LED Design, Installation Guide Datasheet by Littelfuse Inc.

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Lighting Surge Protection Modules
Design and Installation Guide
LED
Lighting Surge
Protection Modules
Design and Installation
Guide
Specifications descriptions and illustrative material in this literature are as accurate as known at the time of publication,
but are subject to changes without notice. Visit littelfuse.com for more information.
© 2016 Littelfuse, Inc.
Table of Contents Page
Introduction 3
Indirect Lightning-Induced Surge 3-5
Regional Differences in Lightning Frequency 6-7
Components That Protect Against Induced Surge Events 8
Modular Solution vs. a Solution Embedded into the
Power Supply Unit 9
Thermally Protected MOV for SPD Safety 9
Over-voltage Testing in UL 1449 and IEC 61643-11 10-15
Coordination between the SPD and the Power Supply Unit
to Reduce “Surge Let-through” 16-17
Power Supply Unit Design Considerations (Fuse,
Equivalent Resistance, TVS Diode) 18-19
Wiring Guide 20-21
Installation Guide 22
Legal Disclaimers 23
‘ ._...,,.._., .._.._._,. .... Finul
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LED Lighting Surge Protection Modules
Design and Installation Guide
Introduction
LED lighting is increasingly replacing legacy light sources (mercury vapor, metal halide
and sodium vapor) in outdoor applications as a result of technological revolutions in LED
efficiency (higher lumens per watt), secondary optics (better lenses/reflectors), and greater
thermal dissipation. However, the initial cost of installing outdoor LED lighting can be
substantial; this cost is justified and payback is established based on the lower wattage
demand, lower maintenance cost, and longer lifetime it offers. In order to protect outdoor
LED lighting from failing within an investment payback period of about five years, the lighting
must offer high durability and reliability. Transient surge events in AC power lines, which can
damage lighting fixtures, represent a significant threat to outdoor LED lighting installations.
Indirect Lightning-Induced Surge
When nearby electrical equipment is switched on or off, over-voltage transient surges can
occur in AC power lines. Nearby lightning strikes can also generate transient surges in AC
power lines (Figure 1), especially in outdoor environments.
Time
Temporary overvoltage on AC
power line resulting from
indirect lighting strike.
Voltage
Figure 1. Transient over-voltage on an AC power line resulting from an indirect lightning strike.
Lightning strikes are electrostatic discharges, which usually travel from cloud to cloud
or cloud to the ground, with magnitudes of millions of volts (Figure 2). Indirect lightning
strikes, even those that occur several miles away, can induce magnetic fields that generate
surges of thousands of volts through current-carrying copper wires, such as the overhead
and underground cables that power streetlights. These indirect strikes, which produce
levels of energy with magnitudes greater than 1000A2s, can be characterized with specific
waveforms.
Introduction and Indirect Lightning-Induced Surge
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Underground
Line
Transients
Transients
Figure 2. Indirect lightning strikes can induce magnetic fields in overhead and underground power
lines that produce over-voltage transient surges.
The surges produced by electrical storms can adversely affect outdoor LED lighting
installations. The luminaire (the combination of a module or a light engine with control gear to
form a lighting system) is susceptible to damage both in the differential and common modes:
Differential Mode – High voltage/current transients between the Line-Neutral (L-N) or
Line-Line (L-L) terminals of the luminaire could damage components in the power supply
unit or the LED module board.
Common Mode – High voltage/current transients between the L-G (earth) or N-G (earth)
terminals of the luminaire could damage safety insulation in the power supply unit or LED
module board, including the LED to heat sink insulation.
Based on site surveys and statistics on years of lightning strike data in the United States, the
IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) recommends test criteria for induced
surge waveforms and energy levels for indoor/outdoor locations (Category A/B/C). The IEEE
recommendations were then referred to by ANSI (the American National Standards Institute)
and the DOE (Department of Energy) when testing standards were established in the
United States.
Indirect Lightning-Induced Surge (continued)
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LED Lighting Surge Protection Modules
Design and Installation Guide
Service
Equipment
Service
Equipment
Location
Category A
Location
Category B
Location
Category C
Underground Service
Outbuilding
Subpanel
Service
Entrance
Service
Entrance
Meter
Figure 3. Location categories defined by IEEE standards for surge environments.
