cases, cause the LEDs to flash faster than
the eye can see, execution needs to be slowed. The function delay() is declared and
defined above main() and called twice in main() code.
see Section 2.1
see Section 2.2
Note: Do not use compiler optimizations or the delay loop will be removed (use
-O0). See the next example for a different way to delay code execution.
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3. COUNT UP ON LEDs USING INTERRUPTS AS DELAY
This example is a modification of the previous code. Although the delay function in the
previous example was useful in slowing down loop execution, it created dead time in
the program. To avoid this, the core timer interrupt will be used. At each interrupt, a
variable value is increased and displayed on the LEDs.
The core timer is used in this example because it is consistent across all PIC32 MCUs
and it increments at a constant rate (every 2 system clock cycles) with no pre/posts-
caler set up. Other device timers can be used for a delay, but care must be taken if other
modules are also using the timer. Code that has been added is red.
// PIC32MX470F512L Configuration Bit Settings
// 'C' source line config statements
// DEVCFG3
// USERID = No Setting
#pragma config FSRSSEL = PRIORITY_7 // Shadow Register Set Priority 7
#pragma config PMDL1WAY = ON // Peripheral Module - One Reconfig
#pragma config IOL1WAY = ON // Peripheral Pin Select - One Reconfig
#pragma config FUSBIDIO = ON // USB USID Selection - Port Function
#pragma config FVBUSONIO = ON // USB VBUS ON Selection - Port Function
// DEVCFG2
#pragma config FPLLIDIV = DIV_12 // PLL Input Divider - 12x
#pragma config FPLLMUL = MUL_24 // PLL Multiplier - 24x
#pragma config UPLLIDIV = DIV_12 // USB PLL Input Divider - 12x
#pragma config UPLLEN = OFF // USB PLL Disabled and Bypassed
#pragma config FPLLODIV = DIV_256 // Sys PLL Output Divide by 256
// DEVCFG1
#pragma config FNOSC = FRCDIV // Oscillator - Fast RC Osc w/Div-by-N
#pragma config FSOSCEN = ON // Secondary Oscillator Enabled
#pragma config IESO = OFF // Internal/External Switch Over Disabled
#pragma config POSCMOD = OFF // Primary Oscillator Disabled
#pragma config OSCIOFNC = OFF // CLKO on OSCO Pin Disabled
#pragma config FPBDIV = DIV_8 // Peripheral Clock Divisor: Sys_Clk/8
#pragma config FCKSM = CSDCMD // Clock Switch Disable, FSCM Disabled
#pragma config WDTPS = PS1048576 // WDT Postscaler 1:1048576
#pragma config WINDIS = OFF // Watchdog Timer is in Non-Window Mode
#pragma config FWDTEN = OFF // WDT Disabled (SWDTEN Control)
#pragma config FWDTWINSZ = WINSZ_25 // Watchdog Timer Window 25%
// DEVCFG0
#pragma config DEBUG = OFF // Background Debugger Disabled
#pragma config JTAGEN = OFF // JTAG Disabled
#pragma config ICESEL = ICS_PGx2 // ICE/ICD Comm Channel PGEC2/PGED2
#pragma config PWP = OFF // Program Flash Write Protect Disabled
#pragma config BWP = OFF // Boot Flash Write Protect Disabled
#pragma config CP = OFF // Code Protect Disabled
// #pragma config statements should precede project file includes.
// Use project enums instead of #define for ON and OFF.
#include <xc.h>
#include <cp0defs.h>
#include <sys/attribs.h>
see Section 3.1
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// CORE_TICK_RATE = FOSC/2/TOGGLES_PER_SEC
// FOSC/2 = Core timer clock frequency = 8MHz/2=4MHz
// TOGGLES_PER_SEC = Toggle LED x times per second; x=5
#define CORE_TICK_RATE 800000u
// Interrupt function
void __ISR(_CORE_TIMER_VECTOR, IPL2SOFT) CTInterruptHandler(void)
{
// static variable for permanent storage duration
static unsigned char portValue = 0;
// variables for Compare period
unsigned long ct_count = _CP0_GET_COUNT();
unsigned long period = CORE_TICK_RATE;
// write to port latch
LATA = portValue++;
// update the Compare period
period += ct_count;
_CP0_SET_COMPARE(period);
// clear the interrupt flag
IFS0CLR = _IFS0_CTIF_MASK;
}
int main(void) {
unsigned int stat_gie, cause_val;
// Disables interrupts by clearing the global interrupt enable bit
// in the STATUS register.
stat_gie = __builtin_disable_interrupts();
// Port A access
TRISA = 0x0; // set all port bits to be output
LATA = 0x0; // clear all bits
// Configure the core timer
// clear the CP0 Count register
_CP0_SET_COUNT(0);
// set up the period in the CP0 Compare register
_CP0_SET_COMPARE(CORE_TICK_RATE);
// halt core timer and program at a debug breakpoint
_CP0_BIC_DEBUG(_CP0_DEBUG_COUNTDM_MASK);
// Set up core timer interrupt
// clear core timer interrupt flag
IFS0CLR = _IFS0_CTIF_MASK;
// set core time interrupt priority of 2
IPC0CLR = _IPC0_CTIP_MASK;
IPC0SET = (2 << _IPC0_CTIP_POSITION);
// set core time interrupt subpriority of 0
IPC0CLR = _IPC0_CTIS_MASK;
IPC0SET = (0 << _IPC0_CTIS_POSITION);
// enable core timer interrupt
IEC0CLR = _IEC0_CTIE_MASK;
IEC0SET = (1 << _IEC0_CTIE_POSITION);
see Section 3.2
see Section 3.3
see Section 3.4
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2016 Microchip Technology Inc. DS50002509B-page 9
// set the CP0 Cause register Interrupt Vector bit
cause_val = _CP0_GET_CAUSE();
cause_val |= _CP0_CAUSE_IV_MASK;
_CP0_SET_CAUSE(cause_val);
// enable multi-vector interrupts
INTCONSET = _INTCON_MVEC_MASK;
// enable global interrupts
__builtin_enable_interrupts();
while(1);
return -1;
}
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3.1 Additional Header Files
In addition to xc.h, other header files need to be included: cp0defs.h for CP0
macros and sys/attribs.h for ISR macros.
3.2 The Interrupt Function
For this example, CTInterruptHandler() is made into an interrupt function by
using the ISR macro __ISR(v,IPL), where v is the interrupt vector for the core timer
and IPL is the interrupt priority level (2) and context-saving method (via software)
expressed as IPL2SOFT. For more on ISRs, see the “Interrupts” chapter of the MPLAB
XC32 C/C++ Compiler User’s Guide (DS50001686).
Within the interrupt function, the counter portValue is incremented and displayed on
the LEDs.
To clear the interrupt, the CP0 Compare register must be written. The value in the Com-
pare register will be compared to a future value of the core timer to generate the next
interrupt. The current value of the core timer is found from _CP0_GET_COUNT().
Finally the interrupt flag is cleared.
3.3 Core Timer Set Up
The 32-bit core timer is initially set to zero. The Compare register is set to an initial
value of the CORE_TICK_RATE. When the core timer reaches the compare value, an
interrupt will be triggered.
Additionally, the core timer has been set to halt on a breakpoint to aid in debugging.
For more on the core timer, see the PIC32 Family Reference Manual, “Section 2. CPU
for Devices with M4K® Core” (DS61113).
3.4 Core Timer Interrupt
Setting up the core timer interrupt takes several steps.
