MLX75023 Datasheet by Melexis Technologies NV

View All Related Products | Download PDF Datasheet
U 'U'UWMQ—dn'ugm-‘c-u—lmmAg Meleii§:“"' wsmkED ENG‘NEER‘NG
MLX75023 Time-of-Flight Sensor Array
Product Datasheet
Features & Benefits
1/3” optical Time-of-Flight sensor
(optical area = 4.8 x 3.6 mm2)
QVGA resolution, 320 x 240 pixels
15 x 15 µm DepthSens pixels
Demodulation frequency up to 40 MHz
Two dual channel analog outputs
< 600 raw correlation frames per second
(typ. settings : 25 MS/s, Tint = 130 µs)
Typical system background light robustness
according to Table 1
Integrated optical filter
(>80% transmission in range 800-900nm)
Ambient operating temperature ranges
of -20 +85°C and -40 +10C
Wafer level glass BGA package
(Dimensions : 6.6 x 5.5 x 0.6 mm)
AEC-Q100 qualification available!
Figure 1: MLX75023
Description
MLX75023 is a fully integrated optical time-of-flight
(TOF) camera sensor. Potential use cases include
gesture recognition, automotive driver monitoring,
surveillance & people counting, robot vision & more.
The sensor features 320 x 240 (QVGA) time-of-flight
pixels based on DepthSense® pixel technology. This
unique design allows up to 120 klux background light
rejection in typical application conditions. The
sensor features high-speed analog signal outputs
which enable a raw frame rate of up to 600 frames
per second. The sensor offers maximum
compatibility with MLX75123, Melexis dedicated
TOF companion chip. Combined with a modulated
light source, a system is capable of measuring
distance and reflectivity at full resolution. The
sensor is available in automotive and industrial
grades, both in a small glass BGA wafer level
package form factor which offers many integration
possibilities.
Illumination
Modulation
Frequency
QVGA
Mode
QQVGA
Binning Mode
LED
20 MHz
> 40 klux
> 120 klux
Laser
20 MHz
> 60 klux
> 120 klux
Table 1: Typical TOF system background light robustness
Meleiié’
MLX75023 Time-of-Flight Sensor Array
Product Datasheet
Page 2 of 28
Contents
Features & Benefits ................................................................................................................................... 1
Description ................................................................................................................................................ 1
1. Datasheet Changelog ............................................................................................................................. 4
2. Ordering Information ............................................................................................................................ 5
3. Application System Architecture............................................................................................................ 6
4. Pinout Description ................................................................................................................................. 7
5. Typical Connection Diagram .................................................................................................................. 8
6. Electrical Characteristics ........................................................................................................................ 9
6.1. Absolute Maximum Ratings2 .............................................................................................................. 9
6.2. Electrical Operating Conditions ........................................................................................................ 10
6.3. Digital IO Characteristics .................................................................................................................. 10
6.4. Dynamic Characteristics ................................................................................................................... 11
6.5. ArrayBias ........................................................................................................................................... 11
6.6. Sensor Physical Characteristics ........................................................................................................ 11
6.7. Optical & TOF Characteristics........................................................................................................... 12
7. Interface .............................................................................................................................................. 14
7.1. Timing Diagram ................................................................................................................................. 14
7.1.1. Power Up ..................................................................................................................................... 14
7.1.2. Reset ............................................................................................................................................ 14
7.1.3. Integration ................................................................................................................................... 15
7.1.4. Read-out ...................................................................................................................................... 15
7.2. Device Control ................................................................................................................................... 16
7.3. Test Column Specification ................................................................................................................ 17
7.4. Test Row Specification ...................................................................................................................... 18
8. Noise Considerations ........................................................................................................................... 19
9. Package ............................................................................................................................................... 20
9.1. Mechanical Dimensions & Cover Tape Specifications .................................................................... 20
9.2. Package Marking ............................................................................................................................... 20
9.3. Thermal Resistance ........................................................................................................................... 21
9.4. Optical Filter ...................................................................................................................................... 21
9.5. Shipping & Handling ......................................................................................................................... 22
9.6. PCB Footprint Recommendations .................................................................................................... 23
9.7. PCB Trace Layout Recommendation ................................................................................................ 24
Meleiié’
MLX75023 Time-of-Flight Sensor Array
Product Datasheet
Page 3 of 28
9.8. Sensor Reflow Profile ........................................................................................................................ 24
10. Depth & Confidence Calculation ........................................................................................................ 25
10.1. Correlation Measurement .............................................................................................................. 25
10.2. Active Illumination .......................................................................................................................... 26
10.3. Depth and Confidence Calculation ................................................................................................ 27
11. Reliability ........................................................................................................................................... 27
11.1. Board Level Reliability .................................................................................................................... 27
Disclaimer ................................................................................................................................................ 28
MeleXIs wswzo momma
MLX75023 Time-of-Flight Sensor Array
Product Datasheet
Page 4 of 28
1. Datasheet Change Log
Version
Date
Changes
1.1 - 1.13
2014-2016
Internal release(s)
1.14
17.1.2017
Document updated to the new Melexis template
Added industrial product variant with code S
Add chief ray angle and bad pixel count limit and definition
Added test row and test column specifications
Updated electrical specifications
Other miscellaneous, minor improvements
1.15
18.4.2018
BAB-00x variants recommended for new designs in section 2
Renamed CRA to max. light acceptance angle in section 6.7
Added relative sensitivity in function of incident light angle graph in section 6.7
Updated ArrayBias description in section 6.5
Added Package Marking Information in section 0
1.16
09.01.2019
Updated disclaimer
Removed BAA-00x variants. Parts only available to selected customers.