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Municipal Solid State Street Lighting Consortium
(MSSLC) has developed a model specification that ensures roadway LED luminaires and
parking lot and garage LED lighting exhibit adequate surge immunity to withstand indirect
lightning energy. Cities, municipalities, and utilities in North America are adopting this model
specification in their Requests for Quotes (RFQs) for lighting retrofit and replacement
projects. The DOE specification details performance and surge suppression requirements as
shown in Table 1 for two levels, Location Category C Low and C High.
Table 1. 1.2/55μs - 8/20μs Combination Wave Specification
Parameter Test Level/ Configuration
1.2/50µs Open Circuit Voltage Peak Low: 6 kV. High: 10kV*
8/20µs Short Circuit Current Peak Low: 3 kA. High: 10kA
Coupling Modes L1 toPE, L2 to PE, L1 to 72
Polarity and Phase Angle Positive at 90° and Negative at 270°
Test Strikes 5 for each Coupling Mode and Polarity/Phase Angle
combination
Time Between Strikes 1 minute
Total Number of Strikes = 5 strikes × 3 coupling modes × 2 polarity/phase angles
= 30 totaI strikes
Category A: Parts
of the installation at
some distance from the
service entrance
Category B: Between
Category A and
Category C
Category C: External
part of structure,
extending some distance
into the building
*This is a MINIMUM
requirement. Note that for
most combination wave
generators, which have a
source impedance of 2Ω,
the generator charging
voltage will need to be raised
above the specified level (to
somewhere in the vicinity of
20kV) to obtain the specified
current peak.
Indirect Lightning-Induced Surge (continued)
5
LED Lighting Surge Protection Modules
Design and Installation Guide
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The DOE test waveform used to evaluate surge immunity of luminaires used in outdoor
lighting (Figure 4) is a combination 1.2x50μs open circuit voltage and 8x20μs short circuit
current waveform. To perform this test, the specified peak current is calibrated on the surge
generator by shorting the output to ground prior to connection to the luminaire.
Figure 4. Open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current waveforms to represent transient surges
on an AC power line. Vp and Ip represent the peak voltage and current, respectively.
Regional Differences in Lightning Frequency
Lightning frequency may refer to the number of lightning strikes in a region during a particular
period or to the probability quotient of lightning strike frequency.
Satellite-based Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) observations are used to study lightning
activity in different regions of the world. This research has shown clear differences in both
flash frequency and optical radiance in different regions. The flash activity in different regions
shows a clear difference, corresponding to the local climate, topography, and environment
conditions.
IEEE studied the effect of indirect lightning on outdoor lighting and recommended transient
surge testing levels (3kA and 10kA) for the United States. For other regions for which lighting
survey data and regional regulations aren’t available, NASA’s research on worldwide lightning
strike frequency (Figure 5) may be useful as a reference for comparison. Central and South
America, Africa, Southern and Southeastern Asia have lightning strike frequencies similar
to Florida in the United States, so an equivalent surge immunity level (10kA) is suggested.
For regions with fewer lightning strikes, such as Europe, Eastern Asia, and Australia, a lower
surge immunity level could be considered at 3kA.
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 20 40 60
Time (µs)
V(t)/Vp
80 100
Duration - 50 µs
Front Time - 1.2 µs
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 10 20 30
Time (µs)
I(t)/Ip
40 50
Duration - 20 µs
Front Time - 8 µs
Regional Differences in Lightning Frequency
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LED Lighting Surge Protection Modules
Design and Installation Guide
Figure 5. This map of worldwide lightning frequency (courtesy of NASA Global Hydrology
Resource Center) depicts the number of lightning flashes/km2/year for various regions.
Incorporating a robust surge suppression circuit in an outdoor LED luminaire can eliminate
damage caused by surge energy, enhancing reliability, minimizing maintenance, and
extending the useful life of the lighting installation (Figure 6). A surge protection subassembly
that can suppress excessive surges to lower voltage levels is an optimal way to protect the
LED luminaire investment.
1. Fuse and inline fuse holder at pole base
overcurrent protection for wiring in the pole
to the luminaire (may or may not be installed)
2. Thermal protection inside surge protection
module (SPD)
3. Fuse inside power supply
overcurrent
protection for power supply circuitry
2
1
3
LED Street Light Protection Scheme
Figure 6. LED street light protection scheme.
Regional Differences in Lightning Frequency (continued)
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Components That Protect Against Induced Surge Events
Protecting outdoor LED lighting from lightning induced surges requires diverting high voltage/
current transient interference away from sensitive electronics in the lighting fixture. A variety
of surge protective devices (SPDs) are used in outdoor LED lighting to suppress surge energy
and minimize surge impact. These include metal-oxide varistors (MOVs), gas discharge tubes
(GDTs), and transient voltage suppression (TVS) diodes (Figure 7). These components are
designed to remain at “standby” in the circuit under normal operation. When an abnormal
high-voltage transient occurs, they activate to absorb the transient energy, then return to
standby mode.
