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MECHATRONIC DRIVE WITH STEPPER MOTOR PANdrive
TRINAMIC Motion Control GmbH & Co. KG
Hamburg, Germany
www.trinamic.com
Firmware Version V1.29
TMCL™ FIRMWARE MANUAL
+ + PD-1021
+ +
UNIQUE FEATURES:
Stepper Motor with
Controller / Driver
0.06 - 0.12Nm / 24V
sensOstep Encoder
RS485 Interface
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 2
www.trinamic.com
Table of Contents
1 Features ........................................................................................................................................................................... 4
2 Putting the PANdrive into Operation ..................................................................................................................... 6
2.1 Basic Set-Up .......................................................................................................................................................... 6
2.1.1 Connecting the Module ............................................................................................................................... 6
2.1.2 Start the TMCL-IDE Software Development Environment ................................................................. 7
2.2 Using TMCL Direct Mode .................................................................................................................................... 8
2.2.1 Important Motor Settings ........................................................................................................................... 9
2.3 Testing with a Simple TMCL Program ......................................................................................................... 10
3 TMCL and the TMCL-IDE: Introduction ................................................................................................................. 11
3.1 Binary Command Format ................................................................................................................................ 11
3.2 Reply Format ....................................................................................................................................................... 12
3.2.1 Status Codes ................................................................................................................................................. 13
3.3 Standalone Applications .................................................................................................................................. 13
3.4 TMCL Command Overview .............................................................................................................................. 13
3.4.1 TMCL Commands ......................................................................................................................................... 13
3.4.2 Commands Listed According to Subject Area .................................................................................... 14
3.5 Commands ........................................................................................................................................................... 18
3.5.1 ROR (rotate right) ........................................................................................................................................ 18
3.5.2 ROL (rotate left) ........................................................................................................................................... 19
3.5.3 MST (motor stop)......................................................................................................................................... 20
3.5.4 MVP (move to position) ............................................................................................................................ 21
3.5.5 SAP (set axis parameter) ........................................................................................................................... 23
3.5.6 GAP (get axis parameter) .......................................................................................................................... 24
3.5.7 STAP (store axis parameter) ..................................................................................................................... 25
3.5.8 RSAP (restore axis parameter) ................................................................................................................. 26
3.5.9 SGP (set global parameter) ...................................................................................................................... 27
3.5.10 GGP (get global parameter)...................................................................................................................... 28
3.5.11 STGP (store global parameter) ................................................................................................................ 29
3.5.12 RSGP (restore global parameter) ............................................................................................................ 30
3.5.13 RFS (reference search) ................................................................................................................................ 31
3.5.14 SIO (set output) ........................................................................................................................................... 32
3.5.15 GIO (get input/output) ............................................................................................................................... 34
3.5.16 CALC (calculate) ............................................................................................................................................ 36
3.5.17 COMP (compare)........................................................................................................................................... 37
3.5.18 JC (jump conditional) ................................................................................................................................. 38
3.5.19 JA (jump always) ......................................................................................................................................... 39
3.5.20 CSUB (call subroutine) ............................................................................................................................... 40
3.5.21 RSUB (return from subroutine) ................................................................................................................ 41
3.5.22 WAIT (wait for an event to occur) ......................................................................................................... 42
3.5.23 STOP (stop TMCL program execution) ................................................................................................... 43
3.5.24 SCO (set coordinate) ................................................................................................................................... 44
3.5.25 GCO (get coordinate) .................................................................................................................................. 45
3.5.26 CCO (capture coordinate) .......................................................................................................................... 46
3.5.27 ACO .................................................................................................................................................................. 47
3.5.28 CALCX (calculate using the X register) .................................................................................................. 48
3.5.29 AAP (accumulator to axis parameter) .................................................................................................... 49
3.5.30 AGP (accumulator to global parameter) ............................................................................................... 50
3.5.31 CLE (clear error flags) ................................................................................................................................. 51
3.5.32 VECT (set interrupt vector) ........................................................................................................................ 52
3.5.33 EI (enable interrupt) ................................................................................................................................... 53
3.5.34 DI (disable interrupt) .................................................................................................................................. 54
3.5.35 RETI (return from interrupt) ..................................................................................................................... 55
3.5.36 Customer Specific TMCL Command Extension (UF0… UF7/user function) ................................... 56
3.5.37 Request Target Position Reached Event ............................................................................................... 57
3.5.38 TMCL Control Functions ............................................................................................................................. 58
4 Axis Parameters .......................................................................................................................................................... 60
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 3
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4.1 Velocity Calculation ........................................................................................................................................... 66
4.2 stallGuard2 ........................................................................................................................................................... 67
4.3 coolStep Related Axis Parameters ................................................................................................................ 67
5 Global parameters ...................................................................................................................................................... 69
5.1 Bank 0 ................................................................................................................................................................... 69
5.2 Bank 1 ................................................................................................................................................................... 70
5.3 Bank 2 ................................................................................................................................................................... 71
5.4 Bank 3 ................................................................................................................................................................... 72
6 Hints and Tips ............................................................................................................................................................. 73
6.1 Reference Search ............................................................................................................................................... 73
6.2 Changing the Prescaler Value of an Encoder ............................................................................................ 76
6.3 Using the RS485 Interface .............................................................................................................................. 76
7 TMCL Programming Techniques and Structure ................................................................................................. 77
7.1 Initialization ........................................................................................................................................................ 77
7.2 Main Loop ............................................................................................................................................................ 77
7.3 Using Symbolic Constants .............................................................................................................................. 77
7.4 Using Variables .................................................................................................................................................. 78
7.5 Using Subroutines ............................................................................................................................................. 78
7.6 Mixing Direct Mode and Standalone Mode ................................................................................................ 79
8 Life Support Policy ..................................................................................................................................................... 80
9 Revision History .......................................................................................................................................................... 81
9.1 Document Revision ........................................................................................................................................... 81
9.2 Firmware Revision ............................................................................................................................................ 81
10 References .................................................................................................................................................................... 82
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 4
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1 Features
The PANdrive™ PD-1021 is a full mechatronic solution with state of the art feature set. It is highly
integrated and offers a convenient handling. The PD-1021 includes a stepper motor, controller/driver
electronics, and TRINAMICs sensOstep™ encoder. It can be used in many decentralized applications and
has been designed for 0.060.12 Nm max. holding torque and 24V DC nominal supply voltage. With its
high energy efficiency from TRINAMIC’s coolStep technology cost for power consumption is kept down. The
TMCL™ firmware allows for standalone operation and direct mode.
MAIN CHARACTERISTICS
Highlights
- Motion profile calculation in real-time
- On the fly alteration of motor parameters (e.g. position, velocity, acceleration)
- High performance microcontroller for overall system control and serial communication protocol
handling
- For position movement applications, where larger motors do not fit and higher torques are not
required
Bipolar stepper motor driver
- Up to 256 microsteps per full step
- High-efficient operation, low power dissipation
- Dynamic current control
- Integrated protection
- stallGuard2 feature for stall detection
- coolStep feature for reduced power consumption and heat dissipation
Encoder
- sensOstep magnetic encoder (max. 1024 increments per rotation) e.g. for step-loss detection under
all operating conditions and positioning supervision
Interfaces
- Up to 4 multipurpose inputs (2 shared with outputs)
- 2 general purpose outputs
- RS485 2-wire communication interface
Software
- TMCL: standalone operation or remote controlled operation,
program memory (non volatile) for up to 876 TMCL commands, and
PC-based application development software TMCL-IDE available for free.
Electrical and mechanical data
- Supply voltage: +24V DC nominal (9… 28V DC)
- Motor current: up to 0.7A RMS (programmable)
- 0.06 or 0.12Nm max. holding torque (depends on motor)
Refer to separate TMCL Hardware Manual, too.
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TRINAMICS UNIQUE FEATURES EASY TO USE WITH TMCL
stallGuard2 stallGuard2 is a high-precision sensorless load measurement using the back EMF on the
coils. It can be used for stall detection as well as other uses at loads below those which
stall the motor. The stallGuard2 measurement value changes linearly over a wide range
of load, velocity, and current settings. At maximum motor load, the value goes to zero or
near to zero. This is the most energy-efficient point of operation for the motor.
Load
[Nm]
stallGuard2
Initial stallGuard2
(SG) value: 100%
Max. load
stallGuard2 (SG) value: 0
Maximum load reached.
Motor close to stall.
Motor stalls
Figure 1.1 stallGuard2 load measurement SG as a function of load
coolStep coolStep is a load-adaptive automatic current scaling based on the load measurement via
stallGuard2 adapting the required current to the load. Energy consumption can be
reduced by as much as 75%. coolStep allows substantial energy savings, especially for
motors which see varying loads or operate at a high duty cycle. Because a stepper motor
application needs to work with a torque reserve of 30% to 50%, even a constant-load
application allows significant energy savings because coolStep automatically enables
torque reserve when required. Reducing power consumption keeps the system cooler,
increases motor life, and allows reducing cost.