Added pixel (0, 0) location in Fig 10
Updated Table 13
Added external quantum efficiency parameter, replacing responsivity & fill factor
Updated typical full well capacity to 240 ke-
Added conversion gain parameter
Removed pixel capacitance parameter
Added Figure 5, typical demodulation contrast
Table 2: Change log
MeleXIs wswzo momma
MLX75023 Time-of-Flight Sensor Array
Product Datasheet
Page 5 of 28
2. Ordering Information
Product
Temperature Code
Package
Option Code
Packing Form
MLX75023
R
TF
BAB-000
TR
MLX75023
R
TF
BAB-001
TR
MLX75023
S
TF
BAB-000
TR
MLX75023
S
TF
BAB-001
TR
Table 3: Product ordering code(s)
Legend:
Temperature Code
(see section 11)
R : -40°C to 105°C
S : -20°C to 85°C
Package Code
TF : Glass BGA Package, 44pins
Option Code
BAB-000 : without cover tape
BAB-001 : with cover tape (see section 9.1)
Packing Form
TR : Tray
Ordering Example
MLX75023RTF-BAB-001-TR
Table 4: Option code(s)
Melex'ié'"
MLX75023 Time-of-Flight Sensor Array
Product Datasheet
Page 6 of 28
3. Application System Architecture
A complete TOF system or camera module typically includes the following main components :
MLX75123 + MLX75023 TOF chipset
A synchronized high bandwidth near infrared (NIR) active illumination source (LED or laser)
Beam shaping optics for the light distribution
A receiving sensor lens, optimized for maximum NIR transmittance
A microprocessor with parallel video input port, to calculate and process the data
TOF Sensor
MLX75023
TOF CC
MLX75123 Microcontroller
or
DSP
Memory
Illum. Driver
LED / VCSEL
Illumination
3V3
Beam shaping
optics
Receiving
optics
Analog Data
LEDP
LEDN
Digital Control
Digital Data
MIXH
3V3
1V8
CLK
I2C
Scene
ARRAYBIAS
Figure 2: System architecture
MeleXIs wswzo momma
MLX75023 Time-of-Flight Sensor Array
Product Datasheet
Page 7 of 28
4. Pinout Description
Designator
Pin #
Function
Domain
ROW[7]
ROW[6]
ROW[5]
ROW[4]
ROW[3]
ROW[2]
ROW[1]
ROW[0]
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Dynamic Digital Input
3V3
LATCH_ENABLE
9
Dynamic Digital Input
3V3
GND
10
Ground
GND
OUT3
11
Analog Output
OUT2
12
Analog Output
PIXELBIAS
13
Voltage Bias
GND
OUT0
14
Analog Output
GND
15
Ground
GND
OUT1
16
Analog Output
ARRAYBIAS
17
Voltage Bias
ARRAYBIAS
AVDD
18
Analog Supply
3V3
PIXELFLUSH
19
Dynamic Digital Input
3V3
CORE_RESET
20
Dynamic Digital Input
3V3
PIXELVDD
21
Pixel Supply
3V3
AVDD
22
Analog Supply
3V3
COLUMN[7]
COLUMN[6]
COLUMN[5]
COLUMN[4]
COLUMN[3]
COLUMN[2]
COLUMN[1]
COLUMN[0]
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
Dynamic Digital Input
3V3
SHUTTER
31
Dynamic Digital Input
3V3
GND
32
Ground
GND
DVDD
33
Digital Supply
3V3
DMIX[1]
DMIX[0]
34
35
Dynamic Digital Input
3V3
GND
36
TOF Ground
GND
MIXH
37
TOF Supply
VMIX
MIXH
38
TOF Supply
VMIX
GND
39
TOF Ground
GND
GND
40
TOF Ground
GND
MIXH
41
TOF Supply
VMIX
MIXH
42
TOF Supply
VMIX
GND
43
TOF Ground
GND
DVDD
44
Digital Supply
3V3
Table 5.1: MLX75023 Pinout
MLX75023 Time-of-Flight Sensor Array
Product Datasheet
Page 8 of 28
5. Typical Connection Diagram
MLX75023
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33
9
AVDD
AVDD
PIXELVDD
8
DVDD
DVDD
ROW[x] , LATCH_ENABLE
FROM CONTROLLER
COLUMN[x]
FROM CONTROLLER
DMIX[0]
DMIX[1]
3.3V 3.3V 2V
DVDD
AVDD
MIXH
MIXH
MIXH
OUTx
TO ADC
FROM CONTROLLER
100nF 10uF
Connect to
each MIXH,
AVDD,
DVDD pin
1 for MIXH,
AVDD,
DVDD net
PIXELBIAS
ARRAYBIAS_EXT
PIXELFLUSH
CORE_RESET
SHUTTER
100nF
RAB
Figure 3: Typical connection diagram
Meleiis wswzo momma Vmuz} Van}; "a: VMIXH MIXH Tm
MLX75023 Time-of-Flight Sensor Array
Product Datasheet
Page 9 of 28
6. Electrical Characteristics
6.1. Absolute Maximum Ratings2
Parameter
Symbol
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
3V3 supply voltage range
VDD_33_x
-0.3
3.3
3.6
V
3V3 DC input voltage
-0.3
VDD_33 + 0.3
V
3V3 DC input current
IN33
60
µA
MIXH input voltage
VMIXH
-0.3
2.5
V
MIXH DC input current
IMIXH
2
A
Storage temperature
Tstg
-50
125
°C
Power dissipation
(dc equiv.) 1
Ptot
0.4
W
Junction temperature
Tjnt
125
°C
Table 6: Absolute maximum ratings2
1 The maximum power dissipation depends on the ambient-to-silicon thermal resistance. The sensor package, connected to
a PCB by its solder balls (standard mounting) has a thermal resistance of 50 K/W. Under these conditions, the maximum
power dissipation is 0.4 watt. With improved thermal connection of the sensor backside to the PCB, the thermal resistance
can typically decrease by factor 2 or more (depending on the thermally conductive material and the contacting process),
thereby allowing a correspondingly higher power dissipation.