Original transient
GDT
MOV
TVS diode
Time
Voltage
Figure 7. How GDTs, MOVs, and TVS diodes respond to a transient surge to suppress the
threat it poses.
Of the technologies outlined in Table 2, MOVs are preferred and widely used for surge
protection in power distribution panels due to their high surge energy-handling capability
and fast response to transient voltage. Therefore, MOVs are also suitable for use as surge
protection devices in outdoor LED lighting applications.
Technology GDT MOV TVS Diode
Surge Handling Capability
(8/20µs)
High
(1kA~100kA)
High
(0.1kA~100kA)
Medium
(0.1kA~15kA)
Response Time Slow (ns) Fast (ns) Faster (ps)
Max. Clamping Voltage High Medium Low
Leakage Current No Low Low
Follow-on Current Yes No No
Fatigue Yes Yes No
Table 2. Surge protection device technologies
Components That Protect Against Induced Surge Events
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LED Lighting Surge Protection Modules
Design and Installation Guide
Modular Solution vs. a Solution Embedded into the
PowerSupplyUnit
Outdoor luminaires are easily affected by transient surges inductively coupled into power
lines from lightning strikes. IEEE C62.41.2-2002 categorizes two different exposure levels
for outdoor locations (Category C Low and C High) with different suggested surge levels.
Similarly, some regions or countries may have different surge level requirements due to
different lightning strike density in the area. Although some LED luminaires feature surge
protection devices embedded in the power supply unit, Littelfuse recommends that the
surge protection circuit be provided as an independent module thats separate from the
luminaire power supply; in this way, the same luminaire can be easily marketed globally by
attaching different surge protection modules to meet differing surge level requirements.
MOVs are widely used in surge protection circuits for their fast response times, high surge
energy handling, compact size, and cost-effectiveness. However, after MOVs absorb a
certain number of surge strikes, they will begin to degrade and can no longer provide the
same protection as new ones. Having a separate surge protection module allows for easy
replacement when the original module reaches its end of life.
Thermally Protected MOV for SPD Safety
MOV technology is not only inexpensive but also highly effective for suppressing transients
in power supplies and many other applications, such as the SPD modules that are often
placed upstream from an LED driver.
MOVs tend to degrade gradually after a large surge or multiple small surges. This degradation
leads to increasing MOV leakage current; in turn, this raises the MOV’s temperature, even
under normal conditions like 120Vac/240Vac operating voltage. A thermal disconnect
adjacent to the MOV (Figure 8) can be used to sense the increase in MOV temperature
while it continues to degrade to its end-of-life condition; at this point, the thermal disconnect
will open the circuit, removing the degraded MOV from the circuit and preventing it from
failing catastrophically.
Figure 8. A thermal disconnect can open the circuit, preventing a catastrophic failure of a
degraded MOV.
Modular Solution vs. a Solution Embedded and Thermally Protected MOV for SPD Safety
9
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MOVs are designed to clamp fast over-voltage transients within microseconds. However, in
addition to short duration transients, MOVs inside SPD modules can experience temporary
over-voltage conditions caused by loss of neutral or by incorrect wiring during installation
(Figure 9). These conditions can severely stress an MOV, causing it to go into thermal
runaway; in turn, this will result in overheating, smoke, and the potential for fire. UL 1449
and IEC 61643-11, the safety standards for SPDs, define specific abnormal conditions under
which devices must be tested to ensure SPD safety. Robust SPD module designs include
thermal disconnects to protect the MOVs from thermal runaway.
Time
Voltage Temporary overvoltage on AC
power line resulting from
loss of neutral.
Figure 9. Temporary over-voltage conditions can severely stress MOVs, leading to
thermal runaway.
Over-voltage Testing in UL 1449 and IEC 61643-11
UL 1449 Abnormal Overvoltage Test
In AC line applications, the loss of a Neutral-Ground connection may occur in such a way that
there exists a risk that a sustained over-voltage may be applied to an MOV that is rated for
a much lower continuous voltage. In an unlimited current condition, the MOV will first fail to
a low impedance (few Ohms) state, but due to the high amount of energy available, it most
often ruptures instantaneously. If, however, there are loads connected to the AC line that
limit current flow, the MOV can overheat and potentially cause the SPD device to overheat
resulting in smoke, out-gassing and eventually fire.