At the beginning of main code __builtin_disable_interrupts() is used to
disable global interrupts. Just before the while(1) loop
__builtin_enable_interrupts() is used to enable global interrupts.
The core timer interrupt flag is cleared using macros found in the device header files
(accessed from xc.h).
The interrupt priority and subpriority are set using device macros. The priority here
must match the priority of the interrupt function, which is 2.
The core timer and multi-vector interrupts are enabled using device macros. The
interrupt vector bit in the CP0 Cause register is set using device and CP0 macros.
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4. DISPLAY POTENTIOMETER VALUES ON LEDS USING AN ADC (MPLAB
HARMONY)
This example uses the same device and the Port A LEDs as example 3. However, in
this example, values from a potentiometer on the demo board provide Analog-to-Digital
Converter (ADC) input through Port B (RB2/AN2) that is converted and displayed on
the LEDs.
Instead of generating code by hand, MPLAB Harmony is used. Download the MPLAB
Harmony Integrated Software Framework at:
http://www.microchip.com/mplab/mplab-harmony
The MPLAB Harmony Configurator (MHC) is an MPLAB X IDE plug-in for GUI set up
of MPLAB Harmony. The plugin is available for installation under the MPLAB X IDE
menu Tools>Plugins, Available Plugins tab. See MPLAB X IDE Help for more on how
to install plugins.
This example is based on the adc_pot example found, in Windows®, under:
C:\microchip\harmony\v1_10\apps\examples\peripheral\adc\adc_pot
4.1 Create an MPLAB Harmony Project in MPLAB X IDE
The dialogs below are set up for this example.
In MPLAB X IDE, select File>New Project.
FIGURE 2: NEW MPLAB HARMONY PROJECT - STEP 1
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Ensure the Harmony Path points to your installation of MPLAB Harmony.
FIGURE 3: NEW MPLAB HARMONY PROJECT - STEP 2
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2016 Microchip Technology Inc. DS50002509B-page 13
4.2 Configure the MPLAB Harmony Project
Based on your project setup, the MHC will open with some clock information already
populated. Text highlighted in blue signifies changes. For this example, do not make
any changes to the Clock settings.
Configure the ADC driver as shown in Figure 6 and Board Support Packages (BSP) as
shown in Figure 7.
FIGURE 4: MPLAB HARMONY PROJECT AND MHC
FIGURE 5: HARMONY FRAMEWORK CONFIGURATION - CLOCK
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FIGURE 6: HARMONY FRAMEWORK CONFIGURATION - ADC DRIVER
FIGURE 7: ADC PROJECT RESOURCE CONFIGURATION
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MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
2016 Microchip Technology Inc. DS50002509B-page 15
FIGURE 8: ADC PROJECT PIN SETTINGS
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4.3 Generate Code and Edit Application Files
When MHC is set up as shown in the previous figures, click the Generate Code button
on the MPLAB Harmony Configurator tab.
Save the configuration (Figure 9) and generate the project code (Figure 10).
FIGURE 9: SAVE CONFIGURATION
FIGURE 10: GENERATE PROJECT CODE
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Code generated by the MPLAB Harmony is modular, as shown in Figure 11. The
application files (app.h and app.c) are the ones edited for this example.
For more information on using Flash memory, see the PIC32 Family Reference Man-
ual, “Section 17. 10-Bit A/D Converter” (DS61104).
FIGURE 11: ADC PROJECT TREE FOR CODE GENERATED BY MHC
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4.4 app.h Modified Code
The app.h template file has been edited as shown below. Some comments have been
removed, as described in < >. Code that has been added is red.
/********************************************************************
MPLAB Harmony Application Header File
<See generated app.h file for file information.>
********************************************************************/
//DOM-IGNORE-BEGIN
/********************************************************************
Copyright (c) 2013-2014 released Microchip Technology Inc. All rights
reserved.
<See generated app.h file for copyright information.>
********************************************************************/
//DOM-IGNORE-END
#ifndef _APP_H
#define _APP_H
#define ADC_NUM_SAMPLE_PER_AVERAGE 16
// ******************************************************************
// ******************************************************************
// Section: Included Files
// ******************************************************************
// ******************************************************************
#include <stdint.h>
#include <stdbool.h>
#include <stddef.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include "system_config.h"
#include "system_definitions.h"
// DOM-IGNORE-BEGIN
#ifdef __cplusplus // Provide C++ Compatibility
extern "C" {
#endif
// DOM-IGNORE-END
// ******************************************************************
// ******************************************************************
// Section: Type Definitions
// ******************************************************************
// ******************************************************************
// ******************************************************************
/* Application states
Summary:
Application states enumeration
Description:
MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
2016 Microchip Technology Inc. DS50002509B-page 19
This enumeration defines the valid application states. These
states determine the behavior of the application at various times.
*/
typedef enum
{
/* Application's state machine's initial state. */
APP_STATE_INIT=0,
APP_ADC_WAIT,
APP_ADC_DISPLAY
} APP_STATES;
// ******************************************************************
/* Application Data
Summary:
Holds application data
Description:
This structure holds the application's data.
Remarks:
Application strings and buffers are be defined outside
this structure.
*/
typedef struct
{
/* The application's current state */
APP_STATES state;
/* Values for the conversions */
int potValue;
int ledMask;
} APP_DATA;
// ******************************************************************
// ******************************************************************
// Section: Application Callback Routines
// ******************************************************************
// ******************************************************************
/* These routines are called by drivers when certain events occur.
*/
// ******************************************************************
// ******************************************************************
// Section: Application Initialization and State Machine Functions
// ******************************************************************
// ******************************************************************
/********************************************************************
Function:
void APP_Initialize ( void )
Summary:
MPLAB Harmony application initialization routine.
<See generated app.h file for app init information.>
MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
DS50002509B-page 20 2016 Microchip Technology Inc.
*/
void APP_Initialize ( void );
/********************************************************************
Function:
void APP_Tasks ( void )
Summary:
MPLAB Harmony Demo application tasks function
<See generated app.h file for app tasks information.>
*/
void APP_Tasks( void );
#endif /* _APP_H */
//DOM-IGNORE-BEGIN
#ifdef __cplusplus
}
#endif
//DOM-IGNORE-END
/********************************************************************
End of File
*/
MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
2016 Microchip Technology Inc. DS50002509B-page 21
4.5 app.c Modified Code
The app.c template file has been edited as shown below. Some comments have been
removed, as described in < >. Code that has been added is red.
Some lines are long and wrap on the page. They have been left this way to enable
cut-and-paste from this document to an editor.
/********************************************************************
MPLAB Harmony Application Source File
<See generated app.c file for file information.>
********************************************************************/
// DOM-IGNORE-BEGIN
/********************************************************************
Copyright (c) 2013-2014 released Microchip Technology Inc. All rights
reserved.
<See generated app.c file for copyright information.>
********************************************************************/
// DOM-IGNORE-END
// ******************************************************************
// ******************************************************************
// Section: Included Files
// ******************************************************************
// ******************************************************************
#include "app.h"
// ******************************************************************
// ******************************************************************
// Section: Global Data Definitions
// ******************************************************************
// ******************************************************************
// ******************************************************************
/* Application Data
Summary:
Holds application data
Description:
This structure holds the application's data.
Remarks:
This structure should be initialized by the APP_Initialize
function.
Application strings and buffers are be defined outside this
structure.
*/
APP_DATA appData;
// ******************************************************************
// ******************************************************************
// Section: Application Callback Functions
MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
DS50002509B-page 22 2016 Microchip Technology Inc.
// ******************************************************************
// ******************************************************************
/* TODO: Add any necessary callback functions.
