Alkaline Miniature Manganese Appl Manual Datasheet by Energizer Battery Company

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Manganese Dioxide [flag/281' Alkahne Miniature Handhnnk M I ntroduction Anode @2003 Encrguc Branus, LLC , CDMCHIS mm docs no: (ansnmm a wananly or same, ftatums or pcvfmmantc Page 1 m a
Alkaline Miniature Handbook
Energizer Brands, LLC. | 800-383-7323 (USA-CAN) | www.energizer.com
©2008 Energize Brands, LLC. Contents herein does not constitute a warranty of service, features or performance Page 1 of 4
Alkaline Miniature Manganese Dioxide
Handbook and Application Manual
Introduction
The miniature manganese dioxide primary battery is designed to provide an economical power source for
device applications that do not require the flat voltage discharge curve characteristic of silver oxide batteries.
Device applications in which miniature manganese dioxide batteries can be used as substitutes
include: calculators, some watches and a variety of small toys. The substitution of miniature manganese
dioxide batteries for silver oxide batteries should only be made where recommended by the device
manufacturer. General characteristics of the miniature manganese dioxide systems are:
Good low temperature characteristics
Good resistance to shock, vibration, and acceleration
Excellent service maintenance
Sloping discharge curve
Battery Description
Construction:
Miniature manganese dioxide batteries are produced with flat circular cathodes and homogeneous gelled
anodes. A cutaway of miniature manganese dioxide battery (fig. 1) is illustrated in the following diagram.
(fig. 1) Typical Alkaline Miniature Battery
Cathode: mixture of MnO2 and conductor.
Anode: gelled mixture of amalgamated zinc powder and electrolyte.
Separator: specially selected materials prevent migration of any solid particles in the battery.
Exterior battery surfaces: nickel is used to resist corrosion and to insure good electrical contact.
Electrochemistry:
Miniature manganese dioxide batteries consist of a manganese dioxide cathode, a zinc anode of high surface
area, and a highly alkaline electrolyte consisting of potassium hydroxide. The open circuit voltage of miniature
manganese dioxide batteries is approximately 1.6 volts. The operating voltage at typical current drains varies
with the depth of discharge of the battery as shown in the following graph. (fig. 2)
Contents
Introduction
Battery
Description
Temperature
Effects
Applications
Internal
Resistance
Disposal and
Shipping
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Alkaline Miniature Handbook
Energizer Brands, LLC. | 800-383-7323 (USA-CAN) | www.energizer.com
©2008 Energize Brands, LLC. Contents herein does not constitute a warranty of service, features or performance Page 2 of 4
Alkaline Miniature Manganese Dioxide
Handbook and Application Manual
(fig. 2) Operating Voltage as a Function of Remaining Capacity
Miniature manganese dioxide batteries typically exhibit an expansion of the cathode on discharge which results
in an overall increase in the battery’s height. This increase in height is referred to as bulge. While miniature
manganese dioxide batteries are designed to minimize bulging, they will typically bulge to a height greater
than comparable silver oxide batteries during discharge.
Temperature Effects on Performance:
Typical temperature effects on miniature dioxide batteries are shown in the following graphs.
(fig. 3) Temperature Effects on Performance
Contents
Introduction
Battery
Description
Temperature
Effects
Applications
Internal
Resistance
Disposal and
Shipping
Typia'nl Alkaline Miniature "alumnae Dioxide Performance fifeddaomeTmaweon Capady 100 912 of lnmal Sel‘VIua 8388 - Manganese Dioxide [neg/let Time (years) (hg 4r Errett at Storage Temperature an Capaerty @2003 Energrze Brands, LLC , contents hcwm does not (onsmutc a warranty or servree, features or pcvfmmanm Page 3 et 4
Alkaline Miniature Handbook
Energizer Brands, LLC. | 800-383-7323 (USA-CAN) | www.energizer.com
©2008 Energize Brands, LLC. Contents herein does not constitute a warranty of service, features or performance Page 3 of 4
Alkaline Miniature Manganese Dioxide
Handbook and Application Manual
(fig. 4) Effect of Storage Temperature on Capacity
Applications:
Manufacturers who plan to recommend the use of miniature manganese dioxide batteries in their devices must
accommodate their unique discharge curve shape in the design of their equipment.
Internal Resistance:
The internal resistance (Ri) of a battery is defined as the opposition to the flow of current within the battery.
There are two basic components that impact the internal resistance of a battery; electronic resistance and ionic
resistance. The electronic resistance plus the ionic resistance will be referred to as the total effective
resistance.