Over-voltage Testing in UL 1449 and IEC 61643-11
10
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LED Lighting Surge Protection Modules
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120 V Load
MOV rated
for 150 V rms
continuous
voltage
120 V
Figure 10. Loss of Neutral-Ground connection in a standard U.S. split-phase power
distribution system.
For example, in a standard U.S. 120V AC Line application, two 120V AC power lines (180°
out of phase) are commonly fed from a center-tapped 240V transformer. See Figure 10.
Let’s assume a 150V-rated MOV is present in the top 120V circuit, and some load exists
on the bottom 120V circuit. Both the MOV and load share the center tap, which is the
Neutral-Ground connection. If a break occurs on the center tap (X—X), then the load in the
bottom phase acts as a current limiter, and the line fuse may not clear. In this scenario, the
150V rated MOV is subjected to 240V at a limited current, potentially resulting in thermal
runaway for the MOV. Table 44.1 in UL 1449 4th Edition defines the test voltage that should
be applied to various SPD devices depending on the designers desired device rating.
(See Table 3.)
Nominal Voltage
Rating Phase Test Voltage a
0–109V Single Twice Rated Voltage
110219V Single 240
220–229V Single 380
230–239V Single 400
240345V Single 480
346399V Single 600
400499V Single 690
500–1000V Single Twice Rated Voltage up to
Max. 1000V
110–120V / 220240V Split 240
120 / 208V 3-WYE 208
220 / 380V 3-WYE 380
230 / 400V 3-WYE 400
220240 / 380415 3-WYE 415
240 / 415V 3-WYE 415
254–270 / 440480V 3-WYE 480
346 / 600V 3-WYE 600
400 / 690V 3-WYE 690
120 / 240V High leg delta 240
240 / 480V High leg delta 480
240V Delta c
480V Delta c
600V Delta b
Table 3. Test voltage selection table (reproduced from Table 44.1 in UL 1449 4th Edition).
a. For device ratings not specified
in the table, the test voltage
shall be the maximum phase
voltage (if available) or twice
the conductor pair voltage
rating up to 1000V max.
b. Abnormal Overvoltage
Tests are not required to be
conducted on 600V delta rated
units, but short circuit testing
shall be performed.
c. The Short Circuit and
Intermediate Current tests are
performed at the full phase
voltage.
Over-voltage Testing in UL 1449 and IEC 61643-11 (continued)
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IEC 61643-11 Temporary Overvoltage (TOV) Test
Compared to surge transients, which are short-duration (microseconds) over-voltage
disturbances in AC power lines, temporary over-voltages (TOVs) are longer-duration
(milliseconds to minutes long) abnormal high voltages affecting the SPD module. TOVs
can lead to short-circuited SPD modules and thermal runaway, potentially resulting in a
catastrophic fire or explosion of the SPD.
Several things can cause TOVs to occur in AC power lines. IEC 61643-11 includes a TOV
test in the standard to simulate these possible causes and verify SPD module safety. TOVs
are caused by short-circuit faults in the power distribution network and by faults in the low
voltage system and the high/medium voltage system.
TOV caused by faults in the low voltage system
Line-to-Ground Fault. A single line-to-ground fault at one phase shifts the
ground potential at the fault location and generates 1.73× (3) over-voltage at
another phase line-to-ground in the worst case. The over-voltage condition
continues until an over-current device activates to clear the line-to-ground fault,
which usually happens in less than five seconds.
B A
C
Neutral = Ground
(A) Normal Conditions
B
A
= Ground
Line-to-Ground
Over-voltage
C
(B) Fault Conditions
Figure 11. Line-to-ground fault in 3-phase electric power system.
Over-voltage Testing in UL 1449 and IEC 61643-11 (continued)
12
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Loss of Secondary Neutral. A broken neutral shifts its potential away and may
cause a 1.73× (√3) over-voltage at Line-to-Neutral in the worst case.
L1
L3
N
U0U0
U0
L2
L1
L3 L2
N1
N
(A) Normal (B) Lost of neutral
Figure 12. Lost-of-neutral in 3-phase electric power system
TOV caused by faults in the high/medium voltage system
When a distribution transformer (for example, 10kV to 380V, as shown in Figure 13) has
a short-circuit fault at the high-voltage side (10kV) Line-to-Ground, it generates a high
fault current (Id=300A, 200ms duration) through grounding resistor Re (4Ω), which in
turn elevates the Neutral potential (Ue=1200V) at the low-voltage side. The TOV test thus
intends to simulate a ground fault at the high-voltage system by injecting 1200V into N-G at
the SPD module in the low-voltage system.