*/
// ******************************************************************
// ******************************************************************
// Section: Application Local Functions
// ******************************************************************
// ******************************************************************
/********************************************************************
Function:
void Set_LED_Status ( void )
Description:
Set LEDs to display the ADC average result.
*/
void Set_LED_Status(void)
{
int i;
appData.ledMask = 0;
/* Creates a mask for the LEDs, corresponding to the value read
* from the potentiometer */
appData.potValue >>= 7; /* 10-bit value to 3-bit value */
for (i = 0; i <= appData.potValue; i++)
{
appData.ledMask |= 1<<(i);
}
/* Write the mask to the LEDs */
SYS_PORTS_Write( PORTS_ID_0, PORT_CHANNEL_A,
(PORTS_DATA_MASK)appData.ledMask );
}
// ******************************************************************
// ******************************************************************
// Section: Application Initialization and State Machine Functions
// ******************************************************************
// ******************************************************************
/********************************************************************
Function:
void APP_Initialize ( void )
Remarks:
See prototype in app.h.
*/
void APP_Initialize ( void )
{
/* Place the App state machine in its initial state. */
appData.state = APP_STATE_INIT;
/* TODO: Initialize your application's state machine and other
* parameters.
MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
2016 Microchip Technology Inc. DS50002509B-page 23
*/
}
/********************************************************************
Function:
void APP_Tasks ( void )
Remarks:
See prototype in app.h.
*/
void APP_Tasks ( void )
{
/* Check the application's current state. */
switch ( appData.state )
{
/* Application's initial state. */
case APP_STATE_INIT:
{
/* Enable ADC */
DRV_ADC_Open();
appData.state = APP_ADC_WAIT;
break;
}
/* Display pot value on LEDs*/
case APP_ADC_DISPLAY:
{
Set_LED_Status();
appData.state = APP_ADC_WAIT;
break;
}
/* Wait for ADC */
case APP_ADC_WAIT:
{
/* Wait for conversion*/
if (DRV_ADC_SamplesAvailable())
{
int i;
//Read data
for(i=0;i<ADC_NUM_SAMPLE_PER_AVERAGE;i++)
appData.potValue +=
PLIB_ADC_ResultGetByIndex(ADC_ID_1, i);
appData.potValue = appData.potValue /
ADC_NUM_SAMPLE_PER_AVERAGE;
appData.state = APP_ADC_DISPLAY;
}
break;
}
/* The default state should never be executed. */
default:
see Section 4.6
see Section 4.7
see Section 4.8
MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
DS50002509B-page 24 2016 Microchip Technology Inc.
{
/* TODO: Handle error in application's state machine. */
break;
}
}
}
/********************************************************************
End of File
*/
4.6 Application State - APP_STATE_INIT
When the tasks loop begins, the application is in its initial state. In this case, the ADC
is enabled in the auto-sampling mode. Then the application state is changed to wait
(APP_ADC_WAIT). Application states are defined in app.h.
4.7 Application State - APP_ADC_DISPLAY
Once an ADC value has been captured in APP_ADC_WAIT, the value is displayed by
calling the function Set_LED_Status() in the Local Functions section. This function
displays the ADC value from the potentiometer (appData.potValue) onto the LEDs
using a mask (appData.ledMask). These variables are defined in app.h.
Once the function returns, the application state is changed back to APP_ADC_WAIT to
wait for another sample.
4.8 Application State - APP_ADC_WAIT
After initialization (APP_STATE_INIT), the application waits for a pot value to be con-
verted. Then the ADC value is assigned to the variable appData.potValue for dis-
play on the LEDs in the APP_ADC_DISPLAY case. ADC_NUM_SAMPLE_PER_AVERAGE
is defined in app.h.
u Tools>PIugins mam: File: cum nesoumemmgemqucclx 1;} Project Resources Generate ' System Imenum Momma Fm mane System Modu‘e
MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
2016 Microchip Technology Inc. DS50002509B-page 25
5. DISPLAY POTENTIOMETER VALUES ON LEDS USING AN ADC (MCC)
This example uses the same device and the Port A LEDs as example 3. However, in
this example, values from a potentiometer on the demo board provide Analog-to-Digital
Converter (ADC) input through Port B (RB2/AN2) that is converted and displayed on
the LEDs.
Instead of generating code by hand, the MPLAB Code Configurator (MCC) is used. The
MCC is a plug-in available for installation under the MPLAB X IDE menu Tools>Plugins,
Available Plugins tab. See MPLAB X IDE Help for more on how to install plugins.
For MCC installation information and the MPLAB® Code Configurator User’s Guide
(DS40001725), go to the MPLAB Code Configurator web page at:
http://www.microchip.com/mplab/mplab-code-configurator
For this example, the MCC was set up as shown in the following figures.
FIGURE 12: ADC PROJECT RESOURCES - SYSTEM MODULE
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MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
DS50002509B-page 26 2016 Microchip Technology Inc.
FIGURE 13: ADC PROJECT SYSTEM MODULE EASY SETUP
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MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
2016 Microchip Technology Inc. DS50002509B-page 27
FIGURE 14: ADC PROJECT SYSTEM MODULE REGISTERS
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MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
DS50002509B-page 28 2016 Microchip Technology Inc.
FIGURE 15: ADC PROJECT RESOURCES - ADC1
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MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
2016 Microchip Technology Inc. DS50002509B-page 29
FIGURE 16: ADC PROJECT ADC1 EASY SETUP
FIGURE 17: ADC PROJECT ADC1 PIN RESOURCE
RB2 to AN2 map displays after selection is made in Figure 17.
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MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
DS50002509B-page 30 2016 Microchip Technology Inc.
FIGURE 18: ADC PROJECT RESOURCES - PIN MODULE
FIGURE 19: ADC PROJECT PIN MODULE EASY SETUP
Pins RA0:7 will appear in the window above when they are selected in Figure 20.
RB2 was previously selected in Figure 17.
RB6 and RB7 are selected per PGEC2/PGED2 in Figure 13.
Once visible in the window, pin configurations may be viewed or selected for each pin.
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MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
2016 Microchip Technology Inc. DS50002509B-page 31
FIGURE 20: ADC PROJECT PIN RESOURCES
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MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
DS50002509B-page 32 2016 Microchip Technology Inc.
When the code is configured as shown in the previous figures, click the Generate but-
ton in the “Project Resources” window (Figure 12). Code generated by the MCC is
modular. Therefore main, system and peripheral code are all in individual files. Also,
each peripheral has its own header file.
Interrupt Manager files are generated to catch potential errors. Although no interrupts
will be used in this application, these files are generated for future use.
Editing of main.c is always required to add functionality to your program. Review the
generated files to find any functions or macros you may need in your code.
For more information on using Flash memory, see the PIC32 Family Reference
Manual, “Section 17. 10-Bit A/D Converter” (DS61104).
FIGURE 21: ADC PROJECT TREE FOR CODE GENERATED BY MCC
MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
2016 Microchip Technology Inc. DS50002509B-page 33
5.1 main.c Modified Code
The main.c template file has been edited as shown below. Some comments have
been removed, as described in < >. Code that has been added to main() is red.
/**
Generated Main Source File
<See generated main.c file for file information.>
*/
/*
(c) 2016 Microchip Technology Inc. and its subsidiaries. You may use
this software and any derivatives exclusively with Microchip products.