2 Absolute maximum ratings must not be exceeded to prevent permanent damage to the device.
The device is not guaranteed to be functional while applying the absolute maximum stress.
Meleiis wswzo momma VAVDD AVDD ann nvmumz min/Du FIXED/Dun myam Arman; Pmlaiis Piulaiis TA Vmuxn Vm Vang; Vu nmoawn uwuv
MLX75023 Time-of-Flight Sensor Array
Product Datasheet
Page 10 of 28
6.2. Electrical Operating Conditions
Parameter
Symbol
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
AVDD supply voltage
VAVDD
3.0
3.3
3.6
V
AVDD supply current
IAVDD
40
mA
DVDD supply voltage
VDVDD
3.0
3.3
3.6
V
DVDD current (idle)
IDVDD_IDLE
0.5
mA
DVDD supply current
(100% MIX activity, 60MHz fmix)
IDVDD_IDLE
70
mA
PIXELVDD supply voltage
VPIXELVDD
3.2
3.3
3.6
V
PIXELVDD supply current
IPIXELVDDD
4
mA
ARRAYBIAS supply voltage
VArrayBias
-15
-3
0
V
Peak ARRAYBIAS current
IArrayBias
15
100
mA
PIXELBIAS voltage
VPixelBias
0
V
PIXELBIAS current
IPixelBias
50
uA
Operating temperature (ambient)
TA
-40
105
°C
MIXH supply voltage
VMIXH
1.0
1.5
2.5
V
MIXH supply current
(100% MIX activity, VMIXH = 1.5V, Ta = -40°C)
IMIXH@1.5V
1400
1900
mA
MIXH supply current
(100% MIX activity, VMIXH = 1.5V, Ta = 25°C)
IMIXH@1.5V
1200
1900
mA
MIXH supply current
(100% MIX activity, VMIXH = 1.5V, Ta = 105°C)
IMIXH@1.5V
1050
1900
mA
MIXH supply current
(100% MIX activity, VMIXH = 2V, Ta = -40°C)
IMIXH@2V
1735
2000
mA
MIXH supply current
(100% MIX activity, VMIXH = 2V, Ta = 35°C)
IMIXH@2V
1398
2000
mA
Table 7: Electrical operation conditions
6.3. Digital IO Characteristics
Parameter
Symbol
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
Input high voltage
VIH
2.5
VDD_33 + 0.3
V
Input low voltage
VIL
0.8
V
Input current (pull-down R)
IDINDOWN
65
µA
Input current (pull-up R)
IDINUP
65
µA
Input pin capacitance
1
pF
Table 8: Digital IO characteristics
Meleiis wswzo mwmws 1 fem fmw m our fMIX RAE AB 0 AE
MLX75023 Time-of-Flight Sensor Array
Product Datasheet
Page 11 of 28
6.4. Dynamic Characteristics
Parameter
Symbol
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
Column addressing frequency
fCOL
10
25
50 1
MHz
Row addressing frequency
fROW
1
MHz
Pixel address to analog output valid
tVAL
40
Ns
OUTx output swing
RANGEOUT
0.9
V
OUTx output voltage
0.2
1.9
V
OUTx load capacitance
15
pF
DMIX frequency
fMIX
20
40
MHz
Table 9: Dynamic characteristics
1 Column addressing above 25 MHz can create image artefacts due to settling errors.
These errors can be avoided with an alternative, but more complicated, timing diagram than explained in section 7.1
6.5. ArrayBias
ARRAYBIAS requires a negative current to improve the pixel demodulating efficiency. It’s recommended to supply
ARRAYBIAS via a series resistor (= ARRAYBIAS_EXT) to reduce the device self-heating. This is also shown in Figure 3.
Parameter
Conditions
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
ARRAYBIAS voltage
-15
-3
0
V
ARRAYBIAS current
-3V, RAB = 0
15
75
mA
Table 10: MLX75023xTF-BAA-00x-TR ARRAYBIAS Conditions
Parameter
Conditions
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
ARRAYBIAS_EXT voltage
-5
-3.3
-3
V
ARRAYBIAS_EXT current
-3.3V, RAB = 330
10
mA
RAB series resistor
300
330
500
Table 11: MLX75023xTF-BAB-00x-TR1 ARRAYBIAS_EXT & RAB Conditions
Note1 : Recommended for new designs
6.6. Sensor Physical Characteristics
Parameter
Symbol
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
Horizontal resolution
h
320
pixels
Vertical resolution
v
240
pixels
Pixel pitch
pp
15
µm
CAPD architecture
Two-tap differential
Table 12: Sensor physical characteristics
MeleXIs ' xsrnm I::m~.:[kw: 2 CAC_15MH1
MLX75023 Time-of-Flight Sensor Array
Product Datasheet
Page 12 of 28
6.7. Optical & TOF Characteristics
Parameter
Symbol
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
External Quantum Efficiency2
@850 nm
EQE850
7.7%
9.7%
%
AC contrast @ 15 MHz
CAC_15MHz
80
89
%
Single tap full well capacity
240
ke-
Pixel conversion gain
C_GAIN
3.9
uV/e-
Noise floor
ηe
100
e-
max. light acceptance angle
35
°
Bad pixel count1
28
px
Table 13: Optical & TOF characteristics
1 A bad pixel is defined as a pixel with a demodulation contrast <80% or a low responsivity compared to other pixels.
2 The external quantum efficiency is calculated as FF.R.Eph/e., where FF is pixel fill factor, R is responsivity in A/W,
Eph is photon energy in Joule and e is a unit charge in Coulomb.