100kV 10kV 380V
Id=300A
Ue=1200V
Re (4-ohm) grounding resistor
Figure 13. Line-to-ground fault in high/medium voltage transformer
Temporary over-voltages affect SPDs when a short-circuit fault happens in a power network.
It is important for SPDs to meet both the UL 1449 and IEC 61643-11 standards to ensure
their safety and reliability. The addition of thermally protected MOVs in SPDs not only
suppresses transient voltages but also ensures their own safety against overheating and
catching fire.
Over-voltage Testing in UL 1449 and IEC 61643-11 (continued)
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LED Lighting Surge Protection Modules
Design and Installation Guide
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End-of-Life/Replacement Indication for SPDs
When an MOV becomes overheated due to temporary over-voltage or excessive leakage
current, a thermal disconnect may be used to help remove it from the AC circuit. However,
with the MOV removed from the circuit, the SPD module no longer provides surge
suppression. Therefore, it’s important to supply proper indication so that maintenance
personnel will know the SPD is not working and requires replacement.
Luminaire designers can choose from two main types of SPD module configurations based
on their maintenance and warranty strategies. Those are parallel- and series-connected surge
protection subassemblies.
Parallel Connection – The SPD module is connected in parallel with the load. An SPD
module that has reached end-of-life is disconnected from the power source while leaving
the AC/DC power supply unit energized. The lighting still remains operational, but the
protection against the next surge to which the power supply unit and LED module are
exposed is lost. In a parallel-connected SPD module, replacement indication can be added
through the use of a small LED that indicates the SPD module status to the maintenance
technician. Options for a green LED indicating an online SPD module or a red LED
indicating an offline SPD module are available. Or, rather than an LED indication at each
lighting fixture, the need for SPD module replacement could be indicated remotely to a
light management center with SPD module end-of-life indication wires connected to a
networked smart lighting system.
Series Connection – The SPD module is connected in series with the load, where
the end-of-life SPD module is disconnected from the power source, which turns the
light off. The loss of power to the luminaire serves as indication for a maintenance call.
The disconnected SPD module not only turns the lighting off to indicate the need for
replacement but also isolates the AC/DC power supply unit from future surge strikes.
General preference for this configuration is growing rapidly because the luminaire
investment remains protected while the SPD module is awaiting replacement. It’s far less
expensive to replace a series-connected SPD module than the whole luminaire as in the
case of a parallel-connected SPD module.
Figure 14. An SPD module that’s parallel-connected to a luminaire (a) and an SPD module that’s
series-connected to a luminaire (b).
(a)
(b)
Over-voltage Testing in UL 1449 and IEC 61643-11 (continued)
14
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LED Lighting Surge Protection Modules
Design and Installation Guide
LSP10 Wiring Guide, Parallel Connection with End-of-LifeIndication
Apply series-connected models of LSP10 Series thermally protected varistor modules (as
indicated by an S suffix in the part number) as parallel connections in the lighting fixture. This
turns the output wires of the series-connected SPD modules into end-of-life indication wires.
L
N
G
SPD
L
L
N/G
or
AC/DC
Power
Supply LED Module
L
N
+
-
Parallel Connection
LSP10xxxP
L
N
G
SPD
L
L
N/G
or
LED Module
L
N
+
-
LED normally on
Parallel Connection
With LED indicating SPD status
- ON (green): SPD is online
- OFF: SPD needs replacement
LSP10xxxS
AC/DC
Power
Supply
R
Figure 15. Connect a current limiting resistor and a green LED to form an external indicator of
module status. When the green LED is on, the module is working normally. When the green
LED is off, the module is disconnected from the power circuit, so it is no longer providing surge
protection to downstream devices. It must be replaced with a new one.
LSP05 Wiring Guide, Parallel Connection with End-of-LifeIndication
L
N
G
SPD
L
L
N/G
or
AC/DC
Power
Supply LED Module
L
N
+
-
R
LED normally on
Parallel Connection
With LED indicating SPD status
- ON (green): SPD is online
- OFF: SPD needs replacement LSP05xxxPM
R1
R2
R3
NC
L
N
G
SPD
L
L
N/G
or
LED Module
L
N
+
-
R
LED normally off
Parallel Connection
With LED indicating SPD status
- OFF: SPD is online
- ON (red): SPD needs replacement
LSP05xxxPM
R1
R2
R3
AC/DC
Power
Supply
Figure 16. Apply parallel-connected models of LSP05 Series thermally protected varistor modules
(as indicated by a PM suffix in the part number) and connect indication wires to a current-limiting
resistor and a LED indicator. Either a normally-on green LED or a normally-off red LED could be
selected as the LED indicator.