<See generated main.c file for additional copyright information.>
*/
#include "mcc_generated_files/mcc.h"
unsigned int value = 0;
/* Creates a mask for the LEDs, corresponding
* to the value read from the potentiometer */
unsigned int Mask_Value(unsigned int pot_value){
int i;
unsigned int mask_value = 0;
pot_value >>= 7; /* 10-bit value to 3-bit value */
for (i = 0; i <= pot_value; i++)
{
mask_value |= 1<<(i);
}
return mask_value;
}
/*
Main application
*/
int main(void) {
// initialize the device
SYSTEM_Initialize();
while (1) {
// Wait for conversion
// and then get result
while(!ADC1_IsConversionComplete());
value = ADC1_ConversionResultGet();
// Mark value
value = Mask_Value(value);
// Write to Port Latch/LEDs
LATA = value;
}
return -1;
}
see Section 5.2
see Section 5.3
see Section 5.4
MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
DS50002509B-page 34 2016 Microchip Technology Inc.
/**
End of File
*/
5.2 ADC Conversion and Result
MCC sets AD1CON1 bits to turn on the ADC, use automatic sample acquisition, and
use an internal counter to end sampling and start conversion. Therefore main() code
only needs to wait for the conversion to end and get the result.
From the adc1.c module, use the functions:
bool ADC1_IsConversionComplete(void)
uint16_t ADC1_ConversionResultGet(void)
For information on setting up other ADC features, see the PIC32 Family Reference
Manual, “Section 17. 10-bit Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC)” (DS61104).
5.3 ADC Conversion Result Mask
Since only 8 LEDs are available, and the ADC conversion result is 10-bit, the conver-
sion result in the variable value is masked via the function Mask_Value() for
displaying values in three-bit groups on the LEDs.
5.4 Write to Port Latch and LEDs
The ADC conversion masked result is displayed on the Port A LEDs.
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MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
2016 Microchip Technology Inc. DS50002509B-page 35
6. DISPLAY FLASH MEMORY VALUES ON LEDS (MPLAB HARMONY)
This example uses the same device and the Port A LEDs as example 4. However, in
this example, values are written to and read from Flash (Non-Volatile) memory and the
success (LED2) or failure (LED0) of these operations is displayed.
Instead of generating code by hand, MPLAB Harmony is used. For information on how
to download and install the MPLAB Harmony Integrated Software Framework and
MPLAB Harmony Configurator (MHC) MPLAB X IDE plug-in, see Section 4. “Display
Potentiometer Values on LEDs Using an ADC (MPLAB Harmony)”.
For information on creating an MPLAB Harmony project in MPLAB X IDE, see
Section 4.1 “Create an MPLAB Harmony Project in MPLAB X IDE”. For this
example, name the project “Example6”.
This example is based on the Flash driver application found under (e.g., for Windows
OS):
C:\microchip\harmony\v1_10\apps\examples\peripheral\flash\flash_modify
6.1 Configure the MPLAB Harmony Project
Based on your project setup, the MPLAB Harmony Configurator (MHC) will open with
some clock information already populated. Blue highlight signifies changes. For this
example, do not make any changes to the Clock settings.
Configure the Flash driver as shown in Figure 22 and Board Support Packages (BSP)
as shown in Figure 23.
FIGURE 22: HARMONY FRAMEWORK CONFIGURATION - FLASH
DRIVER
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MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
DS50002509B-page 36 2016 Microchip Technology Inc.
FIGURE 23: FLASH PROJECT RESOURCE CONFIGURATION
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MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
2016 Microchip Technology Inc. DS50002509B-page 37
6.2 Generate Code and Edit Application Files
When MHC is setup as shown in the previous figures, click the Generate Code button
on the MPLAB Harmony Configurator tab.
Save the configuration and generate the project code as per Section 4.3 “Generate
Code and Edit Application Files”.
Code generated by the MPLAB Harmony is modular, as shown in Figure 24. The
application files (app.h and app.c) are the ones edited for this example.
For more information on using Flash memory, see the PIC32 Family Reference Man-
ual, “Section 5. Flash Programming” (DS60001121).
FIGURE 24: FLASH PROJECT TREE FOR CODE GENERATED BY MHC
MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
DS50002509B-page 38 2016 Microchip Technology Inc.
6.3 app.h Modified Code
The app.h template file has been edited as shown below. Some comments have been
removed, as described in < >. Code that has been added is red.
/********************************************************************
MPLAB Harmony Application Header File
<See generated app.h file for file information.>
********************************************************************/
//DOM-IGNORE-BEGIN
/********************************************************************
Copyright (c) 2013-2014 released Microchip Technology Inc. All rights
reserved.
<See generated app.h file for copyright information.>
*******************************************************************/
//DOM-IGNORE-END
#ifndef _APP_H
#define _APP_H
#define USERLED_SUCCESS LED_2 //D5 on Explorer 16/32
#define USERLED_ERROR LED_0 //D3 on Explorer 16/32
// ******************************************************************
// ******************************************************************
// Section: Included Files
// ******************************************************************
// ******************************************************************
#include <stdint.h>
#include <stdbool.h>
#include <stddef.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include "system_config.h"
#include "system_definitions.h"
// DOM-IGNORE-BEGIN
#ifdef __cplusplus // Provide C++ Compatibility
extern "C" {
#endif
// DOM-IGNORE-END
// ******************************************************************
// ******************************************************************
// Section: Type Definitions
// ******************************************************************
// ******************************************************************
#define APP_DATABUFF_SIZE (sizeof(databuff) /
sizeof(uint32_t))
/* Row size for device is 2Kbytes */
#define APP_DEVICE_ROW_SIZE_DIVIDED_BY_4
(DRV_FLASH_ROW_SIZE/4)
MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
2016 Microchip Technology Inc. DS50002509B-page 39
/* Page size for device is 16Kbytes */
#define APP_DEVICE_PAGE_SIZE_DIVIDED_BY_4
(DRV_FLASH_PAGE_SIZE/4)
#define APP_PROGRAM_FLASH_BASE_ADDRESS_VALUE (unsigned int)
0x9D008000
#define APP_PROGRAM_FLASH_BASE_ADDRESS (unsigned int *)
APP_PROGRAM_FLASH_BASE_ADDRESS_VALUE
// ******************************************************************
/* Application states
Summary:
Application states enumeration
Description:
This enumeration defines the valid application states. These
states
determine the behavior of the application at various times.
*/
typedef enum
{
/* Application's state machine's initial state. */
APP_STATE_INIT=0,
APP_STATE_NVM_FILL_DATABUF_AND_ERASE_STATE,
APP_STATE_NVM_ERASE_COMPLETION_CHECK,
APP_STATE_NVM_WRITE_START,
APP_STATE_NVM_WRITE_COMPLETION_CHECK_AND_VERIFY_CHECK,
APP_STATE_NVM_ERROR_STATE,
APP_STATE_NVM_SUCCESS_STATE,
} APP_STATES;
// ******************************************************************
/* Application Data
Summary:
Holds application data
Description:
This structure holds the application's data.
Remarks:
Application strings and buffers are be defined outside this
structure.
*/
typedef struct
{
/* The application's current state */
APP_STATES state;
DRV_HANDLE flashHandle;
} APP_DATA;
// ******************************************************************
// ******************************************************************
MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
DS50002509B-page 40 2016 Microchip Technology Inc.
// Section: Application Callback Routines
// ******************************************************************
// ******************************************************************
/* These routines are called by drivers when certain events occur.
*/
// ******************************************************************
// ******************************************************************
// Section: Application Initialization and State Machine Functions
// ******************************************************************
// ******************************************************************
/********************************************************************
Function:
void APP_Initialize ( void )
Summary:
MPLAB Harmony application initialization routine.