0
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
0,6
0,7
0,8
0,9
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Efficiency
Velocity [RPM]
Efficiency with coolStep
Efficiency with 50% torque reserve
Figure 1.2 Energy efficiency example with coolStep
The things you need: PRECAUTIONS Connect R5485 interface and gower suggly Figure 2.1: Starting up
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 6
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2 Putting the PANdrive into Operation
Here you can find basic information for putting your PD-1021 into operation. If you are already common
with TRINAMICs modules you may skip this chapter.
The things you need:
- PD-1021
- RS485 interface converter with cables
- Nominal supply voltage +24V DC for your PANdrive
- TMCL-IDE program and PC
2.1 Basic Set-Up
The following paragraph will guide you through the steps of connecting the unit and making first
movements with the motor.
2.1.1 Connecting the Module
PRECAUTIONS
Do not connect or disconnect the PD-1021 while powered!
Do not connect or disconnect the motor while powered!
Do not exceed the maximum power supply voltage of 28V DC!
Note, that the module is not protected against reverse polarity!
START WITH POWER SUPPLY OFF!
Motor
Pin 1 B2
Pin 2 B1
Pin 3 A2
Pin 4 A1
Converter
e.g. USB-2-485
1
1
RS485
Pin 1 GND
Pin 3 RS485+
Pin 4 RS485-
Note, that the
GND pin has to be
used for the
power supply and
for the RS485
interface.
Power Supply
Pin 1 GND
Pin 2 928V DC
Figure 2.1: Starting up
Pin
Label
Description
1
GND
GND
2
VDD
VDD (+9V…+28V)
3
RS485+
RS485 interface, diff. signal (non-
inverting)
4
RS485-
RS485 interface, diff. signal (inverting)
5
IN_0
Digital input (+24V compatible)
Alternate function 1: step input
Alternate function 2: left stop switch
6
IN_1
Digital input (+24V compatible)
Alternate function 1: direction input
Alternate function 2: right stop switch
7
OUT_0 / IN_2
Open drain output with freewheeling
diode
(max. 100mA)
Alternate function 1:
digital input (+24V compatible)
Alternate function 2:home switch
8
OUT_1 / IN_3
Open drain output with freewheeling
diode (max. 100mA)
Alternate function 1: digital input
(+24V compatible)
Alternate function 2: analog input
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PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 7
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2. Switch ON the power supply
Turn power ON. The green LED for power lights up and the motor is powered but in standstill
now.
If this does not occur, switch power OFF and check your connections as well as the power
supply.
2.1.2 Start the TMCL-IDE Software Development Environment
The TMCL-IDE is available on www.trinamic.com.
Installing the TMCL-IDE:
Make sure the COM port you intend to use is not blocked by another program.
Open TMCL-IDE by clicking TMCL.exe.
Choose Setup and Options and thereafter the Connection tab.
Choose COM port and type with the parameters shown in Figure 2.2 (baud rate 9600). Click OK.
Figure 2.2 Setup dialogue and connection tab of the TMCL-IDE.
Please refer to the TMCL-IDE User Manual for more information (see www.TRINAMIC.com).
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PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 8
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2.2 Using TMCL Direct Mode
1. Start TMCL Direct Mode.
Direct Mode
2. If the communication is established the PD-1021 is automatically detected. If the module is not
detected, please check all points above (cables, interface, power supply, COM port, baud
rate).
3. Issue a command by choosing Instruction, Type (if necessary), Motor, and Value and click
Execute to send it to the module.
Examples:
ROR rotate right, motor 0, value 10000 -> Click Execute. The first motor is rotating now.
MST motor stop, motor 0 -> Click Execute. The first motor stops now.
Top right of the TMCL Direct Mode window is the button Copy to editor. Click here to copy the chosen
command and create your own TMCL program. The command will be shown immediately on the editor.
Note:
Please mind chapter 7 (programming techniques) of the TMCL-IDE User Manual on www.trinamic.com.
Here you will find information about creating general structures of TMCL programs. In particular
initialization, main loop, symbolic constants, variables, and subroutines are described there. Further you
can learn how to mix direct mode and stand alone mode.
Chapter 4.3 of this manual includes a diagram which points out the coolStep related axis parameters and
their functions. This can help you configuring your module to meet your needs.
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PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 9
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2.2.1 Important Motor Settings
There are some axis parameters which have to be adjusted right in the beginning after installing your
module. Please set the upper limiting values for the speed (axis parameter 4), the acceleration (axis
parameter 5), and the current (axis parameter 6). Further set the standby current (axis parameter 7) and
choose your microstep resolution with axis parameter 140. Please use the SAP (Set Axis Parameter)
command for adjusting these values. The SAP command is described in paragraph 3.5.5. You can use the
TMCL-IDE direct mode for easily configuring your module.
IMPORTANT AXIS PARAMETERS FOR MOTOR SETTING
Number
Axis Parameter
Description
Range [Unit]
4
Maximum
positioning
speed
Maximum feasible positioning speed. Has to be
adapted to motor and application
0… +268.435.454
[pps/s]
5
Maximum
acceleration
Limit for acceleration and deceleration. Has to be
adapted to motor and application.
1… +33554431
[pps/s]
6
Absolute max.
current
(CS / Current
Scale)
The maximum value is 255. This value means 100% of
the maximum current of the module. The current
adjustment is within the range 0… 255 and can be
adjusted in 32 steps.
The most important motor setting, since too high
values might cause motor damage!
0… 7
79…87
160… 167
240… 247
8… 15
88… 95
168… 175
248… 255
16… 23
96… 103
176… 183
24… 31
104… 111
184… 191
32… 39
112… 119
192… 199
40… 47
120… 127
200… 207
48… 55
128… 135
208… 215
56… 63
136… 143
216… 223
64… 71
144… 151
224… 231
72… 79
152… 159
232… 239
0… 255
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7
Standby current
The current limit two seconds after the motor has
stopped.
0… 255
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140
Microstep
resolution
0
full step
1
half step
2
4 microsteps
3
8 microsteps
4
16 microsteps
5
32 microsteps
6
64 microsteps
7
128 microsteps
8
256 microsteps
0… 8
ATTENTION
The most important motor setting is the absolute maximum motor current setting, since too high values
might cause motor damage!
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PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 10
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2.3 Testing with a Simple TMCL Program
Type in the following program:
Assemble
Download Run
Stop
1. Click the Assemble icon to convert the TMCL program into binary code.
2. Then download the program to the PD-1021 by clicking the Download icon.
3. Click the Run icon. The desired program will be executed.
4. Click the Stop button to stop the program.
ROL 0, 50000 //Rotate motor 0 with speed 50000
WAIT TICKS, 0, 500
MST 0
ROR 0, 50000 //Rotate motor 0 with 50000
WAIT TICKS, 0, 500
MST 0
SAP 4, 0, 50000 //Set max. Velocity
SAP 5, 0, 50000 //Set max. Acceleration
Loop: MVP ABS, 0, 100000 //Move to Position 100000
WAIT POS, 0, 0 //Wait until position reached
MVP ABS, 0, -100000 //Move to Position -100000
WAIT POS, 0, 0 //Wait until position reached
JA Loop //Infinite Loop
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3 TMCL and the TMCL-IDE: Introduction
As with most TRINAMIC modules the software running on the microprocessor of the PD-1061 consists of
two parts, a boot loader and the firmware itself. Whereas the boot loader is installed during production
and testing at TRINAMIC and remains untouched throughout the whole lifetime, the firmware can be
updated by the user. New versions can be downloaded free of charge from the TRINAMIC website
(http://www.trinamic.com).
The PD-1021 supports TMCL direct mode (binary commands) and standalone TMCL program execution.
You can store up to 876 TMCL instructions on it.
In direct mode and most cases the TMCL communication over RS485 follows a strict master/slave
relationship. That is, a host computer (e.g. PC/PLC) acting as the interface bus master will send a
command to the PD-1021. The TMCL interpreter on the module will then interpret this command, do the
initialization of the motion controller, read inputs and write outputs or whatever is necessary according
to the specified command. As soon as this step has been done, the module will send a reply back over
RS485 to the bus master. Only then should the master transfer the next command. Normally, the module
will just switch to transmission and occupy the bus for a reply, otherwise it will stay in receive mode. It
will not send any data over the interface without receiving a command first. This way, any collision on
the bus will be avoided when there are more than two nodes connected to a single bus.
The Trinamic Motion Control Language [TMCL] provides a set of structured motion control commands.
Every motion control command can be given by a host computer or can be stored in an EEPROM on the
TMCM module to form programs that run standalone on the module. For this purpose there are not only
motion control commands but also commands to control the program structure (like conditional jumps,
compare and calculating).
Every command has a binary representation and a mnemonic. The binary format is used to send
commands from the host to a module in direct mode, whereas the mnemonic format is used for easy
usage of the commands when developing standalone TMCL applications using the TMCL-IDE (IDE means
Integrated Development Environment).