Figure 4: Typical AC demodulation contrast at 15 MHz & the estimated max. MIXH current
in function of VMIXH voltage with 0V ARRAYBIAS and 0V PIXELBIAS
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
MIXH Current [mA]
AC Contrast [%]
VMIXH Voltage [V]
AC Contrast
MIXH Current
MeleXIs ' xsrnm I::m~.:[kw:
MLX75023 Time-of-Flight Sensor Array
Product Datasheet
Page 13 of 28
Figure 5: Typical AC demodulation contrast versus modulation frequency
at Ta 25oC and 105oC, 1.5V VMIXH, 0V PIXELBIAS, -3.3V ARRAYBIAS_EXT, 330 Ohm RAB
Due to the pixel layer stack design, incident light rays under an angle might generate a minor shadow on the sensitive pixel
area and as a consequence will result in lower pixel sensitivity. The effect is visualized in the figure below and can be
minimized on application level with optical lens design.
Figure 6: Typical pixel sensitivity as a function of incident light angle, relative to normal incidence.
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
10 20 30 40 50
Demodulation Contrast
Modulation Frequency [MHz]
25
105
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Relative Sensitivity
Incident Light Angle (in air) [°]
Relative Sensitivy, Horizontal Relative Sensitivy, Vertical
CoveReseC LatchEnable DMIXO DMIX1 Shulter PlxelFlush BxColumn BxRuw Meleils' PMrUD Resa Imeqanon Ramon
MLX75023 Time-of-Flight Sensor Array
Product Datasheet
Page 14 of 28
7. Interface
7.1. Timing Diagram
Figure 7: Global shutter timing δ1 0.1us, δ2 0.1us, δ3 1us, δ4 1us.
Each cycle consists of a reset phase, an integration phase and a read-out phase.
7.1.1. Power Up
The power up phase should last at least for 10us after the supply reached the nominal value, after which the internal latches
can be programmed. To initiate normal operating mode, a code of 0x11 should be applied to the ROW[X] bus at the falling
edge of the LATCH_ENABLE signal (for details see Section 7.2).
7.1.2. Reset
The reset is organized in 3 steps. CORE_RESET is HIGH during all three steps.
The electronic shutter should be opened by setting SHUTTER to HIGH.
Step 1 : Substrate flush
During step 1 mix signals DMIXx are pulled HIGH for at least 100 ns.
The step ends by pulling DMIXx terminal LOW.
Step 2 : Pixel flush
The second phase implements a flushed reset by switching PIXELFLUSH low during the first 5 us of
CORE_RESET HIGH.
MeleXIs wswzo momma
MLX75023 Time-of-Flight Sensor Array
Product Datasheet
Page 15 of 28
Step 3 : Reset
The 3rd phase of the reset period lasts another 5 us, where the PIXELFLUSH is asserted.
During the 2nd and 3rd phase of the reset, DMIXx states should be LOW.
7.1.3. Integration
After the reset cycle, the integration cycle is started. The electronic shutter should be kept open (keep SHUTTER
HIGH). The mix signals DMIX0/1 are alternated using the Time-of-Flight modulation pattern. When the
integration is completed, the mix signals DMIX0/1 should be again put in idle state LOW. The electronic shutter
can be closed by setting SHUTTER to LOW.
7.1.4. Read-out
Reading out the sensor is done by toggling both Row and Column address. Both addresses have 8 bit width.
The Row binary word is directly mapped to the row number. The column binary word is toggled from 00h to 09Fh
(0 to 159).
When row 0 is addressed the data from the pixels in row 0 is stored on a column-level memory Mem0.
After this, row 1 is addressed and the data from the pixels in row 1 is stored in a second column-level memory
Mem1. Simultaneously, after row 0 to row 1 transition, the data from row 0 previously stored in Mem0 can be
read at the outputs OUT0 to OUT3 by selecting the columns sequentially. The Mem0-Mem1 shadow buffer
switching is controlled by the B0_ROW signal; when reading out the matrix the B0_ROW signal must change its
state every row.
When selecting column 0, OUT0 and OUT3 offer the data from pixel 0, while OUT1 and OUT2 offer the data from
pixel 8. As such, the data is read out in blocks of 8. (Pixel 0 is located in the bottom right corner as indicated in the
mechanical dimensions drawing of Section 9.1)
When selecting column 1, OUT0/3 offer the data from pixel 1, while OUT1/2 offer the data from pixel 9.
When selecting column 8, OUT0/3 offer the data from pixel 16, while OUT1/2 offer the data from pixel 24.