<See generated app.h file for app init information.>
*/
void APP_Initialize ( void );
/********************************************************************
Function:
void APP_Tasks ( void )
Summary:
MPLAB Harmony Demo application tasks function
<See generated app.h file for app tasks information.>
*/
void APP_Tasks( void );
#endif /* _APP_H */
//DOM-IGNORE-BEGIN
#ifdef __cplusplus
}
#endif
//DOM-IGNORE-END
/********************************************************************
End of File
*/
MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
2016 Microchip Technology Inc. DS50002509B-page 41
6.4 app.c Modified Code
The app.c template file has been edited as shown below. Some comments have been
removed, as described in < >. Code that has been added is red.
Some lines are long and wrap on the page. They have been left this way to enable
cut-and-paste from this document to an editor.
/********************************************************************
MPLAB Harmony Application Source File
<See generated app.c file for file information.>
*******************************************************************/
// DOM-IGNORE-BEGIN
/********************************************************************
Copyright (c) 2013-2014 released Microchip Technology Inc. All rights
reserved.
<See generated app.c file for copyright information.>
*******************************************************************/
// DOM-IGNORE-END
// ******************************************************************
// ******************************************************************
// Section: Included Files
// ******************************************************************
// ******************************************************************
#include "app.h"
// ******************************************************************
// ******************************************************************
// Section: Global Data Definitions
// ******************************************************************
// ******************************************************************
/*****************************************************
* Initialize the application data structure. All
* application related variables are stored in this
* data structure.
*****************************************************/
/* Array in the KSEG1 RAM to store the data */
uint32_t databuff[APP_DEVICE_ROW_SIZE_DIVIDED_BY_4]
__attribute__((coherent, aligned(16)));
// ******************************************************************
/* Application Data
Summary:
Holds application data
Description:
This structure holds the application's data.
Remarks:
MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
DS50002509B-page 42 2016 Microchip Technology Inc.
This structure should be initialized by the APP_Initialize
function.
Application strings and buffers are be defined outside this
structure.
*/
APP_DATA appData;
// ******************************************************************
// ******************************************************************
// Section: Application Callback Functions
// ******************************************************************
// ******************************************************************
/* TODO: Add any necessary callback functions.
*/
// ******************************************************************
// ******************************************************************
// Section: Application Local Functions
// ******************************************************************
// ******************************************************************
/* TODO: Add any necessary local functions.
*/
// ******************************************************************
// ******************************************************************
// Section: Application Initialization and State Machine Functions
// ******************************************************************
// ******************************************************************
/********************************************************************
Function:
void APP_Initialize ( void )
Remarks:
See prototype in app.h.
*/
void APP_Initialize ( void )
{
/* Place the App state machine in its initial state. */
appData.state = APP_STATE_INIT;
/* TODO: Initialize your application's state machine and other
* parameters.
*/
}
/********************************************************************
Function:
void APP_Tasks ( void )
Remarks:
MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
2016 Microchip Technology Inc. DS50002509B-page 43
See prototype in app.h.
*/
void APP_Tasks ( void )
{
unsigned int x;
/* Check the application's current state. */
switch ( appData.state )
{
/* Application's initial state. */
case APP_STATE_INIT:
appData.flashHandle = DRV_FLASH_Open(DRV_FLASH_INDEX_0,
intent);
appData.state = APP_STATE_NVM_FILL_DATABUF_AND_ERASE_STATE;
break;
/* Fill data buffer, clear LEDs,
* and begin erase page */
case APP_STATE_NVM_FILL_DATABUF_AND_ERASE_STATE:
for (x = 0; x < APP_DATABUFF_SIZE; x++)
{
databuff[x] = x;
}
BSP_LEDOff(USERLED_SUCCESS);
BSP_LEDOff(USERLED_ERROR);
/* Erase the page which consist of the row to be written */
DRV_FLASH_ErasePage(appData.flashHandle,
APP_PROGRAM_FLASH_BASE_ADDRESS_VALUE);
appData.state = APP_STATE_NVM_ERASE_COMPLETION_CHECK;
break;
/* Check for erase complete */
case APP_STATE_NVM_ERASE_COMPLETION_CHECK:
if(!DRV_FLASH_IsBusy(appData.flashHandle))
{
appData.state = APP_STATE_NVM_WRITE_START;
}
break;
/* Write row of Flash */
case APP_STATE_NVM_WRITE_START:
/* Erase Success */
/* Write a row of data to PROGRAM_FLASH_BASE_ADDRESS,
* using databuff array as the source */
DRV_FLASH_WriteRow(appData.flashHandle,
APP_PROGRAM_FLASH_BASE_ADDRESS_VALUE, databuff);
appData.state =
APP_STATE_NVM_WRITE_COMPLETION_CHECK_AND_VERIFY_CHECK;
break;
/* Check for write complete
* and verify write operation */
case APP_STATE_NVM_WRITE_COMPLETION_CHECK_AND_VERIFY_CHECK:
if(!DRV_FLASH_IsBusy(appData.flashHandle))
{
/* Verify that data written to flash memory is valid
* (databuff array read from kseg1) */
if (!memcmp(databuff,
(void *)KVA0_TO_KVA1(APP_PROGRAM_FLASH_BASE_ADDRESS),
see Section 6.5
see Section 6.6
see Section 6.7
see Section 6.8
see Section 6.9
MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
DS50002509B-page 44 2016 Microchip Technology Inc.
sizeof(databuff)))
{
appData.state = APP_STATE_NVM_SUCCESS_STATE;
}
else
{
appData.state = APP_STATE_NVM_ERROR_STATE;
}
}
break;
/* Write Failure */
case APP_STATE_NVM_ERROR_STATE:
/*stay here, nvm had a failure*/
BSP_LEDOn(USERLED_ERROR);
BSP_LEDOff(USERLED_SUCCESS);
break;
/* Write Success */
case APP_STATE_NVM_SUCCESS_STATE:
BSP_LEDOn(USERLED_SUCCESS);
BSP_LEDOff(USERLED_ERROR);
break;
}
}
/********************************************************************
End of File
*/
6.5 Application State - Initial State
When the tasks loop begins, the application is in its initial state (APP_STATE_INIT). In
this case, the Flash driver is initialized and the state is changed to the next state
(APP_STATE_NVM_FILL_DATABUF_AND_ERASE_STATE). Application states are
defined in app.h.
6.6 Application State - Fill Data Buffer & Erase Page
Once initialization is complete, actions in preparation for write are performed. First, a
data buffer is filled with values that will be written to Flash memory (The data buffer is
defined in “Section: Global Data Definitions”). Second, LEDs specifying success and
failure are cleared (These values are set in app.h). Third, erase of a Flash memory
(NVM) page is begun. Finally the application state is changed to wait for the page erase
to complete (APP_STATE_NVM_ERASE_COMPLETION_CHECK).
6.7 Application State - Page Erase Complete
This state waits for the page erase begun in the previous state to complete. Once it
does, the application state is changed to begin Flash memory (NVM) write
(APP_STATE_NVM_WRITE_START).
6.8 Application State - Write Row of Flash Memory
A write of a row of the erased page in Flash memory is now begun. Values in the data
buffer will be written to this row. The application state is then changed to wait for the
write to finish and verify the result (APP_STATE_NVM_WRITE_COMPLETION_-
CHECK_AND_VERIFY_CHECK).
see Section 6.10
see Section 6.11
MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
2016 Microchip Technology Inc. DS50002509B-page 45
6.9 Application State - Write Row Complete and Verify
This state waits for the row write begun in the previous state to complete. Once it does,
the write is verified against the values in the data buffer. If the write is a success, the
application state is changed to APP_STATE_NVM_SUCCESS_STATE. If the write failed,
the application state is changed to APP_STATE_NVM_ERROR_STATE.