There is also a set of configuration variables for the axis and for global parameters which allow
individual configuration of nearly every function of a module. This manual gives a detailed description of
all TMCL commands and their usage.
3.1 Binary Command Format
Every command has a mnemonic and a binary representation. When commands are sent from a host to a
module, the binary format has to be used. Every command consists of a one-byte command field, a one-
byte type field, a one-byte motor/bank field and a four-byte value field. So the binary representation of a
command always has seven bytes. When a command is to be sent via RS485 interface, it has to be
enclosed by an address byte at the beginning and a checksum byte at the end. In this case it consists of
nine bytes.
The binary command format for RS485 is as follows:
Bytes
Meaning
1
Module address
1
Command number
1
Type number
1
Motor or Bank number
4
Value (MSB first!)
1
Checksum
The checksum is calculated by adding up all the other bytes using an 8-bit addition.
Checksum calculalian
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Checksum calculation
As mentioned above, the checksum is calculated by adding up all bytes (including the module address
byte) using 8-bit addition. Here are two examples to show how to do this:
in C:
unsigned char i, Checksum;
unsigned char Command[9];
//Set the “Command” array to the desired command
Checksum = Command[0];
for(i=1; i<8; i++)
Checksum+=Command[i];
Command[8]=Checksum; //insert checksum as last byte of the command
//Now, send it to the module
in Delphi:
var
i, Checksum: byte;
Command: array[0..8] of byte;
//Set the “Command” array to the desired command
//Calculate the Checksum:
Checksum:=Command[0];
for i:=1 to 7 do Checksum:=Checksum+Command[i];
Command[8]:=Checksum;
//Now, send the “Command” array (9 bytes) to the module
3.2 Reply Format
Every time a command has been sent to a module, the module sends a reply.
The reply format for RS485 is as follows:
Bytes
Meaning
1
Reply address
1
Module address
1
Status (e.g. 100 means “no error”)
1
Command number
4
Value (MSB first!)
1
Checksum
The checksum is also calculated by adding up all the other bytes using an 8-bit addition.
Do not send the next command before you have received the reply!
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3.2.1 Status Codes
The reply contains a status code.
The status code can have one of the following values:
Code
Meaning
100
Successfully executed, no error
101
Command loaded into TMCL
program EEPROM
1
Wrong checksum
2
Invalid command
3
Wrong type
4
Invalid value
5
Configuration EEPROM locked
6
Command not available
3.3 Standalone Applications
The module is equipped with an EEPROM for storing TMCL applications. You can use TMCL-IDE for
developing standalone TMCL applications. You can load them down into the EEPROM and then it will run
on the module. The TMCL-IDE contains an editor and the TMCL assembler where the commands can be
entered using their mnemonic format. They will be assembled automatically into their binary
representations. Afterwards this code can be downloaded into the module to be executed there.
3.4 TMCL Command Overview
In this section a short overview of the TMCL commands is given.
3.4.1 TMCL Commands
Command
Number
Parameter
Description
ROR
1
<motor number>, <velocity>
Rotate right with specified velocity
ROL
2
<motor number>, <velocity>
Rotate left with specified velocity
MST
3
<motor number>
Stop motor movement
MVP
4
ABS|REL|COORD, <motor number>,
<position|offset>
Move to position (absolute or
relative)
SAP
5
<parameter>, <motor number>, <value>
Set axis parameter (motion control
specific settings)
GAP
6
<parameter>, <motor number>
Get axis parameter (read out motion
control specific settings)
STAP
7
<parameter>, <motor number>
Store axis parameter permanently
(non volatile)
RSAP
8
<parameter>, <motor number>
Restore axis parameter
SGP
9
<parameter>, <bank number>, value
Set global parameter (module
specific settings e.g. communication
settings or TMCL user variables)
GGP
10
<parameter>, <bank number>
Get global parameter (read out
module specific settings e.g.
communication settings or TMCL user
variables)
STGP
11
<parameter>, <bank number>
Store global parameter (TMCL user
variables only)
RSGP
12
<parameter>, <bank number>
Restore global parameter (TMCL user
variable only)
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Command
Number
Parameter
Description
RFS
13
START|STOP|STATUS, <motor number>
Reference search
SIO
14
<port number>, <bank number>, <value>
Set digital output to specified value
GIO
15
<port number>, <bank number>
Get value of analogue/digital input
CALC
19
<operation>, <value>
Process accumulator & value
COMP
20
<value>
Compare accumulator <-> value
JC
21
<condition>, <jump address>
Jump conditional
JA
22
<jump address>
Jump absolute
CSUB
23
<subroutine address>
Call subroutine
RSUB
24
Return from subroutine
EI
25
<interrupt number>
Enable interrupt
DI
26
<interrupt number>
Disable interrupt
WAIT
27
<condition>, <motor number>, <ticks>
Wait with further program execution
STOP
28
Stop program execution
SCO
30
<coordinate number>, <motor number>,
<position>
Set coordinate
GCO
31
<coordinate number>, <motor number>
Get coordinate
CCO
32
<coordinate number>, <motor number>
Capture coordinate
CALCX
33
<operation>
Process accumulator & X-register
AAP
34
<parameter>, <motor number>
Accumulator to axis parameter
AGP
35
<parameter>, <bank number>
Accumulator to global parameter
VECT
37
<interrupt number>, <label>
Set interrupt vector
RETI
38
Return from interrupt
ACO
39
<coordinate number>, <motor number>
Accu to coordinate
3.4.2 Commands Listed According to Subject Area
3.4.2.1 Motion Commands
These commands control the motion of the motor. They are the most important commands and can be
used in direct mode or in standalone mode.
Mnemonic
Command number
Meaning
ROL
2
Rotate left
ROR
1
Rotate right
MVP
4
Move to position
MST
3
Motor stop
RFS
13
Reference search
SCO
30
Store coordinate
CCO
32
Capture coordinate
GCO
31
Get coordinate
3.4.2.2 Parameter Commands
These commands are used to set, read and store axis parameters or global parameters. Axis parameters
can be set independently for each axis, whereas global parameters control the behavior of the module
itself. These commands can also be used in direct mode and in standalone mode.
Mnemonic
Command number
Meaning
SAP
5
Set axis parameter
GAP
6
Get axis parameter
STAP
7
Store axis parameter into EEPROM
RSAP
8
Restore axis parameter from EEPROM
SGP
9
Set global parameter
GGP
10
Get global parameter
STGP
11
Store global parameter into EEPROM
RSGP
12
Restore global parameter from EEPROM
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 15
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3.4.2.3 Control Commands
These commands are used to control the program flow (loops, conditions, jumps etc.). It does not make
sense to use them in direct mode. They are intended for standalone mode only.
Mnemonic
Command number
Meaning
JA
22
Jump always
JC
21
Jump conditional
COMP
20
Compare accumulator with constant
value
CSUB
23
Call subroutine
RSUB
24
Return from subroutine
WAIT
27
Wait for a specified event
STOP
28
End of a TMCL program
3.4.2.4 I/O Port Commands
These commands control the external I/O ports and can be used in direct mode and in standalone mode.
Mnemonic
Command number
Meaning
SIO
14
Set output
GIO
15
Get input
3.4.2.5 Calculation Commands
These commands are intended to be used for calculations within TMCL applications. Although they could
also be used in direct mode it does not make much sense to do so.
Mnemonic
Command number
Meaning
CALC
19
Calculate using the accumulator and a
constant value
CALCX
33
Calculate using the accumulator and the
X register
AAP
34
Copy accumulator to an axis parameter
AGP
35
Copy accumulator to a global parameter
ACO
39
Copy accu to coordinate
For calculating purposes there is an accumulator (or accu or A register) and an X register. When executed
in a TMCL program (in standalone mode), all TMCL commands that read a value store the result in the
accumulator. The X register can be used as an additional memory when doing calculations. It can be
loaded from the accumulator.
When a command that reads a value is executed in direct mode the accumulator will not be affected.
This means that while a TMCL program is running on the module (standalone mode), a host can still
send commands like GAP and GGP to the module (e.g. to query the actual position of the motor) without
affecting the flow of the TMCL program running on the module.
3.4.2.6 Interrupt Commands
Due to some customer requests, interrupt processing has been introduced in the TMCL firmware for ARM
based modules.
Mnemonic
Command number
Meaning
EI
25
Enable interrupt
DI
26
Disable interrupt
VECT
37
Set interrupt vector
RETI
38
Return from interrupt
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 16
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3.4.2.6.1 Interrupt Types
There are many different interrupts in TMCL, like timer interrupts, stop switch interrupts, position reached
interrupts, and input pin change interrupts. Each of these interrupts has its own interrupt vector. Each
interrupt vector is identified by its interrupt number. Please use the TMCL include file Interrupts.inc for
symbolic constants of the interrupt numbers.