As such when selecting column N, the data at
OUT0/3 is coming from pixel (N MOD 8) + 16*FLOOR(N/8)
OUT1/2 is coming from pixel (N MOD 8) + 16*FLOOR(N/8) + 8
Parameter
OUT0/3 :
Pixel #
OUT1/2 :
Pixel #
0
0
8
1
1
9
6
6
14
7
7
15
8
16
24
9
17
25
15
23
31
16
32
40
17
33
41
..
Table 14: Read-out table
Meleils' xsrnm I::m~.:[kw: I 10 LATCH_ENABLE 503m PUP Min thmh lus tlhsll 0“ tsql 1“
MLX75023 Time-of-Flight Sensor Array
Product Datasheet
Page 16 of 28
7.2. Device Control
LATCH_ENABLE allows to program latches which control the general behaviour of the circuitry.
During latch enable the B0-7_ROW inputs are the latch inputs.
LATCH_ENABLE = 1
Name
Function
Configuration
Typical
Value
B0_Row
PUP
Power-up of bandgap and bias
1 = Power-up
0 = Power-down
1
B1_Row
coltest_i
Multiplexes the 4 test columns on
the 4 last columns of the array
1 = Testcolumns active
0 = Testcolumns inactive
0
B4_Row
PDN_sw
Power-down of output amplifiers
1 = Power-up
0 = Power-down
1
Table 15: System control
Figure 8: Device control
Meleiis xsrnm I::m~.:[kw:
MLX75023 Time-of-Flight Sensor Array
Product Datasheet
Page 17 of 28
7.3. Test Column Specification
MLX75023 has built in test columns (four) that can be used to debug the analog to digital conversion as described in section
7.2. The test columns can be enabled by reprogramming the LATCH_ENABLE at sensor startup. The test columns contain a
chess pattern with min. & max. values as shown in Figure 9 :
Figure 9: Raw tap A phase0 image of a hand with enabled test columns
RowNo.
ROW[7:0]
Col 316
Tap A
Col 317
Tap A
Col 318
Tap A
Col 319
Tap A
Col 316
Tap B
Col 317
Tap B
Col 318
Tap B
Col 319
Tap B
0
ROW[7]
ROW[5]
ROW[3]
ROW[1]
ROW[6]
ROW[4]
ROW[2]
ROW[0]
1
ROW[7]
ROW[5]
ROW[3]
ROW[1]
ROW[6]
ROW[4]
ROW[2]
ROW[0]
239
ROW[7]
ROW[5]
ROW[3]
ROW[1]
ROW[6]
ROW[4]
ROW[2]
ROW[0]
240
ROW[7]
ROW[5]
ROW[3]
ROW[1]
ROW[6]
ROW[4]
ROW[2]
ROW[0]
Table 16: Test column description
MeleXIs wswzo momma
MLX75023 Time-of-Flight Sensor Array
Product Datasheet
Page 18 of 28
7.4. Test Row Specification
On top of the four test columns as described in section 7.3 MLX75023 also has eight test rows. They have a similar chess
pattern and can be used to debug the system. The test rows are always enabled and can be read-out and addressed like any
other pixel row.
Figure 10: Raw tap A phase180 image of a hand with the test rows enabled
RowNo.
Col 0
(dec 0)
Col 1
(dec 1)
Col 255
(dec 255)
Col 256
(dec 0)
Col 257
(dec 1)
Col319
(dec 63)
240
Tap A
COL[7]
COL[7]
COL[7]
COL[7]
COL[7]
COL[7]
241
Tap A
COL[5]
COL[5]
COL[5]
COL[5]
COL[5]
COL[5]
242
Tap A
COL[3]
COL[3]
COL[3]
COL[3]
COL[3]
COL[3]
243
Tap A
COL[1]
COL[1]
COL[1]
COL[1]
COL[1]
COL[1]
240
Tap B
COL[6]
COL[6]
COL[6]
COL[6]
COL[6]
COL[6]
241
Tap B
COL[4]
COL[4]
COL[4]
COL[4]
COL[4]
COL[4]
242
Tap B
COL[2]
COL[2]
COL[2]
COL[2]
COL[2]
COL[2]
243
Tap B
COL[0]
COL[0]
COL[0]
COL[0]
COL[0]
COL[0]
Table 17: Test row description
m PIX HVDD Dignal inputs GND OUTx MLX75023 V lntemd dignal comm! s'glals GND
MLX75023 Time-of-Flight Sensor Array
Product Datasheet
Page 19 of 28
8. Noise Considerations
The noise limitation of the MLX75023 under high background illumination is typically the shot noise coming from the DC
background light. Under low background light conditions the lowest theoretical noise floor is the thermal noise coming from
the in-pixel reset switch, this noise is also known as kT/C (“kT over C”) noise. The reset kT/C noise is the minimum achievable
noise level under low light conditions if the sample and hold (S/H) signal (“Shutter”) is not used.
If the system designer implements the default timing as shown in Figure 7.1 the thermal noise of the in-pixel sample and
hold switch also contributes to the pixel’s noise floor.
The typical pixel noise RMS values are given below:
Pixel noise floor (reset kT/C noise): 340uV
Pixel noise floor in shutter mode (reset and S/H kT/C noise): 410uV
Pixel shot noise (@ 0.9V total signal): 2mV
The noise of the data acquisition system should be lower than the pixel’s intrinsic noise.