6.10 Application State - Error State
If the Flash memory has failed to be written to, an error state is entered. LED 3 (D3) on
the demo board is lit to show that an error has occurred.
6.11 Application State - Success State
Once the Flash memory is successfully erased and written, a success state is entered.
LED 5 (D5) on the demo board is lit to show that application execution was successful.
Projects Fin: mun: nesnumemmgemmlucclu 1;} Project Resources Geneme ' SYstem Interum Modme Pm Module System Modu‘e
MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
DS50002509B-page 46 2016 Microchip Technology Inc.
7. DISPLAY FLASH MEMORY VALUES ON LEDS (MCC)
This example uses the same device and the Port A LEDs as example 5. However, in
this example, values are written to and read from Flash (Non-Volatile) memory and the
success (LED2) or failure (LED0) of these operations is displayed.
MPLAB Code Configurator (MCC) is used to generate some of the code. To find out
how to install and get the user’s guide for MCC, see: Section 5. “Display
Potentiometer Values on LEDs Using an ADC (MCC)”.
For this example, the MCC was set up as shown in the following figures.
FIGURE 25: FLASH PROJECT RESOURCES - SYSTEM MODULE
5mm aflmxsmm nmmmcndemau I ELISE] sym Module {3; Eisy sum; El llama: ‘ Nm‘m’at‘mnsu E Hz rnc 05mm: (3 MHz) Ckxk SnuKe v INTERNAL oscilunoa mc ”mm mm H: Possum moon Hz svscLK 409mm n: Pam E US! Seumdlly Osallatur 51k » 33 mn D mmmmm D 2n 2 I'm 75316 we ~ v 10) Emu‘a‘arvm Pmmmem (ommumcabeon PGECZ/PGEDZ ‘ v wm 7 Enable wm Dmlm (swarm an (mum‘s! I (\ixk Eating: Mode wakmng 17mg: ‘5 m Nonrwmdww Man: I winduw mom a: r: . . .a J .91 nmer Pommev rune—nun Pen'od 32.7683
MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
2016 Microchip Technology Inc. DS50002509B-page 47
FIGURE 26: FLASH PROJECT SYSTEM MODULE EASY SETUP
smvage x ‘wuaxsuu x mmmmmecmfignmv x m Module {ME 17; Easy Scum Rzgmers ‘ Nvlmuuons: 1 v symm Madam V Rzgislzr: nsvcraa W; m. WWW . o —. DEBUG Debugger 1S D‘sih‘ed I ICESEL Commurwcate on PGECZ/PGEDZ mmm HAG mamas PWP ii
MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
DS50002509B-page 48 2016 Microchip Technology Inc.
FIGURE 27: FLASH PROJECT SYSTEM MODULE REGISTERS
Device Resouues ’4 ‘ W Exummm . 3%.12c . (“-“Ic v QNVM DNVM Double click here 10 see ’ AH'MOC ram: Ea in: r :‘Ymer Pmiccts rm cusses s;ureefl:m9ememlflcq“ El Project Resourcls (e ' System Intumpl Mum Pm Madme Synm Mann 2 V Penpnmws DNVM E
MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
2016 Microchip Technology Inc. DS50002509B-page 49
FIGURE 28: FLASH PROJECT RESOURCES - NVM
NVM swung: :flwuaxsue nmmmcndemau 13mm I ELISE ?\§ é §Ezw sang g Raging: ‘ Nm‘mahuls 'NVM Immum Enihla E] Flash (mm Event V Mists: uwmnn m NVMADDR 0x0 V mam NVMCON mucus lVDS'AY disablld m Wm.“ wn disabled WREN mm ‘ , Mists: "mom M NVMDA1A ma V Mama: NVMKEV on NVMKEV nxn . mum: Mvmsucwun m NVMSRCADDR om
MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
DS50002509B-page 50 2016 Microchip Technology Inc.
FIGURE 29: FLASH PROJECT NVM REGISTERS
pros-m m. Chm Manama-nugummlucclx E] Project Rnsourcu Genemu v Synem "mermm Mud m: Pm Mum“! Synm Mann 2 v Pennhm‘s 9 NW 9:ng nimxsm lmmwmkmfignm x LAJCJE Pin Module 0 {as Easy 5.11., g Hymn: A Nmmmmns: 0 mm may, rQFan m. 1...... A Mm“: mm. am... am sun "in mm 0mm mm mm on Inc \ m m. Module mo m“, L! m L1 L1 L! m! . m m. mam: mo mm D D D D m! . mas my page D D D D D D m! . n57 IcD perm D D D D D D mum upmmcmmmmr ‘mumnsmlloq 1‘ www.‘ ‘ Mm .7‘,,\s,‘sg\fi..‘6,\,)‘,z\u‘u\.s‘n”Ma‘u‘n‘mps‘u‘n mnv runnv mm... mm Dumm-n1234§6151nulsn12345 1. Pam m 1. “D' Penn m 1 1 A mm m 1. 1. 05" nimxo “um 1 1 1. 1. ”WWW mum 1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1. mo Wu. Mh‘h‘h‘h‘h‘h‘h‘h‘h‘h‘h‘h‘h‘h’i‘hh‘h
MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
2016 Microchip Technology Inc. DS50002509B-page 51
FIGURE 30: FLASH PROJECT RESOURCES - PIN MODULE
FIGURE 31: FLASH PROJECT I/O PIN CONFIGURATION
FIGURE 32: FLASH PROJECT I/O PIN RESOURCES
Pins RA0 and RA2 will appear in the window above when they are selected in Figure 32.
RB6 and RB7 are selected per PGEC2/PGED2 in Figure 26.
Once visible in the window, pin configurations may be viewed or selected for each pin.
cusses “Men, a File: » D , Q3 males , E] MCI: Generated H25 [:3 nmt_mmager-h m3 mh Ind nvm.h n‘j min-mags" , fi Wm‘fies fl Makgfle my Mycmfigms E macs , Q3 Souchks E man: , E MCC (smeared Pies 5d "gumgmanagu‘t mccx a; rwm.( a; m_mana9u“ a wanes E Loadaues
MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
DS50002509B-page 52 2016 Microchip Technology Inc.
When the code is configured as shown in the previous figures, click the Generate but-
ton in the “Project Resources” window (Figure 12). Code generated by the MCC is
modular. Therefore main, system and peripheral code are all in individual files. Also,
each peripheral has its own header file.
Interrupt Manager files are generated to catch potential errors. Although no interrupts
will be used in this application, these files are generated for future use.
Editing of main.c is always required to add functionality to your program. Review the
generated files to find any functions or macros you may need in your code.
For more information on using Flash memory, see the PIC32 Family Reference Man-
ual, “Section 5. Flash Programming” (DS60001121).
FIGURE 33: FLASH PROJECT TREE FOR CODE GENERATED BY MCC
MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
2016 Microchip Technology Inc. DS50002509B-page 53
7.1 main.c Modified Code
The main.c template file has been edited as shown below. Some comments have
been removed, as described in < >. Code that has been added is shown in red.
/**
Generated Main Source File
<See generated main.c for file information.>
*/
/*
(c) 2016 Microchip Technology Inc. and its subsidiaries. You may use
this software and any derivatives exclusively with Microchip products.