The electronic resistance encompasses the resistivity of the actual materials such as metal covers and internal
components; as well as, how well these materials make contact with each other. The effect of this portion of
the total effective resistance occurs very quickly and can be seen within the first few milliseconds after a
battery is place under load.
Ionic resistance is the resistance to current flow within the battery due to various electrochemical factors such
as, electrolyte conductivity, ion mobility and electrode surface area. These polarization effects occur more
slowly than electronic resistance with the contribution to total effective resistance typically starting a few
milliseconds or more after a battery is placed under load.
The impact of electronic and ionic resistance can be observed using a dual pulse test. This test involves placing
a battery on a low background drain allowing it to first stabilize and then pulsing it with a heavier load for
approximately 100 milliseconds.
Using “Ohms Law” (Volts = Current x Resistance), the total effective resistance is subsequently calculated by
dividing the change in voltage by the change in current.
Contents
Introduction
Battery
Description
Temperature
Effects
Applications
Internal
Resistance
Disposal and
Shipping
anganese Dioxide [neg/201 Alkaime Miniature Handhnok M Disposal and Shipping: 22mm Energize Brands, LLC, , Contents harem does not constitute a warranty or semice, features or performance Page 4 oi 4
Alkaline Miniature Handbook
Energizer Brands, LLC. | 800-383-7323 (USA-CAN) | www.energizer.com
©2008 Energize Brands, LLC. Contents herein does not constitute a warranty of service, features or performance Page 4 of 4
Alkaline Miniature Manganese Dioxide
Handbook and Application Manual
Disposal and Shipping:
Disposal:
Energizer
®
standard alkaline batteries are United States Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) non-
hazardous waste.
Waste standard alkaline batteries meet the United States Federal definition of a solid waste per 40 Code of
Federal Regulations (CFR) 261.2. As such, the generator must make certain determinations relative to the
waste material. Waste standard alkaline batteries do not fall under any of the specific United States Federal
RCRA F, K, P or U lists.
This leads us to the RCRA characteristic waste criteria. Some Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP)
listed materials may be present in minute quantities in the raw materials, but are well below the established
regulatory maximum values. Waste carbon zinc and standard alkaline batteries are not RCRA toxic. Only the
characteristics of ignitability, corrosivity and reactivity remain as possible classifications.
The batteries are solid, not liquid, which precludes their being a corrosive waste, since corrosive waste must be
liquid by definition. As an inert solid, flash point is not an appropriate test for ignitability.
Energizer
® batteries
are a safe consumer product and, under standard temperature and pressure conditions, will not cause fire
through friction, absorption of moisture, or spontaneous chemical changes. The batteries contain no sulfides or
cyanides, and they do not meet any other reactivity criteria.
United States Federal hazardous waste regulations are specific about relating waste determination to the waste
as generated. As generated, scrap standard alkaline batteries are not a specifically listed waste stream and
they do not meet the criteria for ignitable, corrosive, reactive or toxic wastes. Scrap standard alkaline batteries
are not hazardous waste and they are not regulated by the United States
Department of Transportation (DOT) as hazardous materials.
Other nations and some US states may regulate waste based on additional criteria or different test protocols.
The status of scrap standard alkaline batteries should be confirmed in the nation or US state(s) where disposal
occurs.
Shipping:
The transportation of
Energizer
® alkaline dry cell batteries produced and/or imported by
Energizer
® Battery
Manufacturing, Inc. are not regulated as Dangerous Goods by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT),
the International Air Transport Association (IATA), the International Maritime Dangerous Goods code (IMDG),
or the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).
The batteries and their packaging must be protected at all times from direct sun and any sources of moisture,
such as rain or wet flooring. Shock and vibration shall be avoided by ensuring that boxes are placed and
stacked gently, and properly secured from movement during transport. To lessen the exposure of the batteries
to heat, metal shipping containers should be ventilated and kept away from heat sources such as ship’s
engines or direct sunlight. Stowage on ships must be below deck, while during other transport (road, rail, etc)
and on/off loading, exposure to direct sunlight should be kept to a minimum.
Warnings:
Charging of Primary Batteries:
Charging of primary batteries may cause explosion or leakage which may result in bodily injury. IF
ENERGIZER/EVEREADY PRIMARY BATTERIES ARE SUBJECTED TO ANY FORM OF RECHARGING, ALL
WARRANTIES, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, ARE NULL AND VOID.
Design and Safety Considerations
Click here for the Design and Safety Considerations Interactive on-line Catalog
There are many other conditions to avoid for the proper safe use of batteries. It is imperative to read the
Design and Safety Overview document to assure that other safety considerations are not overlooked.
Contents
Introduction
Battery
Description
Temperature
Effects
Applications
Internal
Resistance
Disposal and
Shipping

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