Over-voltage Testing in UL 1449 and IEC 61643-11 (continued)
15
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Matching the Resistor to the Indicating LED
Green/red indicating LEDs are available in the market with different form factors, sizes and
ratings. Since the LED connected to SPD is fed by AC line voltage, it is important to choose
an LED rated to withstand the full AC voltage in the reverse-bias mode. Adding another
adequately rated diode to the LED circuit (parallel or series) could also prevent the LED from
being damaged by the AC voltage.
The value of the current-limiting resistor is chosen to match the optimal LED driving
condition. Its resistance and wattage are determined by the AC line voltage and the desired
current for driving the LED. For example, in a 240V AC circuit, a resistor rated 150kΩ and
0.5W will limit the current to 1.6mA to drive the LED. The LED can be driven by a lower
current than its full current rating and still illuminate with a minimum brightness level. As long
as the brightness is visually acceptable under sunlight, keep the driving current low to save
energy by minimizing the power dissipated by the current limiting resistor.
Indication wires from SPDs are electrically energized by AC power line. Unused wires must
be capped off by wire nuts to prevent the risk of short circuit or shock hazard.
Coordination between the SPD and the Power Supply Unit to
Reduce “Surge Let-through
Surge Protection Modules and MOV Coordination
Generally, most LED power supplies are a constant current type, and are often referred to as
LED drivers. These can be purchased as off-the-shelf assemblies containing MOVs to meet
lower level surge requirements. Typically, drivers are rated to handle surges in the range of
1-4kV. The varistor (MOV2 in Figure 18) is usually located downstream of the fuse on the AC
mains, and can range from 7 to 14mm in diameter. However, to provide higher level surge
immunity, outdoor lighting original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) may want to add surge
protection devices (SPDs) on the AC input lines of their luminaires ahead of the LED driver.
Coordination between the SPD and the Power Supply Unit
16
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LED Lighting Surge Protection Modules
Design and Installation Guide
Typically, compliance testing of luminaires involves 20kV/10kA surges in North America and
up to 10kV/5kA1 in Europe.
Figure 17. SPD protection schemes that increase the surge immunity of an LED driver.
SPD modules are responsible for protecting luminaires against these high surge levels, which
can occur in outdoor lighting environments. The SPDs use 3-4 parallel- or series-connected
high-surge-withstand (for example, 25mm or 34mm diameter) MOVs across the AC lines,
as shown in the green MOV1 block of Figure 17. As shown in that figure, the MOVs are
installed from Line to Ground, Neutral to Ground and Line to Neutral. For installations in
regions with severe lightning exposure, it is common to use parallel-connected MOVs for the
Line to Neutral leg. This will increase differential mode surge capability and the reliability of
aluminaire.
When adding this supplemental protection in front of the LED driver, it is very important
to select (MOV1) characteristics that coordinate with those of the existing (MOV2) device
in the driver. The coordination criterion for MOV1 selection is to make sure these larger
disc MOVs in the SPD module clamp first, thereby taking the brunt of the surge energy
before the smaller (MOV2) disc turns on. This will avoid catastrophic current through the
driver MOV and premature opening of the fuse, which happens if the driver MOV turns on
first. Therefore, the MOVs in the SPD module should have a lower maximum continuous
operating voltage rating than the MOV in the driver.
A certain amount of impedance between the primary SPD and the driver can be beneficial;
perhaps a few microHenries will help ensure proper coordination. For example, a longer
length of cable between the primary SPD and the driver may be sufficient due to the
characteristic impedance of the wire. On the other hand, lead wires on the input side of the
SPD should be minimized to prevent increased clamping voltage in the SPD module due to
the characteristic impedance of those wires.
1 Although North American luminaire standards characterize immunity testing as a 10kV/10kA
requirement, the test setup calls for a 2Ω source impedance, and it is actually a 20kV/10kA requirement.