<See generated main.c for additional copyright information.>
*/
#include "mcc_generated_files/mcc.h"
// Program Flash Physical Addresses: 0x1D00_0000 - 0x1D07_FFFF
// Program Flash Virtual Addresses: KSEG0: 0x9D00_0000 - 0x9D07_FFFF
// KSEG1: 0xBD00_0000 - 0xBD07_FFFF
#define NVM_PROGRAM_PAGE 0xbd008000
unsigned int databuff[128];
/*
Main application
*/
int main(void) {
unsigned int x;
// initialize the device
SYSTEM_Initialize();
// Fill databuff with some data
for(x =0; x < sizeof(databuff); x++)
databuff[x] = x;
// Erase second page of Program Flash
NVM_ErasePage((void *)NVM_PROGRAM_PAGE);
// Write 128 words starting at
// Row Address NVM_PROGRAM_PAGE
NVM_WriteRow((void *)NVM_PROGRAM_PAGE, (void*)databuff);
// Verify data matches
if(memcmp(databuff, (void *)NVM_PROGRAM_PAGE, sizeof(databuff)))
{
// If not turn led0 on to indicate an error
IO_RA0_SetHigh();
}
else {
// If true turn led2 on to indicate success
IO_RA2_SetHigh();
}
see Section 7.2
see Section 7.3
see Section 7.4
MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
DS50002509B-page 54 2016 Microchip Technology Inc.
while (1) {
// End of program
}
return -1;
}
/**
End of File
*/
7.2 Erase Page of Flash
The smallest section of Flash memory that can be erased is a page.
Find the NVM_ErasePage() function in the nvm.c file.
7.3 Write Row of Flash
The contents of databuff will be written into a row of Flash memory.
Find the NVM_WriteRow() function in the nvm.c file.
7.4 Verify Write and Display Data on LEDs
The data written is compared to the contents of databuff. If the content does not match,
LED0/D3 is lit to signify an error. If the content matches, LED2/D5 on the Explorer 16/32
board is lit to signify a success.
(File>New Pro'ect Tools>OgtIons d New>Emgty File File >Sa ve 35> E IDebug Main Projm‘ [Fumsh Debugger Session mumps”
MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
2016 Microchip Technology Inc. DS50002509B-page 55
A. RUN CODE IN MPLAB X IDE
For examples 1, 2, and 3, create a project as follows:
1. Launch MPLAB X IDE.
2. From the IDE, launch the New Project Wizard (File>New Project).
3. Follow the screens to create a new project:
a) Choose Project: Select “Microchip Embedded”, and then select
“Standalone Project”.
b) Select Device: Select the example device.
c) Select Header: None.
d) Select Tool: Select your hardware debug tool by serial number (SN),
SNxxxxxx. If you do not see an SN under your debug tool name, ensure that
your debug tool is correctly installed. See your debug tool documentation for
details.
e) Select Plugin Board: None.
f) Select Compiler: Select XC32 (latest version number) [bin location]. If you
do not see a compiler under XC32, ensure the compiler is correctly installed
and that MPLAB X IDE is aware of it. Select Tools>Options,, click the
Embedded button on the Build Tools tab, and look for your compiler. See
MPLAB XC32 and MPLAB X IDE documentation for details
g) Select Project Name and Folder: Name the project.
4. Right click on the project name in the Projects window. Select New>Empty File.
The New Empty File dialog will open.
5. Under “File name”, enter a name.
6. Click Finish.
7. Cut and paste the example code from this users guide into the empty editor
window and select File>Save.
For examples 4 and 6, create a project as specified in Section 4.1 “Create an MPLAB
Harmony Project in MPLAB X IDE”. Then, set up the MHC, generate code and edit
the application as specified.
For examples 5 and 7, follow steps 1 through 3, above. Then set up the MCC, generate
code and edit the application as specified.
Finally, select Debug Run to build, download to a device, and execute your code. View
program output on the LEDs. Click Halt to end execution.
FIGURE 34: TOOLBAR ICONS
DEBUG RUN HALT
Tools>PIugins
MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
DS50002509B-page 56 2016 Microchip Technology Inc.
B. GET SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE
For the MPLAB XC32 projects in this document, the Explorer 16/32 board with a PIC32
PIM is powered from a 9V external power supply and uses standard (ICSP™)
communications. MPLAB X IDE was used for development.
B.1 Get MPLAB X IDE and MPLAB XC32 C Compiler
MPLAB X IDE v3.55 and later can be found at:
http://www.microchip.com/mplabx
The MPLAB XC32 C Compiler v1.42 and later can be found at:
http://www.microchip.com/mplabxc
B.2 Get MPLAB Harmony and Configurator Plugin
MPLAB Harmony Configurator v1.0.10.xx and later can be found in MPLAB X IDE:
Tools>Plugins, Available Plugins tab.
MPLAB Harmony v1.10 and later can be found at:
http://www.microchip.com/mplab/mplab-harmony
B.3 Get the MPLAB Code Configurator (MCC)
The MCC v3.26 and later can be found at:
http://www.microchip.com/mplab/mplab-code-configurator
B.4 Get PIC® MCU Plug-in Module (PIM)
The PIC MCU PIM used in the examples is available on the Microchip Technology web
site:
PIC32MX470F512L: http://www.microchip.com/MA320002-2
B.5 Get and Set Up the Explorer 16/32 Board
The Explorer 16/32 development board, schematic and documentation are available on
the web site:
http://www.microchip.com/dm240001-2
Jumpers and switches were set up as shown in the following table.
TABLE 1-1: JUMPER/SWITCH SELECTS FOR PROJECTS
Jumper/Switch Selection Jumper/Switch Selection
JP2 Closed J37 Open
J19 Open J38 Open
J22 Open J39 Default
J23 Default J41 Open
J25 Closed J42 Open
J26 Closed J43 Default
J27 Open J44 Default
J28 Open J45 Default
J29 Open J50 Closed
J33 Open
MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
2016 Microchip Technology Inc. DS50002509B-page 57
B.6 Get Microchip Debug Tools
Emulators and Debuggers can be found on the Development Tools web page:
http://www.microchip.com/development-tools
B.7 Get Example Code
The code examples discussed in this document are available for download at:
http://www.microchip.com/mplabxc
under the Documentation tab. Place the MPLAB Harmony examples in this folder:
C:\microchip\harmony\v1_10\apps
MPLAB® XC32 User’s Guide for Embedded Engineers
DS50002509B-page 58 2016 Microchip Technology Inc.
NOTES:
YSTEM
2017 Microchip Technology Inc. DS50002509B-page 59
Information contained in this publication regarding device
applications and the like is provided only for your convenience
and may be superseded by updates. It is your responsibility to
ensure that your application meets with your specifications.
MICROCHIP MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR
WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND WHETHER EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, WRITTEN OR ORAL, STATUTORY OR
OTHERWISE, RELATED TO THE INFORMATION,
INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ITS CONDITION,
QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, MERCHANTABILITY OR
FITNESS FOR PURPOSE. Microchip disclaims all liability
arising from this information and its use. Use of Microchip
devices in life support and/or safety applications is entirely at
the buyer’s risk, and the buyer agrees to defend, indemnify and
hold harmless Microchip from any and all damages, claims,
suits, or expenses resulting from such use. No licenses are
conveyed, implicitly or otherwise, under any Microchip
intellectual property rights unless otherwise stated.
Trademarks
The Microchip name and logo, the Microchip logo, AnyRate, AVR,
AVR logo, AVR Freaks, BeaconThings, BitCloud, CryptoMemory,
CryptoRF, dsPIC, FlashFlex, flexPWR, Heldo, JukeBlox, KEELOQ,
KEELOQ logo, Kleer, LANCheck, LINK MD, maXStylus,
maXTouch, MediaLB, megaAVR, MOST, MOST logo, MPLAB,
OptoLyzer, PIC, picoPower, PICSTART, PIC32 logo, Prochip
Designer, QTouch, RightTouch, SAM-BA, SpyNIC, SST, SST
Logo, SuperFlash, tinyAVR, UNI/O, and XMEGA are registered
trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A.
and other countries.