3.4.2.6.2 Interrupt Processing
When an interrupt occurs and this interrupt is enabled and a valid interrupt vector has been defined for
that interrupt, the normal TMCL program flow will be interrupted and the interrupt handling routine will
be called. Before an interrupt handling routine gets called, the context of the normal program will be
saved automatically (i.e. accumulator register, X register, TMCL flags).
There is no interrupt nesting, i.e. all other interrupts are disabled while an interrupt handling routine is
being executed.
On return from an interrupt handling routine, the context of the normal program will automatically be
restored and the execution of the normal program will be continued.
3.4.2.6.3 Interrupt Vectors
The following table shows all interrupt vectors that can be used.
Interrupt number
Interrupt type
0
Timer 0
1
Timer 1
2
Timer 2
3
(Target) position reached
15
Stall (stallGuard2)
21
Deviation
27
Stop left
28
Stop right
39
IN_0 change
40
IN_1 change
255
Global interrupts
3.4.2.6.4 Further Configuration of Interrupts
Some interrupts need further configuration (e.g. the timer interval of a timer interrupt). This can be done
using SGP commands with parameter bank 3 (SGP <type>, 3, <value>). Please refer to the SGP command
(paragraph 3.5.9) for further information about that.
3.4.2.6.5 Using Interrupts in TMCL
For using an interrupt proceed as follows:
- Define an interrupt handling routine using the VECT command.
- If necessary, configure the interrupt using an SGP <type>, 3, <value> command.
- Enable the interrupt using an EI <interrupt> command.
- Globally enable interrupts using an EI 255 command.
- An interrupt handling routine must always end with a RETI command
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 17
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The following example shows the use of a timer interrupt:
VECT 0, Timer0Irq //define the interrupt vector
SGP 0, 3, 1000 //configure the interrupt: set its period to 1000ms
EI 0 //enable this interrupt
EI 255 //globally switch on interrupt processing
//Main program: toggles output 3, using a WAIT command for the delay
Loop:
SIO 1, 2, 1
WAIT TICKS, 0, 50
SIO 1, 2, 0
WAIT TICKS, 0, 50
JA Loop
//Here is the interrupt handling routine
Timer0Irq:
GIO 0, 2 //check if OUT0 is high
JC NZ, Out0Off //jump if not
SIO 0, 2, 1 //switch OUT0 high
RETI //end of interrupt
Out0Off:
SIO 0, 2, 0 //switch OUT0 low
RETI //end of interrupt
In the example above, the interrupt numbers are used directly. To make the program better readable use
the provided include file Interrupts.inc. This file defines symbolic constants for all interrupt numbers
which can be used in all interrupt commands. The beginning of the program above then looks like the
following:
#include Interrupts.inc
VECT TI_TIMER0, Timer0Irq
SGP TI_TIMER0, 3, 1000
EI TI_TIMER0
EI TI_GLOBAL
Please also take a look at the other example programs.
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 18
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3.5 Commands
The module specific commands are explained in more detail on the following pages. They are listed
according to their command number.
3.5.1 ROR (rotate right)
With this command the motor will be instructed to rotate with a specified velocity in positive direction
(increasing the position counter).
Like on all other TMCL modules, the motor will be accelerated or decelerated to the speed given with the
command. The speed is given in microsteps per second (pps). For conversion of this value into rounds
per minute etc. please refer to chapter 0, also.
The range is -268.435.455… +268.435.454.
Internal function: First, velocity mode is selected. Then, the velocity value is transferred to axis
parameter #0 (target velocity).
Related commands: ROL, MST, SAP, GAP
Mnemonic: ROR 0, <velocity>
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
1
(don't care)
0*
<velocity>
-268.435.455… +268.435.454
*motor number is always O as the module supports just one axis
Reply in direct mode:
STATUS
VALUE
100 OK
(don't care)
Example:
Rotate right, velocity = 10000
Mnemonic: ROR 0, 10000
Binary:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$01
$00
$00
$00
$00
$27
$10
$39
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 19
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3.5.2 ROL (rotate left)
With this command the motor will be instructed to rotate with a specified velocity (opposite direction
compared to ROR, decreasing the position counter).
Like on all other TMCL modules, the motor will be accelerated or decelerated to the speed given with the
command. The speed is given in microsteps per second (pps). For conversion of this value into rounds
per minute etc. please refer to chapter 5.2, also.
The range is -268.435.455… +268.435.454.
Internal function: First, velocity mode is selected. Then, the velocity value is transferred to axis
parameter #0 (target velocity).
Related commands: ROR, MST, SAP, GAP
Mnemonic: ROL 0, <velocity>
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
2
(don't care)
0*
<velocity>
-268.435.455… +268.435.454
* motor number is always O as the module supports just one axis
Reply in direct mode:
STATUS
VALUE
100 OK
(don't care)
Example:
Rotate left, velocity = 10000
Mnemonic: ROL 0, 10000
Binary:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$02
$00
$00
$00
$00
$27
$10
$3a
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 20
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3.5.3 MST (motor stop)
With this command the motor will be instructed to stop. The command uses the normal acceleration
parameter (soft stop / deceleration ramp possible).
Internal function: The axis parameter target velocity is set to zero.
Related commands: ROL, ROR, SAP, GAP
Mnemonic: MST 0
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
3
(don't care)
0*
(don't care)
* motor number is always O as the module support just one axis
Reply in direct mode:
STATUS
VALUE
100 OK
(don't care)
Example:
Stop motor
Mnemonic: MST 0
Binary:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$03
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
$04
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 21
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3.5.4 MVP (move to position)
With this command the motor will be instructed to move to a specified relative or absolute position or a
pre-programmed coordinate. It will use the acceleration/deceleration ramp and the positioning speed
programmed into the unit. This command is non-blocking that is, a reply will be sent immediately after
command interpretation and initialization of the motion controller. Further commands may follow
without waiting for the motor reaching its end position. The maximum velocity and acceleration are
defined by axis parameters #4 and #5.
The range of the MVP command is 32 bit signed (−2.147.483.648… +2.147.483.647). Positioning can be
interrupted using MST, ROL or ROR commands.
Attention:
Please note, that the distance between the actual position and the new one should not be more
than 2.147.483.647 (231-1) microsteps. Otherwise the motor will run in the opposite direction in
order to take the shorter distance.
Two operation types are available:
- Moving to an absolute position in the range from −2.147.483.648… +2.147.483.647 (-231… 231-1).
- Starting a relative movement by means of an offset to the actual position. In this case, the new
resulting position value must not exceed the above mentioned limits, too.
Internal function: A new position value is transferred to the axis parameter #2 target position.
Related commands: SAP, GAP, SCO, CCO, GCO, MST
Mnemonic: MVP <ABS|REL|COORD>, 0, <position|offset|coordinate number>
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
4
0 ABS absolute
0*
<position>
−2.147.483.648…
+2.147.483.647
1 REL relative
0*
<offset>
−2.147.483.648…
+2.147.483.647
2 COORD
coordinate
0*
<coordinate number>
0… 20
*motor number is always O as only one motor is involved
Reply in direct mode:
STATUS
VALUE
100 OK
(don't care)
Example:
Move motor to (absolute) position 90000
Mnemonic: MVP ABS, 0, 90000
Binary:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$04
$00
$00
$00
$01
$5f
$90
$f5
Example:
Move motor from current position 10000 steps backward (move relative 10000)
Mnemonic: MVP REL, 0, -10000
Binary:
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 22
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Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$04
$01
$00
$ff
$ff
$d8
$f0
$cc
Example:
Move motor to previously stored coordinate #8
Mnemonic: MVP COORD, 0, 8
Binary:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$04
$02
$00
$00
$00
$00
$08
$0f
When moving to a coordinate, the coordinate has to be set properly in advance with the
help of the SCO, CCO or ACO command.
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 23
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3.5.5 SAP (set axis parameter)
With this command most of the motion control parameters of the module can be specified. The settings
will be stored in SRAM and therefore, will be volatile. That is, information will be lost after power off.
Please use command STAP (store axis parameter) in order to store any setting permanently.
Internal function: The parameter format is converted ignoring leading zeros (or ones for negative
values). The parameter is transferred to the correct position in the appropriate device.
Related commands: GAP, STAP, RSAP, AAP
Mnemonic: SAP <parameter number>, 0, <value>
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
5
<parameter
number>
0*
<value>
* motor number is always O as the module supports just one axis
Reply in direct mode:
STATUS
VALUE
100 OK
(don't care)
For a table with parameters and values which can be used together with this command please refer to
chapter 4.
Example:
Set the absolute maximum current of the motor during movements to approx. 78% of max.
module
current:
Mnemonic: SAP 6, 0, 200
Binary:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$05
$06
$00
$00
$00
$00
$c8
$d4
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 24
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3.5.6 GAP (get axis parameter)
Most parameters of the PD-1021 can be adjusted individually for the axis. With this parameter they can
be read out. In standalone mode the requested value is also transferred to the accumulator register for
further processing purposes (such as conditioned jumps). In direct mode the value read is only output in
the value field of the reply (without affecting the accumulator).