Figure 11: Electrical model of one phase output of the pseudo differential TOF pixel
The architecture of MLX75023 comprises pseudo differential signal paths for the pixel output counter-phase signals, it is
highly recommended to implement a simultaneous sampling of OUT0/OUT3 and OUT1/OUT2 signals to reduce the common
mode noise coupling from the chip power supply and biases (PIXELBIAS). The supply voltage ripple (AVDD, DVDD) and
PIXELBIAS voltage ripple during the CORE_RESET signal falling edge, SHUTTER signal falling edge and data sampling time
instants should not exceed ~10 times the pixel noise. It is also recommended that separate, decoupled supply routing of
AVDD and PIXELVDD is implemented. AVDD and DVDD could share the same supply routing.
If MLX75023 is operated in a single ended mode it is important to guarantee that the voltage ripple of the PIXELVDD supply
is lower than pixel noise.
To avoid noise coupling from the MIXH supply the DMIX[0] and DMIX[1] signals should be in ‘00’ state during the falling edge
of the CORE_RESET and SHUTTER signals and also during the pixel array readout. To avoid noise coupling from ARRAYBIAS or
PIXELBIAS pins, these pins should not be left floating (see Section 0).
It is recommended to short all the grounds of MLX75023 to the ground plane and use this ground potential as the ground
reference for the analog to digital conversion.
To reduce common mode noise coupling to the analog sensor output pairs (OUT0, OUT3), (OUT1, OUT2), it is recommended
to layout the output pair traces like for a differential signal. In this way, any common mode noise coupling to the traces can
be cancelled afterwards in the digital domain.
MeleXis :SHIE: m CERN. C T- m \ <:-m \="" ginning;="" ‘="" e]="" w="" ,—="" omn‘yp,="" ‘7‘="" e="" l="" “pmcw'="" @@@@@®‘@®®\®®®="" h="" i="" .="" o="" ,="" ®="" pixelaw-="" ,="" imam="" 1.="" ®="" :i="" 2="" .="" llefllmatk="" jj@="" q?="" c="" ‘="" detall="" a="" kcyivmivnmalk="" q="" r="" '="" q:="" e;="" 1="" _="" canuerpixalam="" we="" .="" \="" f="" (410664309737="" ”74%="" @gé‘g="" l="" 1="" ‘="" \="" ccnwrorfgg)="" :="" gfiéfi—‘g="" \fisznmuvw="" 1/="" ‘1‘="" \="" \="" g="" 2="" #="" w="" x="" ’="" 0.!5454—63'fi,="" e7)="" ®@®®;®m="" ®®="" “mm="" “m="" (morrdflis="" ”‘1‘="" ‘j="" “dud“="" m-ik="" aw="" nsomxet.="" ”mm-“‘3="" c="" 5="" w="" ‘1="" u-="" snowmen="" my="" view="" top="" view="" side="" view="" e="" nm—es'a="" dwsionismeasuredai'tm‘emwvm="" sdiddiballdiametm="" pmumommmmc="" mum="" m’nmc="" m.="" mm="" mm="" m="" mm"="" q="" mmmmmmmmmms.="">
MLX75023 Time-of-Flight Sensor Array
Product Datasheet
Page 20 of 28
9. Package
9.1. Mechanical Dimensions & Cover Tape Specifications
To avoid dust accumulation, scratches or other sources of damage during component storage, logistics or
the assembly process(es) we offer product variants that include a plastic cover tape to protect the sensitive
area of the sensor. See section 2 for more detailed ordering information.
Figure 12: Mechanical & cover tape dimensions
9.2. Package Marking
Figure 13: Contrast Enhanced Picture of Sensor Backside
Pixel (0, 0)
DATECODE (YYWW)
DEVICE NAME
LOTNUMBER
Fiducial Mark
Keyi Version Mark
1st Ball Mark
Pin 1 Indicator
cum: MengIs ' 100 E 8.5.7:...» a llll'll‘i mm mm nw - - w w m m m w w w m 950 650 750 W [II-I] 550 450
MLX75023 Time-of-Flight Sensor Array
Product Datasheet
Page 21 of 28
9.3. Thermal Resistance
The package has an ambient-to-silicon thermal resistance of 50 K/W when the device is connected to the PCB by its solder
balls (standard BGA mounting). The thermal resistance can be decreased by applying a thermal connection between the PCB
and the sensor backside, e.g. by an underfill material.
Good performances can be achieved with e.g. Fischer WLPF, but also Lord ME-525 is a similar alternative.1
Underfill materials with an even higher thermal conductivity are also available in the market.
This process is highly recommended when operating under severe applications requirements.
It is also advised to work with a capillary underfill process. When applying underfill with a needle, specific care should be
taken not to touch the sensor die with the needle, as non-repairable damage to the sensor die (e.g. die crack) may incur.
1 Melexis cannot take any responsibility related to the use and performance of products from 3rd party suppliers.
9.4. Optical Filter
Specifications
Glass side
Top side
T_Stop
< 0.1% average transmittance
T_Pass
>80% transmittance [800nm 900nm]
50% transmittance
cross-overs
775 nm; 925 nm
AOI
0 to 35 degrees
Table 18: Bandpass filter characteristics
Figure 14: Bandpass filter spectral response for 0° and 40° angle of incidence (AOI)
Mebiw 7mm EEEEEE EEEEEE EEEE‘EE EEE EE EEEEEEEE E: E E} "E? EEEEEEE EEEEEEEEE EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE EEEEEEEEE EEEEEEEEEE EEEEEEEEEEA: EEEEEEEEEEgg \ \ Jr my mm m 92' use 12/ 5 xx mm \VAAKE NAME\ U 7 xxx mm “TERM” LCM“ *4 7‘“ L C ' at as was He Hp; EE SHEET 2/: ‘0 vAmncmn NG DATE {‘vwv} SHAPE E :‘ummvwmnux fflm max :an MAMH:
MLX75023 Time-of-Flight Sensor Array
Product Datasheet
Page 22 of 28
9.5. Shipping & Handling
For proper shipment, the sensor device should be placed in a dedicated tray (see Figure 15) or a waffle pack
container in case of sample quantities. The sensor device needs to be very carefully handled when being
transported without the container, to avoid contamination of the glass, glass chipping, damage to the solder balls
or damage to the sensor die. It is strongly recommended to avoid any manual contact and only if necessary,
manually pick and place the device with plastic tweezers, holding the sides of the glass.