AC Input
LED DRIVER
SPD
L
N
G
MOV2MOV1 L
AC Input
LED DRIVER
SPD
L
N
G
MOV2
MOV1
Coordination between the SPD and the Power Supply Unit (continued)
17
UltraMOV 25S
or TMOV25S
Series
% Litleltuse“ ExpemxaADnllzd \ Anxwux Damn
LED Lighting Surge Protection Modules
Design and Installation Guide
© 2016 Littelfuse • LED Lighting SPD Module Design and Installation Guide www.littelfuse.com
The following steps summarize a design process that helps ensure enough inductance is
present between the SPD MOVs and the one in the driver:
1. MOV1 and MOV2 need to be coordinated so that most of surge current/energy flows
through MOV1.
2. Select MOVs with VM of MOV1 ≤ VM of MOV2, where VM is the Maximum Continuous
Operating Voltage.
3. Select MOVs with VC of MOV1 ≤ VC of MOV2, where VC is the Maximum
Clamping Voltage.
4. VMOV1 = VMOV2 + L (di/dt)
5. Inductance L may be added in series with the SPD. Increasing inductance L will result in
better coordination as MOV1 absorbs the higher surge energy
6. Refer to the embedded links in the SPD blocks of Figure 17 for MOV technical
information. See the Littelfuse Varistor Ordering Information Diagram for details on
constructing a part number.
The Littelfuse Application Team has years of expertise in such coordination requirements and
has helped many customers optimize their circuit reliability while meeting surge immunity
requirements.
Power Supply Unit Design Considerations (Fuse, Equivalent
Resistance, TVS Diode)
Although an SPD module is designed to absorb most of the surge energy produced by
a lightning strike, some residual energy can enter the LED driver and cause damage to
the components inside it (Figure 18). To minimize the damage, always consider an LED
driver design that works in cooperation with the SPD module so less energy can enter the
LED driver.
Power Supply Unit Design Considerations
18
37*
© 2016 Littelfuse • LED Lighting SPD Module Design and Installation Guide www.littelfuse.com
LED Lighting Surge Protection Modules
Design and Installation Guide
MOV2
MOV1
SPD
AC Input
I1 I2 I3
LED DRIVER
G
N
L
F1 R1
Figure 18. Residual voltage and current can damage an LED driver.
Residual Voltage
Determined by MOV1; therefore, a varistor with fast response time and low clamping voltage
varistor is preferred.
Residual Current
The 8×20μs surge current waveform is calibrated to reach peak value (for example, 10kA)
at the surge generator, before it is applied to the luminaire. When the surge current is
discharged from the surge generator, it affects the SPD and power supply unit (PSU) at three
major points.
I1: The current flow through the SPD (This is major portion of the surge current.)
I2: The current flow through the MOV in the PSU
I3: The current flow through the primary circuit in the PSU
For MOV2, choose an MOV with a higher clamping voltage than the one used for MOV1 to
maximize I1 and minimize I2 so that fuse F1 is not damaged by residual current.
Fuse F1 should be also selected carefully, with a higher melting i2t rating to withstand
residual surge current I2+I3. Below fuses are recommended for F1 as they are tested to
withstand 3kA surge current. In poor coordination between MOV1 and MOV2, I2+I3 may go
as high as 30%. These fuses can withstand 3kA residual surge current to help the luminaire
survive the 10kA surge event. Power supply unit thus has higher compatibility with different
SPDs and MOV1.
Part Number Package Rating
8071630 9.2x6.4x12.4mm 6.3A 300V
219005 5x20mm 5A 250V
209007 4.5x14.5mm 7A 350V
477010 5x20mm 10A 500V
R1, the equivalent resistance of the primary circuitry, including the NTC, EMI filter, rectifier,
PFC, transformer, transistor, etc., could be adjusted higher if necessary in order to minimize I3
and component damage in the primary circuitry.
TVS diode as ultimate protector in LED driver
For components sensitive to and easily damaged by surge voltage or current, place TVS
diodes in parallel with them to absorb “let-through” energy from the SPD module.
Power Supply Unit Design Considerations (continued)
19
\ “I—L
LED Lighting Surge Protection Modules
Design and Installation Guide
© 2016 Littelfuse • LED Lighting SPD Module Design and Installation Guide www.littelfuse.com
Wiring Guide
L-N-G type, select the model based on rated voltage (Line-to-Neutral) of the power source. The
power source’s rated voltage should NOT be higher than the surge protector operating voltage
(i.e., 240VAC for Model LSP10240P).