Internal function: The parameter is read out of the correct position in the appropriate device. The
parameter format is converted adding leading zeros (or ones for negative values).
Related commands: SAP, STAP, AAP, RSAP
Mnemonic: GAP <parameter number>, 0
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
6
<parameter number>
0*
(don't care)
*motor number is always O as only one motor is involved
Reply in direct mode:
STATUS
VALUE
100 OK
(don't care)
For a table with parameters which can be used together with this command please refer to chapter 4.
Example:
Get actual position of motor
Mnemonic: GAP 1, 0
Binary:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$06
$01
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
$08
Reply:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Host-
address
Target-
address
Status
Instruction
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$02
$01
$64
$06
$00
$00
$07
$d0
$44
Status = 100 (no error), position = 2000
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 25
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3.5.7 STAP (store axis parameter)
An axis parameter previously set with a Set Axis Parameter command (SAP) will be stored permanent.
Most parameters are automatically restored after power up.
Internal function: An axis parameter value stored in SRAM will be transferred to EEPROM and loaded
from EEPORM after next power up.
Related commands: SAP, RSAP, GAP, AAP
Mnemonic: STAP <parameter number>, 0
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
7
<parameter number>
0*1
(don't care)*2
*1motor number is always O as only one motor is involved
*2the value operand of this function has no effect. Instead, the current setting (e.g. previously set with SAP) is saved.
Reply in direct mode:
STATUS
VALUE
100 OK
(don't care)
Parameter ranges:
Parameter number
Motor number
Value
s. chapter 4
0
s. chapter 4
For a table with parameters which can be used together with this command please refer to chapter 4.
Example:
Store the maximum speed of motor
Mnemonic: STAP 4, 0
Binary:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$07
$04
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
$0c
Note: The STAP command will not have any effect when the configuration EEPROM is locked (refer to
5.1). In direct mode, the error code 5 (configuration EEPROM locked, see also section 0) will be
returned in this case.
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 26
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3.5.8 RSAP (restore axis parameter)
For all configuration-related axis parameters non-volatile memory locations are provided. By default, most
parameters are automatically restored after power up. A single parameter that has been changed before
can be reset by this instruction also.
Internal function: The specified parameter is copied from the configuration EEPROM memory to its RAM
location.
Relate commands: SAP, STAP, GAP, and AAP
Mnemonic: RSAP <parameter number>, 0
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
8
<parameter number>
0*
(don't care)
*motor number is always O as only one motor is involved
Reply structure in direct mode:
STATUS
VALUE
100 OK
(don't care)
For a table with parameters which can be used together with this command please refer to chapter 4.
Example:
Restore the maximum current of motor
Mnemonic: RSAP 6, 0
Binary:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$08
$06
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
$0f
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 27
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3.5.9 SGP (set global parameter)
With this command most of the module specific parameters not directly related to motion control can be
specified and the TMCL user variables can be changed. Global parameters are related to the host
interface, peripherals or application specific variables. The different groups of these parameters are
organized in banks to allow a larger total number for future products. Currently, only bank 0 and 1 are
used for global parameters, and bank 2 is used for user variables.
All module settings will automatically be stored non-volatile (internal EEPROM of the processor). The
TMCL user variables will not be stored in the EEPROM automatically, but this can be done by using
STGP commands.
Internal function: the parameter format is converted ignoring leading zeros (or ones for negative
values). The parameter is transferred to the correct position in the appropriate (on board) device.
Related commands: GGP, STGP, RSGP, AGP
Mnemonic: SGP <parameter number>, <bank number>, <value>
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
9
<parameter number>
<bank number>
<value>
Reply in direct mode:
STATUS
VALUE
100 OK
(don't care)
For a table with parameters and bank numbers which can be used together with this command please
refer to chapter 5.
Example:
Set the serial address of the target device (module) to 3
Mnemonic: SGP 66, 0, 3
Binary:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$09
$42
$00
$00
$00
$00
$03
$4f
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 28
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3.5.10 GGP (get global parameter)
All global parameters can be read with this function. Global parameters are related to the host interface,
peripherals or application specific variables. The different groups of these parameters are organized in
banks to allow a larger total number for future products. Currently, only bank 0 and 1 are used for global
parameters, and bank 2 is used for user variables.
Internal function: the parameter is read out of the correct position in the appropriate device. The
parameter format is converted adding leading zeros (or ones for negative values).
Related commands: SGP, STGP, RSGP, AGP
Mnemonic: GGP <parameter number>, <bank number>
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
10
<parameter number>
<bank number>
(don't care)
Reply in direct mode:
STATUS
VALUE
100 OK
(don't care)
For a table with parameters and bank numbers which can be used together with this command please
refer to chapter 5.
Example:
Get the serial address of the target device
Mnemonic: GGP 66, 0
Binary:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$0a
$42
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
$4d
Reply:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Host-
address
Target-
address
Status
Instruction
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$02
$01
$64
$0a
$00
$00
$00
$01
$72
Status = 100 (no error), Value = 1
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 29
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3.5.11 STGP (store global parameter)
This command is used to store TMCL user variables permanently in the EEPROM of the module. Some
global parameters are located in RAM memory, so without storing them any modification will be lost at
power down. This instruction enables permanent storing. Most parameters are automatically restored
after power up.
Internal function: the specified parameter will be copied from its RAM location to the configuration
EEPROM.
Related commands: SGP, GGP, RSGP, AGP
Mnemonic: STGP <parameter number>, <bank number>
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
11
<parameter number>
<bank number>
(don't care)
Reply in direct mode:
STATUS
VALUE
100 OK
(don't care)
For a table with parameters and bank numbers which can be used together with this command please
refer to chapter 5.
Example:
Store user variable #42
Mnemonic: STGP 42, 2
Binary:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$0b
$2a
$02
$00
$00
$00
$00
$38
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 30
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3.5.12 RSGP (restore global parameter)
With this command the contents of a TMCL user variable can be restored from the EEPROM. By default,
most parameters are automatically restored after power up. A single parameter that has been changed
before can be reset by this instruction.
Internal function: the specified parameter is copied from the configuration EEPROM memory to its RAM
location.
Relate commands: SGP, STGP, GGP, and AGP
Mnemonic: RSAP <parameter number>, <bank number>
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
12
<parameter number>
<bank number>
(don't care)
Reply structure in direct mode:
STATUS
VALUE
100 OK
(don't care)
For a table with parameters and bank numbers which can be used together with this command please
refer to chapter 5.
Example:
Restore user variable #42
Mnemonic: RSGP 42, 2
Binary:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$0c
$2a
$02
$00
$00
$00
$00
$39
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 31
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3.5.13 RFS (reference search)
The TMCL firmware has a built-in reference search algorithm which can be used. The reference search
algorithm provides switching point calibration and three switch modes. The status of the reference
search can also be queried to see if it has already finished. Please see the appropriate parameters in the
axis parameter table to configure the reference search algorithm to meet your needs (chapter 4). The
reference search can be started, stopped, and the actual status of the reference search can be checked.
Internal function: The reference search is implemented as a state machine, so interaction is possible
during execution.
Related commands: WAIT
Mnemonic: RFS <START|STOP|STATUS>, 0
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
13
0 START start ref. search
1 STOP abort ref. search
2 STATUS get status
0*
(don't care)
*motor number is always O as only one motor is involved
Reply in direct mode:
When using type 0 (START) or 1 (STOP):
STATUS
VALUE
100 OK
(don't care)
When using type 2 (STATUS):
STATUS
VALUE
100 OK
0 no ref. search active
other values ref.
search is active
Example:
Start reference search of motor
Mnemonic: RFS START, 0
Binary:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$0d
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
$0f
II gin defi n
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 32
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3.5.14 SIO (set output)
This command sets the status of the general digital output either to low (0) or to high (1).
Internal function: the passed value is transferred to the specified output line.
Related commands: GIO, WAIT
Mnemonic: SIO <port number>, <bank number>, <value>
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
14
<port number>
<bank number>
<value>
Reply structure:
STATUS
VALUE
100 OK
(don't care)
Example:
Set OUT_1 to high (bank 2, output 1; general purpose output)
Mnemonic: SIO 1, 2, 1
Binary:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$0e
$01
$02
$00
$00
$00
$01
$13
I/O pin definition
Power, communication
and I/O
1
Figure 3.1: I/O connector of PD-1021
Please note, that the module has four I/O pins
including two open drain outputs:
Pin 7: OUT_0 (open collector)
Pin 8: OUT_1 (open collector)
Please refer to the Hardware Manual for further
information.
Addressinq both output lines with an: 510 command: The followmu Dloqram wxll show the states of the Input [mes on the output lines:
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 33
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Available I/O ports of PD-1021:
Pin
I/O port
Command
Range <n>
7
OUT_0
SIO 0, 2, <n>
1/0
8
OUT_1
SIO 1, 2, <n>
1/0
Addressing both output lines with one SIO command:
Set the type parameter to 255 and the bank parameter to 2.