ClockWorks, The Embedded Control Solutions Company,
EtherSynch, Hyper Speed Control, HyperLight Load, IntelliMOS,
mTouch, Precision Edge, and Quiet-Wire are registered
trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A.
Adjacent Key Suppression, AKS, Analog-for-the-Digital Age, Any
Capacitor, AnyIn, AnyOut, BodyCom, chipKIT, chipKIT logo,
CodeGuard, CryptoAuthentication, CryptoCompanion,
CryptoController, dsPICDEM, dsPICDEM.net, Dynamic Average
Matching, DAM, ECAN, EtherGREEN, In-Circuit Serial
Programming, ICSP, Inter-Chip Connectivity, JitterBlocker,
KleerNet, KleerNet logo, Mindi, MiWi, motorBench, MPASM, MPF,
MPLAB Certified logo, MPLIB, MPLINK, MultiTRAK, NetDetach,
Omniscient Code Generation, PICDEM, PICDEM.net, PICkit,
PICtail, PureSilicon, QMatrix, RightTouch logo, REAL ICE, Ripple
Blocker, SAM-ICE, Serial Quad I/O, SMART-I.S., SQI,
SuperSwitcher, SuperSwitcher II, Total Endurance, TSHARC,
USBCheck, VariSense, ViewSpan, WiperLock, Wireless DNA, and
ZENA are trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the
U.S.A. and other countries.
SQTP is a service mark of Microchip Technology Incorporated in
the U.S.A.
Silicon Storage Technology is a registered trademark of Microchip
Technology Inc. in other countries.
GestIC is a registered trademark of Microchip Technology
Germany II GmbH & Co. KG, a subsidiary of Microchip Technology
Inc., in other countries.
All other trademarks mentioned herein are property of their
respective companies.
© 2017, Microchip Technology Incorporated, All Rights
Reserved.
ISBN: 978-1-5224-1540-4
Note the following details of the code protection feature on Microchip devices:
Microchip products meet the specification contained in their particular Microchip Data Sheet.
Microchip believes that its family of products is one of the most secure families of its kind on the market today, when used in the
intended manner and under normal conditions.
There are dishonest and possibly illegal methods used to breach the code protection feature. All of these methods, to our
knowledge, require using the Microchip products in a manner outside the operating specifications contained in Microchip’s Data
Sheets. Most likely, the person doing so is engaged in theft of intellectual property.
Microchip is willing to work with the customer who is concerned about the integrity of their code.
Neither Microchip nor any other semiconductor manufacturer can guarantee the security of their code. Code protection does not
mean that we are guaranteeing the product as “unbreakable.”
Code protection is constantly evolving. We at Microchip are committed to continuously improving the code protection features of our
products. Attempts to break Microchip’s code protection feature may be a violation of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. If such acts
allow unauthorized access to your software or other copyrighted work, you may have a right to sue for relief under that Act.
Microchip received ISO/TS-16949:2009 certification for its worldwide
headquarters, design and wafer fabrication facilities in Chandler and
Tempe, Arizona; Gresham, Oregon and design centers in California
and India. The Company’s quality system processes and procedures
are for its PIC® MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs, KEELOQ® code hopping
devices, Serial EEPROMs, microperipherals, nonvolatile memory and
analog products. In addition, Microchip’s quality system for the design
and manufacture of development systems is ISO 9001:2000 certified.
QUALITYMANAGEMENTS
YSTEM
CERTIFIEDBYDNV
== ISO/TS16949==
6‘ ‘MICROCHIP AMERICAS ASIA/PACIFIC ASIA/PACIFIC EUROPE
DS50002509B-page 60 2017 Microchip Technology Inc.
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China - Shenyang
Tel: 86-24-2334-2829
Fax: 86-24-2334-2393
China - Shenzhen
Tel: 86-755-8864-2200
Fax: 86-755-8203-1760
China - Wuhan
Tel: 86-27-5980-5300
Fax: 86-27-5980-5118
China - Xian
Tel: 86-29-8833-7252
Fax: 86-29-8833-7256
ASIA/PACIFIC
China - Xiamen
Tel: 86-592-2388138
Fax: 86-592-2388130
China - Zhuhai
Tel: 86-756-3210040
Fax: 86-756-3210049
India - Bangalore
Tel: 91-80-3090-4444
Fax: 91-80-3090-4123
India - New Delhi
Tel: 91-11-4160-8631
Fax: 91-11-4160-8632
India - Pune
Tel: 91-20-3019-1500
Japan - Osaka
Tel: 81-6-6152-7160
Fax: 81-6-6152-9310
Japan - Tokyo
Tel: 81-3-6880- 3770
Fax: 81-3-6880-3771
Korea - Daegu
Tel: 82-53-744-4301
Fax: 82-53-744-4302
Korea - Seoul
Tel: 82-2-554-7200
Fax: 82-2-558-5932 or
82-2-558-5934
Malaysia - Kuala Lumpur
Tel: 60-3-6201-9857
Fax: 60-3-6201-9859
Malaysia - Penang
Tel: 60-4-227-8870
Fax: 60-4-227-4068
Philippines - Manila
Tel: 63-2-634-9065
Fax: 63-2-634-9069
Singapore
Tel: 65-6334-8870
Fax: 65-6334-8850
Taiwan - Hsin Chu
Tel: 886-3-5778-366
Fax: 886-3-5770-955
Taiwan - Kaohsiung
Tel: 886-7-213-7830
Taiwan - Taipei
Tel: 886-2-2508-8600
Fax: 886-2-2508-0102
Thailand - Bangkok
Tel: 66-2-694-1351
Fax: 66-2-694-1350
EUROPE
Austria - Wels
Tel: 43-7242-2244-39
Fax: 43-7242-2244-393
Denmark - Copenhagen
Tel: 45-4450-2828
Fax: 45-4485-2829
Finland - Espoo
Tel: 358-9-4520-820
France - Paris
Tel: 33-1-69-53-63-20
Fax: 33-1-69-30-90-79
France - Saint Cloud
Tel: 33-1-30-60-70-00
Germany - Garching
Tel: 49-8931-9700
Germany - Haan
Tel: 49-2129-3766400
Germany - Heilbronn
Tel: 49-7131-67-3636
Germany - Karlsruhe
Tel: 49-721-625370
Germany - Munich
Tel: 49-89-627-144-0
Fax: 49-89-627-144-44
Germany - Rosenheim
Tel: 49-8031-354-560
Israel - Ra’anana
Tel: 972-9-744-7705
Italy - Milan
Tel: 39-0331-742611
Fax: 39-0331-466781
Italy - Padova
Tel: 39-049-7625286
Netherlands - Drunen
Tel: 31-416-690399
Fax: 31-416-690340
Norway - Trondheim
Tel: 47-7289-7561
Poland - Warsaw
Tel: 48-22-3325737
Romania - Bucharest
Tel: 40-21-407-87-50
Spain - Madrid
Tel: 34-91-708-08-90
Fax: 34-91-708-08-91
Sweden - Gothenberg
Tel: 46-31-704-60-40
Sweden - Stockholm
Tel: 46-8-5090-4654
UK - Wokingham
Tel: 44-118-921-5800
Fax: 44-118-921-5820
Worldwide Sales and Service
11/07/16

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