L
N
G
SPD
AC/DC
Power
Supply LED Module
L
N
+
-
P
arallel Connection
L
N
G
SPD
LED Module
L
N
+
-
Series
Connection
AC/DC
Power
Supply
Wiring Guide
20
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© 2016 Littelfuse • LED Lighting SPD Module Design and Installation Guide www.littelfuse.com
LED Lighting Surge Protection Modules
Design and Installation Guide
L-L-N/G type, Models LSP10240LLX and LSP480LLX are designed to be installed on standard
2-pole, 3-wire single-phase circuits rated 120/240VAC and 277/480VAC respectively. Do not
connect them to other circuits.
Black
Black
Neutral (White)
Line (Black)
SPD
AC/DC
Power
Supply
LED
Module
+
Line (Black)
120V
120V
240V
Neutral (White)
Line (Black)
SPD
AC/DC
Power
Supply
LED
Module
+
Line (Black)
120V
120V
240V
LSPxx240LLP
LSPxx240LLS
Neutral (White)
Line (Black)
SPD LSPxx480LLP
LSPxx480LLS
AC/DC
Power
Supply
LED
Module
+
Line (Black)
277V
277V
480V
Neutral (White)
Line (Black)
SPD
AC/DC
Power
Supply
LED
Module
+
Line (Black)
277V
277V
480V
Black
Black
Wiring Guide (continued)
21
% Litleltuse“ ExpemxaADnllzd \ Anxwux Damn Line 12W,1JW,277V S (Brown! , in > mm. (m L , Line 12W,1JW,277V ; (Emmy > :** L 7 LSP10ynyX3316, for Class II equipmem
LED Lighting Surge Protection Modules
Design and Installation Guide
© 2016 Littelfuse • LED Lighting SPD Module Design and Installation Guide www.littelfuse.com
With IEC color wires (brown/blue) for Class II equipment
Neutral (Blue)
Line 120V, 240V, 277V, 347V, 480V
(Brown)
SPD
AC/DC
Power
Supply
LED
Module
+
Neutral (Blue)
Line 120V, 240V, 277V, 347V, 480V
(Brown)
SPD
AC/DC
Power
Supply
LED
Module
+
Brown
Blue
LSPxxyyyPX3316, for Class II equipment
xx = 05, 10; yyy = 120, 240, 277, 347, 480
LSP10yyySX3316, for Class II equipment
yyy = 120, 240, 277, 347, or 480
Ungrounded SPDs are suitable for Class II equipment.
Grounded SPDs are suitable for Class I equipment like:
1. Grounding wire comes with power wires from power distribution panel (TN network)
2. No grounding wire is provided; however, the pole has its own solid grounding to the soil.
(TT network)
Installation Guide
CautionRisk of electric shock
CautionInstallation and service must be performed by qualified personnel.
CautionRemove ALL electrical power before installation or service.
Keep wires as straight as possible.
Round wires rather than bending them at a hard 90 degree angle.
Connect wires as shown in diagrams.
Keep wires from the luminaire’s terminal block to the AC/DC power supply as short as possible
so that SPD is close to the AC/DC power supply.
Do not cross/overlap protected wires (after SPD, AC or DC) with unprotected wires
(before SPD, AC)
Ensure electrical connections and mountings are correct before energizing the circuit.
Installation Guide
22
% Littelfuse’ n Wm \ A
© 2016 Littelfuse • LED Lighting SPD Module Design and Installation Guide www.littelfuse.com
LED Lighting Surge Protection Modules
Design and Installation Guide
Liability
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and all persons acting on its or their behalf (collectively,
“Littelfuse”), disclaim any and all liability for any errors,
inaccuracies or incompleteness contained here or in any
other disclosure relating to any product. Littelfuse disclaims
any and all liability arising out of the use or application
of any product described herein or of any information
provided herein to the maximum extent permitted by law.
The product specifications do not expand or otherwise
modify Littelfuse terms and conditions of purchase,
including but not limited to the warranty expressed therein,
which apply to these products.
Right to Make Changes
Littelfuse reserves the right to make any and all changes to
the products described herein without notice.
Not Intended for Use in Life Support or Life Saving
Applications
The products shown herein are not designed for use
in life sustaining or life saving applications unless
otherwise expressly indicated. Customers using or selling
Littelfuse products not expressly indicated for use in such
applications do so entirely at their own risk and agree
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resulting from such use or sale. Please contact authorized
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Specifications, descriptions and data contained in this
document are believed to be accurate. However, users
should independently evaluate each product for the
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change any information contained herein without notice
and may, at its sole discretion, change the design,
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www.littelfuse.com for the most up-to-date information.
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Littelfuse shall not be liable for any indirect, consequential
or incidental damages from any sale or use of any of its
products.
23
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EC132Nv0516

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