The value parameter must then be set to a value between 0… 255, where every bit represents
one output line.
Furthermore, the value can also be set to -1. In this special case, the contents of the lower 8 bits
of the accumulator are copied to the output pins.
Example:
Set both output pins high.
Mnemonic: SIO 255, 2, 127
The following program will show the states of the input lines on the output lines:
Loop: GIO 255, 0
SIO 255, 2,-1
JA Loop
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 34
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3.5.15 GIO (get input/output)
With this command the status of the available general purpose inputs of the module can be read out.
The function reads a digital or analogue input port. Digital lines will be read as 0 or 1, while the ADC
channels deliver their 12bit result in the range of 0… 4095. In standalone mode the requested value is
copied to the accumulator (accu) for further processing purposes such as conditional jumps. In direct
mode the value is only output in the value field of the reply, without affecting the accumulator. The
actual status of a digital output line can also be read.
Internal function: the specified signal pin is read.
Related commands: SIO, WAIT
Mnemonic: GIO <port number>, <bank number>
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
15
<port number>
<bank number>
(don't care)
Reply in direct mode:
STATUS
VALUE
100 OK
<status of the
port>
Example:
Get the analogue value of IN_3
Mnemonic: GIO 3, 1
Binary:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$0f
$03
$01
$00
$00
$00
$00
$14
Reply:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Host-
address
Target-
address
Status
Instruction
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$02
$01
$64
$0f
$00
$00
$01
$fa
$72
value: 506
IIO gin defin ion WNW“ . . . Rea 9 all digital inputs with one 610 command: Use followina Drouram to renresent the states of the input lines on the outDut lines:
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 35
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I/O pin definition
Power, communication
and multi-purpose I/O
1
Figure 3.2: I/O connector of PD-1021
3.5.15.1 I/O bank 0 digital inputs:
IN_3 can be read as digital or analogue input. The analogue values can be accessed in bank 1.
Reading all digital inputs with one GIO command:
Set the type parameter to 255 and the bank parameter to 0.
In this case the status of all digital input lines will be read to the lower eight bits of the
accumulator.
Use following program to represent the states of the input lines on the output lines:
Loop: GIO 255, 0
SIO 255, 2,-1
JA Loop
3.5.15.2 I/O bank 1 analogue input:
IN_3 can be read back as digital or analogue input. The digital states can be accessed in bank 0.
3.5.15.3 I/O bank 2 the states of digital outputs
The states of the OUT lines (that have been set by SIO commands) can be read back using bank 2.
Pin
I/O port
Command
Result range
5
IN_0
GIO 0, 0
0/1
6
IN_1
GIO 1, 0
0/1
7
IN_2 (same pin as OUT_0)
GIO 2, 0
0/1
8
IN_3 (same pin as OUT_1)
GIO 3, 0
0/1
Pin
I/O port
Command
Result range
8
IN_3 (same pin as OUT_1)
GIO 3, 1
0… 4095
Pin
I/O port
Command
Result range
7
OUT_0
GIO 0, 2
0/1
8
OUT_1
GIO 1, 2
0/1
Please note, that the module has four I/O pins
including four input pins:
Pin 5: IN_O (digital)
Pin 6: IN_1 (digital)
Pin 7: IN_2 (digital)
Pin 8: IN_3 (digital or analog)
Please refer to the Hardware Manual for further
information.
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 36
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3.5.16 CALC (calculate)
A value in the accumulator variable, previously read by a function such as GAP (get axis parameter) can
be modified with this instruction. Nine different arithmetic functions can be chosen and one constant
operand value must be specified. The result is written back to the accumulator, for further processing like
comparisons or data transfer.
Related commands: CALCX, COMP, JC, AAP, AGP, GAP, GGP, GIO
Mnemonic: CALC <operation>, <value>
where <op> is ADD, SUB, MUL, DIV, MOD, AND, OR, XOR, NOT or LOAD
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
19
0 ADD add to accu
1 SUB subtract from accu
2 MUL multiply accu by
3 DIV divide accu by
4 MOD modulo divide by
5 AND logical and accu with
6 OR logical or accu with
7 XOR logical exor accu with
8 NOT logical invert accu
9 LOAD load operand to accu
(don't care)
<operand>
Example:
Multiply accu by -5000
Mnemonic: CALC MUL, -5000
Binary:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$13
$02
$00
$FF
$FF
$EC
$78
$78
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 37
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3.5.17 COMP (compare)
The specified number is compared to the value in the accumulator register. The result of the comparison
can for example be used by the conditional jump (JC) instruction. This command is intended for use in
standalone operation only.
The host address and the reply are only used to take the instruction to the TMCL program memory
while the program is being downloaded. It does not make sense to use this command in direct
mode.
Internal function: the specified value is compared to the internal "accumulator", which holds the value
of a preceding "get" or calculate instruction (see GAP/GGP/GIO/CALC/CALCX). The internal arithmetic status
flags are set according to the comparison result.
Related commands: JC (jump conditional), GAP, GGP, GIO, CALC, CALCX
Mnemonic: COMP <value>
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
20
(don't care)
(don't care)
<comparison value>
Example:
Jump to the address given by the label when the position of motor is greater than or equal to
1000.
GAP 1, 2, 0 //get axis parameter, type: no. 1 (actual position), motor: 0, value: 0 (don't care)
COMP 1000 //compare actual value to 1000
JC GE, Label //jump, type: 5 greater/equal, the label must be defined somewhere else in the
program
Binary format of the COMP 1000 command:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$14
$00
$00
$00
$00
$03
$e8
$00
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 38
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3.5.18 JC (jump conditional)
The JC instruction enables a conditional jump to a fixed address in the TMCL program memory, if the
specified condition is met. The conditions refer to the result of a preceding comparison. Please refer to
COMP instruction for examples. This function is for standalone operation only.
The host address and the reply are only used to take the instruction to the TMCL program memory
while the program is being downloaded. It does not make sense to use this command in direct
mode. See the host-only control functions for details.
Internal function: the TMCL program counter is set to the passed value if the arithmetic status flags are
in the appropriate state(s).
Related commands: JA, COMP, WAIT, CLE
Mnemonic: JC <condition>, <label>
where <condition>=ZE|NZ|EQ|NE|GT|GE|LT|LE|ETO|EAL|EDV|EPO
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
21
0 ZE - zero
1 NZ - not zero
2 EQ - equal
3 NE - not equal
4 GT - greater
5 GE - greater/equal
6 LT - lower
7 LE - lower/equal
8 ETO - time out error
(don't care)
<jump address>
Example:
Jump to address given by the label when the position of motor is greater than or equal to 1000.
GAP 1, 0, 0 //get axis parameter, type: no. 1 (actual position), motor: 0, value: 0 (don't care)
COMP 1000 //compare actual value to 1000
JC GE, Label //jump, type: 5 greater/equal
...
...
Label: ROL 0, 1000
Binary format of JC GE, Label when Label is at address 10:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$15
$05
$00
$00
$00
$00
$0a
$25
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 39
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3.5.19 JA (jump always)
Jump to a fixed address in the TMCL program memory. This command is intended for standalone
operation only.
The host address and the reply are only used to take the instruction to the TMCL program memory
while the program is being downloaded. It does not make sense to use this command in direct
mode.
Internal function: the TMCL program counter is set to the passed value.
Related commands: JC, WAIT, CSUB
Mnemonic: JA <Label>
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
22
(don't care)
(don't care)
<jump address>
Example:
An infinite loop in TMCL™
Loop: MVP ABS, 0, 10000
WAIT POS, 0, 0
MVP ABS, 0, 0
WAIT POS, 0, 0
JA Loop //Jump to the label Loop
Binary format of JA Loop assuming that the label Loop is at address 20:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$16
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
$14
$2b
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 40
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3.5.20 CSUB (call subroutine)
This function calls a subroutine in the TMCL program memory. It is intended for standalone operation
only.
The host address and the reply are only used to take the instruction to the TMCL program memory
while the program is being downloaded. It does not make sense to use this command in direct
mode.
Internal function: the actual TMCL program counter value is saved to an internal stack, afterwards
overwritten with the passed value. The number of entries in the internal stack is limited to 8. This also
limits nesting of subroutine calls to 8. The command will be ignored if there is no more stack space left.
Related commands: RSUB, JA
Mnemonic: CSUB <Label>
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
23
(don't care)
(don't care)
<subroutine address>
Example:
Call a subroutine
Loop: MVP ABS, 0, 10000
CSUB SubW //Save program counter and jump to label “SubW”
MVP ABS, 0, 0
JA Loop
SubW: WAIT POS, 0, 0
WAIT TICKS, 0, 50
RSUB //Continue with the command following the CSUB command
Binary format of the CSUB SubW command assuming that the label SubW is at address 100:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$17
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
$64
$7c
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 41
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3.5.21 RSUB (return from subroutine)
Return from a subroutine to the command after the CSUB command. This command is intended for use
in standalone mode only.