Figure 15: Production tray drawing (dimensions in mm)
0.0: mm ohm MeleXIs ' urm' [2 warm 3 o: m mm ‘ Otlglnll Posiflon <— ‘3="" (j"="" x.="" v="" unwor-="" -="" (—="" '="" 0.d5rnm="" shill="" (_="" ()="" o="" manor-ii="" mien="" :="" ..="" 033mm="" am="" e="">< .1="" ‘="" (—="" (2‘="" feb="" .="" solaegaan="" pad="" 9="" (i)="" .="" ‘="" ’="" 50m"="" snm="" snum="" sum="" i="" 0.03="" mm="" film="" [l482="" 31241="" f="" ®©®®®®="" ®®f@®@="" m="" w="" w="" *="" *="" m="" \n="" t="" c;="" \="" 777*"="" 777fi="" 33="" \1="" eh="" {3="" ‘="" \®="" 5)="" 7,7,="" 7,41,="" m="" %\="" (0,0)="" ‘="" ‘="" £1;="" m="" ‘="" ‘="" pkgi="" (j;="" ‘="" ‘="" g="" g‘="" ‘="" cphupk‘e="" ‘="" 1&3="" @\=""><177774 ‘c="" @l,,,,,="" ‘,,,,,4®="" l©©©mq="" @l’“@="" @@4="" solder="" mcsk="" sovqj/="" dpcning=""><0 .="" 7w="" tl="" 1h="" ole="" array="" ‘k:="" sz‘dw‘="">
MLX75023 Time-of-Flight Sensor Array
Product Datasheet
Page 23 of 28
9.6. PCB Footprint Recommendations
It’s recommended to use NSMD (Non Solder Mask Defined) type of pads on the PCB. In order to prevent touching of the
solder balls to the sensor after reflow, it’s also recommended to shift the solder ball pads 50 um outward from the package
position, as illustrated in Figure 16 and Figure 17.
Figure 16: Recommended solder ball pad shift
Figure 17: Recommended PCB land pattern (dimenions in mm)
Meleils :srm) (mam; Time (sec)
MLX75023 Time-of-Flight Sensor Array
Product Datasheet
Page 24 of 28
9.7. PCB Trace Layout Recommendation
It is mandatory to route the traces connected to the solder balls outside of the solder ball perimeter (see Figure 18, left). In
case that traces should be routed inside of the solder ball perimeter, the trace angle should be greater than 45 deg (see
Figure 18, right). It is recommended to use NSMD (none solder mask defined) type of pads.
Figure 18: Recommended trace layout
9.8. Sensor Reflow Profile
Figure 19: Recommended reflow profile
Meleziis '
MLX75023 Time-of-Flight Sensor Array
Product Datasheet
Page 25 of 28
10. Depth & Confidence Calculation
10.1. Correlation Measurement
A depth and confidence measurement can be realized by a sequence of 4 correlation measurements, followed by a digital
processing step. In one implementation, a single correlation measurement is realized by synchronous demodulation of the
light signal of the active illumination source: during the integration time , the active illumination source should be
turned on while the TOF pixel responsivity and the light signal are amplitude modulated at a frequency . Between the
illumination source and the TOF pixel modulation signal, a fixed phase delay   degrees should be applied
per correlation measurement. After each integration time, the light source should be switched off to cool down for a time
. During this cool down time, there is a time  to read out the TOF pixel correlation values . In an N-tap TOF
pixel design, multiple correlations , where   can be measured in parallel.
Figure 20 shows the sequence of 4 correlation measurements and the synchronization between the pixel and active
illumination timings.
Figure 20: Pixel and illumination timing sequence(s)
The MLX75023 features a two-tap TOF pixel design. One tap measures the in-phase correlation, while the other tap
measures the counter phase correlation. Following the described sequence, there will be 8 correlation values available per
depth measurement sequence, per pixel:  where  denotes the in-phase and counter phase correlation
respectively, and  .
The MLX75023 features two dual-ended outputs. The dual ended output terminal pairs are (OUT0, OUT3) and (OUT1, OUT2).
During readout of the sensor, each dual ended pair will output the voltages of a two-tap pixel. Each output pair can be
assigned to readout one half of the pixel array as explained in Section 7.1.4. For columns 0 … 7, 16 … 23, … :
 
 
For columns 8 … 15, 24 … 33, … :  
 
The MLX75023 features digital mix input terminals DMIX0 (pin 35) and DMIX1 (pin 34). During the integration time , the
modulation reference signal should be applied differentially to these terminals. During the remainder of the time, the timing
requirements as detailed in Section 7.1 should be followed.
int read
cooldown
(a) pixel timing
on
int read
cooldownon
int read
cooldownon
int read
cooldownon
t
t
(b) illumination timing
f= 0of= 180of= 90of= 270o
Melex'ié'"
MLX75023 Time-of-Flight Sensor Array
Product Datasheet
Page 26 of 28
10.2. Active Illumination
Figure 21: Active illumination waveform
A typical active illumination waveform is shown in Figure 21. The waveform consists of two parts: during the first, a
pulse train of active illumination is emitted and during the second, no active light is emitted. During this time, the
active light source can cool down and the pixel values can be read out.