The host address and the reply are only used to take the instruction to the TMCL program memory
while the program is being downloaded. It does not make sense to use this command in direct
mode.
Internal function: the TMCL program counter is set to the last value of the stack. The command will be
ignored if the stack is empty.
Related command: CSUB
Mnemonic: RSUB
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
24
(don't care)
(don't care)
(don't care)
Example: please see the CSUB example (section 3.5.20).
Binary format of RSUB:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$18
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
$19
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 42
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3.5.22 WAIT (wait for an event to occur)
This instruction interrupts the execution of the TMCL program until the specified condition is met. This
command is intended for standalone operation only.
The host address and the reply are only used to take the instruction to the TMCL program memory
while the program is being downloaded. It does not make sense to use this command in direct
mode.
There are five different wait conditions that can be used:
TICKS: Wait until the number of timer ticks specified by the <ticks> parameter has been
reached.
POS: Wait until the target position of the motor specified by the <motor> parameter has been
reached. An optional timeout value (0 for no timeout) must be specified by the <ticks>
parameter.
REFSW: Wait until the reference switch of the motor specified by the <motor> parameter has
been triggered. An optional timeout value (0 for no timeout) must be specified by the <ticks>
parameter.
LIMSW: Wait until a limit switch of the motor specified by the <motor> parameter has been
triggered. An optional timeout value (0 for no timeout) must be specified by the <ticks>
parameter.
RFS: Wait until the reference search of the motor specified by the <motor> field has been
reached. An optional timeout value (0 for no timeout) must be specified by the <ticks>
parameter.
The timeout flag (ETO) will be set after a timeout limit has been reached. You can then use a JC ETO
command to check for such errors or clear the error using the CLE command.
Internal function: the TMCL program counter is held until the specified condition is met.
Related commands: JC, CLE
Mnemonic: WAIT <condition>, <motor>, <ticks>
where <condition> is TICKS|POS|REFSW|LIMSW|RFS
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
27
0 TICKS - timer ticks*1
don’t care
<no. of ticks*2>
1 POS - target position reached
0*1
<no. of ticks* for timeout>,
0 for no timeout
2 REFSW reference switch
0
<no. of ticks* for timeout>,
0 for no timeout
3 LIMSW limit switch
0
<no. of ticks* for timeout>,
0 for no timeout
4 RFS reference search
completed
0
<no. of ticks* for timeout>,
0 for no timeout
*1 motor number is always 0 as only one motor is involved
*2 one tick is 10 milliseconds
Example:
Wait for motor to reach its target position, without timeout
Mnemonic: WAIT POS, 0, 0
Binary:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$1b
$01
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
$1e
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 43
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3.5.23 STOP (stop TMCL program execution)
This function stops executing a TMCL program. The host address and the reply are only used to transfer
the instruction to the TMCL program memory.
This command should be placed at the end of every standalone TMCL program. It is not to be used
in direct mode.
Internal function: TMCL instruction fetching is stopped.
Related commands: none
Mnemonic: STOP
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
28
(don't care)
(don't care)
(don't care)
Example:
Mnemonic: STOP
Binary:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$1c
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
$1d
These SDECIal funmons (an be accessed usmq the followmq specuaL forms of the SCO command:
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 44
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3.5.24 SCO (set coordinate)
Up to 20 position values (coordinates) can be stored for every axis for use with the MVP COORD
command. This command sets a coordinate to a specified value. Depending on the global parameter 84,
the coordinates are only stored in RAM or also stored in the EEPROM and copied back on startup (with
the default setting the coordinates are stored in RAM only).
Please note that the coordinate number 0 is always stored in RAM only.
Internal function: the passed value is stored in the internal position array.
Related commands: GCO, CCO, MVP
Mnemonic: SCO <coordinate number>, 0, <position>
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
30
<coordinate number>
(0… 20)
0*
<position>
(-223…+223)
* Motor number is always 0 as only one motor is involved
Reply in direct mode:
STATUS
VALUE
100 OK
(don't care)
Example:
Set coordinate #1 of motor to 1000
Mnemonic: SCO 1, 0, 1000
Binary:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$1e
$01
$00
$00
$00
$03
$e8
$0d
Two special functions of this command have been introduced that make it possible to copy all
coordinates or one selected coordinate to the EEPROM.
These special functions can be accessed using the following special forms of the SCO command:
SCO 0, 255, 0 copies all coordinates (except coordinate number 0) from RAM to
the EEPROM.
SCO <coordinate number>, 255, 0 copies the coordinate selected by <coordinate number> to the
EEPROM. The coordinate number must be a value between 1 and
20.
These SDECIal functxons (an be accessed usmq the followmq Spemal fovms of the GCO command:
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 45
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3.5.25 GCO (get coordinate)
This command makes possible to read out a previously stored coordinate. In standalone mode the
requested value is copied to the accumulator register for further processing purposes such as
conditioned jumps. In direct mode, the value is only output in the value field of the reply, without
affecting the accumulator. Depending on the global parameter 84, the coordinates are only stored in RAM
or also stored in the EEPROM and copied back on startup (with the default setting the coordinates are
stored in RAM only).
Please note that the coordinate number 0 is always stored in RAM only.
Internal function: the desired value is read out of the internal coordinate array, copied to the
accumulator register and -in direct mode- returned in the “value” field of the reply.
Related commands: SCO, CCO, MVP
Mnemonic: GCO <coordinate number>, 0
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
31
<coordinate number>
(0… 20)
0*
(don't care)
* Motor number is always 0 as only one motor is involved
Reply in direct mode:
STATUS
VALUE
100 OK
(don't care)
Example:
Get motor value of coordinate 1
Mnemonic: GCO 1, 0
Binary:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$1f
$01
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
$23
Reply:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Target-
address
Status
Instruction
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$02
$01
$64
$0a
$00
$00
$00
$00
$86
Value: 0
Two special functions of this command have been introduced that make it possible to copy all
coordinates or one selected coordinate from the EEPROM to the RAM.
These special functions can be accessed using the following special forms of the GCO command:
GCO 0, 255, 0 copies all coordinates (except coordinate number 0) from the
EEPROM to the RAM.
GCO <coordinate number>, 255, 0 copies the coordinate selected by <coordinate number> from the
EEPROM to the RAM. The coordinate number must be a value
between 1 and 20.
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 46
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3.5.26 CCO (capture coordinate)
The actual position of the axis is copied to the selected coordinate variable. Depending on the global
parameter 84, the coordinates are only stored in RAM or also stored in the EEPROM and copied back on
startup (with the default setting the coordinates are stored in RAM only). Please see the SCO and GCO
commands on how to copy coordinates between RAM and EEPROM.
Note that the coordinate number 0 is always stored in RAM only.
Internal function: the selected (24 bit) position values are written to the 20 by 3 bytes wide coordinate
array.
Related commands: SCO, GCO, MVP
Mnemonic: CCO <coordinate number>, 0
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
32
<coordinate number>
0… 20
0*
(don't care)
* Motor number is always 0 as only one motor is involved
Reply in direct mode:
STATUS
VALUE
100 OK
(don't care)
Example:
Store current position of the axe to coordinate 3
Mnemonic: CCO 3, 0
Binary:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$20
$03
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
$2b
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 47
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3.5.27 ACO
With the ACO command the actual value of the accumulator is copied to a selected coordinate of the
motor. Depending on the global parameter 84, the coordinates are only stored in RAM or also stored in
the EEPROM and copied back on startup (with the default setting the coordinates are stored in RAM only).
Please note also that the coordinate number 0 is always stored in RAM only. For Information about
storing coordinates refer to the SCO command.
Internal function: the actual value of the accumulator is stored in the internal position array.
Related commands: GCO, CCO, MVP COORD, SCO
Mnemonic: ACO <coordinate number>, 0
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
39
<coordinate number>
0… 20
0*
(don’t care)
* Motor number is always 0 as only one motor is involved
Reply in direct mode:
STATUS
VALUE
100 OK
(don't care)
Example:
Copy the actual value of the accumulator to coordinate 1 of motor
Mnemonic: ACO 1, 0
Binary:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$27
$01
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
$29
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 48
www.trinamic.com
3.5.28 CALCX (calculate using the X register)
This instruction is very similar to CALC, but the second operand comes from the X register. The X register
can be loaded with the LOAD or the SWAP type of this instruction. The result is written back to the
accumulator for further processing like comparisons or data transfer.