The symbols in the graph have the following meaning:
is the time between consecutive measurements
 is the ratio between the time that active pulses should be emitted and the total time of the
measurement
 is the duration of each active pulse
 is the ratio between the duration of an active pulse and the time between consecutive pulses
 is the peak optical power or intensity level of the active pulse
The average optical power or intensity  can be calculated as
    
The average duty cycle  should be chosen such that the active illumination can operate reliably i.e. does not
exceed its critical temperature, while aiming for maximum peak power  to achieve the best measurement SNR in high
ambient light conditions.
Referring to Section 10.1, we note that:
the integration time  equals 
the cool down time  equals 
the modulation frequency  equals  
the modulation duty cycle  equals 50% in case of square wave or sine modulation
time
optical
power
T
Tmod
Dpulse.T
0
Iopt, PK
Dmod.Tmod
time
optical
power
T
Tmod
Dpulse.T
0
Iopt, PK
Dmod.Tmod
Meleiié’
MLX75023 Time-of-Flight Sensor Array
Product Datasheet
Page 27 of 28
10.3. Depth and Confidence Calculation
The depth data per pixel in degrees can be calculated by following formula
 if  
if  
Where are average quadrature values calculated as
 
 
Where and are the quadrature and norm values measured by the first and second pixel tap, respectively.
They can be calculated from the correlation values by following formula:
  
  
Where  is the pixel tap index. A good measure of the depth value confidence is the total norm .
11. Reliability
MLX75023RTF is qualified according to AEC-Q-100-002 (-40 - 105°C) and following ESD classification:
ESD HBM - Class H1C acc. to AEC - Q100-002-Rev.D
ESD CDM - Class C4A acc. to AEC - Q100-011-Rev.C1
11.1. Board Level Reliability
In order to meet the board level reliability requirements it is highly recommended to use low CTE (coefficient of thermal
expansion) PCB substrate material, like FR-5, in combination with an underfill material (like explained in section 0) to match
the CTE of the glass package (3.8 ppm/K).
Meleiis ' ' httgs:[[www.me/exis.com[en[Isgalflerms-and-conditions
MLX75023 Time-of-Flight Sensor Array
Product Datasheet
Page 28 of 28
Disclaimer
The information furnished by Melexis herein (“Information”) is believed to be correct and accurate. Melexis disclaims (i) any
and all liability in connection with or arising out of the furnishing, performance or use of the technical data or use of the
product(s) as described herein (“Product”) (ii) any and all liability, including without limitation, special, consequential or
incidental damages, and (iii) any and all warranties, express, statutory, implied, or by description, including warranties of
fitness for particular purpose, non-infringement and merchantability. No obligation or liability shall arise or flow out of
Melexis’ rendering of technical or other services.
The Information is provided "as is” and Melexis reserves the right to change the Information at any time and without notice.
Therefore, before placing orders and/or prior to designing the Product into a system, users or any third party should obtain
the latest version of the relevant information to verify that the information being relied upon is current. Users or any third
party must further determine the suitability of the Product for its application, including the level of reliability required and
determine whether it is fit for a particular purpose. The Information is proprietary and/or confidential information of Melexis
and the use thereof or anything described by the Information does not grant, explicitly or implicitly, to any party any patent
rights, licenses, or any other intellectual property rights.
This document as well as the Product(s) may be subject to export control regulations. Please be aware that export might
require a prior authorization from competent authorities.
The Product(s) are intended for use in normal commercial applications. Unless otherwise agreed upon in writing, the
Product(s) are not designed, authorized or warranted to be suitable in applications requiring extended temperature range
and/or unusual environmental requirements. High reliability applications, such as medical life-support or life-sustaining
equipment are specifically not recommended by Melexis.
The Product(s) may not be used for the following applications subject to export control regulations: the development,
production, processing, operation, maintenance, storage, recognition or proliferation of 1) chemical, biological or nuclear
weapons, or for the development, production, maintenance or storage of missiles for such weapons: 2) civil firearms,
including spare parts or ammunition for such arms; 3) defense related products, or other material for military use or for law
enforcement; 4) any applications that, alone or in combination with other goods, substances or organisms could cause
serious harm to persons or goods and that can be used as a means of violence in an armed conflict or any similar violent
situation.
The Products sold by Melexis are subject to the terms and conditions as specified in the Terms of Sale, which can be found at
https://www.melexis.com/en/legal/terms-and-conditions
This document supersedes and replaces all prior information regarding the Product(s) and/or previous versions of this
document.
Melexis NV © - No part of this document may be reproduced without the prior written consent of Melexis. (2016)
ISO/TS 16949 and ISO14001 Certified.

Products related to this Datasheet

AUTOMOTIVE TOF SENSOR WITHOUT CO
AUTOMOTIVE TOF SENSOR WITH COVER
AUTOMOTIVE TOF SENSOR, WITHOUT C
EVAL BOARD TOF 60DEG FOV
EVAL BOARD TOF 110DEG FOV
AUTOMOTIVE TOF SENSOR WITH COVER
TOF SENSOR, WITHOUT COVER TAPE
TOF SENSOR, WITH COVER TAPE
/body> /html>