Related commands: CALC, COMP, JC, AAP, AGP
Mnemonic: CALCX <operation>
with <operation>=ADD|SUB|MUL|DIV|MOD|AND|OR|XOR|NOT|LOAD|SWAP
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
33
0 ADD add X register to accu
1 SUB subtract X register from accu
2 MUL multiply accu by X register
3 DIV divide accu by X-register
4 MOD modulo divide accu by x-register
5 AND logical and accu with X-register
6 OR logical or accu with X-register
7 XOR logical exor accu with X-register
8 NOT logical invert X-register
9 LOAD load accu to X-register
10 SWAP swap accu with X-register
(don't care)
(don't care)
Example:
Multiply accu by X-register
Mnemonic: CALCX MUL
Binary:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$21
$02
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
$24
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 49
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3.5.29 AAP (accumulator to axis parameter)
The content of the accumulator register is transferred to the specified axis parameter. For practical usage,
the accumulator has to be loaded e.g. by a preceding GAP instruction. The accumulator may have been
modified by the CALC or CALCX (calculate) instruction.
Related commands: AGP, SAP, GAP, SGP, GGP, GIO, GCO, CALC, CALCX
Mnemonic: AAP <parameter number>, 0
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
34
<parameter number>
0*
<don't care>
* Motor number is always 0 as only one motor is involved
Reply in direct mode:
STATUS
VALUE
100 OK
(don't care)
For a table with parameters and values which can be used together with this command please refer to
chapter 5.
Example:
Positioning motor by a potentiometer connected to the analogue input #0:
Start: GIO 0,1 // get value of analogue input line 0
CALC MUL, 4 // multiply by 4
AAP 0,0 // transfer result to target position of motor 0
JA Start // jump back to start
Binary format of the AAP 0,0 command:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$22
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
$23
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 50
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3.5.30 AGP (accumulator to global parameter)
The content of the accumulator register is transferred to the specified global parameter. For practical
usage, the accumulator has to be loaded e.g. by a preceding GGP instruction. The accumulator may have
been modified by the CALC or CALCX (calculate) instruction.
Related commands: SGP, GGP, STGP, RSGP
Mnemonic: AGP <parameter number>, <bank number>
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
35
<parameter number>
<bank number>
(don't care)
Reply in direct mode:
STATUS
VALUE
100 OK
(don't care)
For a table with parameters and bank numbers which can be used together with this command please
refer to chapter 5.
Example:
Copy accumulator to TMCL user variable #3
Mnemonic: AGP 3, 2
Binary:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$23
$03
$02
$00
$00
$00
$00
$29
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 51
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3.5.31 CLE (clear error flags)
This command clears the internal error flags. It is intended for use in standalone mode only and must
not be used in direct mode.
The following error flags can be cleared by this command (determined by the <flag> parameter):
ALL: clear all error flags.
ETO: clear the timeout flag.
EAL: clear the external alarm flag
EDV: clear the deviation flag
EPO: clear the position error flag
Related commands: JC
Mnemonic: CLE <flags>
where <flags>=ALL|ETO|EDV|EPO
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
36
0 (ALL) all flags
1 (ETO) timeout flag
2 (EAL) alarm flag
3 (EDV) deviation flag
4 (EPO) position flag
5 (ESD) shutdown flag
(don't care)
(don't care)
Example:
Reset the timeout flag
Mnemonic: CLE ETO
Binary:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$24
$01
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
$26
The followmu table shows all Interrupt vectors that can be used:
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 52
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3.5.32 VECT (set interrupt vector)
The VECT command defines an interrupt vector. It needs an interrupt number and a label as parameter
(like in JA, JC and CSUB commands).
This label must be the entry point of the interrupt handling routine.
Related commands: EI, DI, RETI
Mnemonic: VECT <interrupt number>, <label>
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
37
<interrupt number>
(don't care)
<label>
The following table shows all interrupt vectors that can be used:
Interrupt number
Interrupt type
0
Timer 0
1
Timer 1
2
Timer 2
3
(Target) position reached
15
Stall (stallGuard2)
21
Deviation
27
Stop left
28
Stop right
39
IN_0 change
40
IN_1 change
Example: Define interrupt vector at target position 500
VECT 3, 500
Binary format of VECT:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$25
$03
$00
$00
$00
$01
$F4
$1E
The followmu table shows all Interrupt vectors that can be used:
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 53
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3.5.33 EI (enable interrupt)
The EI command enables an individual interrupt and activates interrupts in general (global interrupt
enable). Please make sure to always issue a global interrupt enable in order to actually activate the
interrupts individually enabled.
Related command: DI, VECT, RETI
Mnemonic: EI <interrupt number>
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
25
<interrupt number>
(don't care)
(don't care)
The following table shows all interrupt vectors that can be used:
Interrupt number
Interrupt type
0
Timer 0
1
Timer 1
2
Timer 2
3
(Target) position reached
15
Stall (stallGuard2)
21
Deviation
27
Stop left
28
Stop right
39
IN_0 change
40
IN_1 change
255
Global interrupts
Examples:
Enable interrupts globally
EI, 255
Binary format of EI:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$19
$FF
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
$19
Enable interrupt when target position reached
EI, 3
Binary format of EI:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$19
$03
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
$1D
The followmu table shows all mterrupt vectors that can be used:
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 54
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3.5.34 DI (disable interrupt)
The DI command disables an individual interrupt or using parameter 255 will de-activate any interrupt.
Related command: EI, VECT, RETI
Mnemonic: DI <interrupt number>
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
26
<interrupt number>
(don't care)
(don't care)
The following table shows all interrupt vectors that can be used:
Interrupt number
Interrupt type
0
Timer 0
1
Timer 1
2
Timer 2
3
(Target) position reached
15
Stall (stallGuard2)
21
Deviation
39
IN_0 change
40
IN_1 change
255
Global interrupts
Examples:
Disable interrupts globally
DI, 255
Binary format of DI:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$1A
$FF
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
$1A
Disable interrupt when target position reached
DI, 3
Binary format of DI:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$1A
$03
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
$1E
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 55
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3.5.35 RETI (return from interrupt)
This command terminates the interrupt handling routine, and the normal program execution continues.
At the end of an interrupt handling routine the RETI command must be executed.
Internal function: the saved registers (A register, X register, flags) are copied back. Normal program
execution continues.
Related commands: EI, DI, VECT
Mnemonic: RETI
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
38
(don’t care)
(don't care)
(don’t care)
Example: Terminate interrupt handling and continue with normal program execution
RETI
Binary format of RETI:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$01
$26
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
$27
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 56
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3.5.36 Customer Specific TMCL Command Extension (UF0 UF7/user
function)
The user definable functions UF0… UF7 are predefined functions for user specific purposes. Contact
TRINAMIC for the customer specific programming of these functions.
Internal function: call user specific functions implemented in C by TRINAMIC.
Related commands: none
Mnemonic: UF0 UF7
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
64… 71
(user defined)
(user defined)
(user defined)
Reply in direct mode:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Target-
address
Status
Instruction
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$02
$01
(user
defined)
64… 71
(user
defined)
(user
defined)
(user
defined)
(user
defined)
<checksum>
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 57
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3.5.37 Request Target Position Reached Event
This command is the only exception to the TMCL protocol, as it sends two replies: One immediately after
the command has been executed (like all other commands also), and one additional reply that will be
sent when the motor has reached its target position. This instruction can only be used in direct mode
(in standalone mode, it is covered by the WAIT command) and hence does not have a mnemonic.
Internal function: send an additional reply when the motor has reached its target position
Mnemonic: ---
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
138
(don’t care)
(don’t care)
0*
* Motor number
Reply in direct mode (right after execution of this command):
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Target-
address
Status
Instruction
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$02
$01
100
138
$00
$00
$00
Motor bit
mask
<checksum
>
Additional reply in direct mode (after motors have reached their target positions):
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Function
Target-
address
Target-
address
Status
Instruction
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Checksum
Value (hex)
$02
$01
128
138
$00
$00
$00
Motor bit
mask
<checksum
>
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 58
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3.5.38 TMCL Control Functions
The following functions are for host control purposes only and are not allowed for standalone
mode. In most cases, there is no need for the customer to use one of those functions (except
command 139). They are mentioned here only for reasons of completeness. These commands have no
mnemonics, as they cannot be used in TMCL programs. The Functions are to be used only by the TMCL-
IDE to communicate with the module, for example to download a TMCL application into the module.
The only control commands that could be useful for a user host application are:
- get firmware revision (command 136, please note the special reply format of this command,
described at the end of this section)
- run application (command 129)
All other functions can be achieved by using the appropriate functions of the TMCL-IDE.
Instruction
Description
Type
Mot/Bank
Value
128 stop application
a running TMCL standalone
application is stopped
(don't care)
(don't care)
(don't care)
129 run application
TMCL execution is started (or
continued)
0 - run from current
address
1 - run from
specified address
(don't care)
(don't care)
starting address
130 step application
only the next command of a TMCL
application is executed
(don't care)
(don't care)
(don't care)
131 reset application
the program counter is set to
zero, and the standalone
application is stopped (when
running or stepped)
(don't care)
(don't care)
(don't care)
132 start download
mode
target command execution is
stopped and all following
commands are transferred to the
TMCL memory
(don't care)
(don't care)
starting address
of the
application
133 quit download
mode
target command execution is
resumed
(don't care)
(don't care)
(don't care)
134 read TMCL
memory
the specified program memory
location is read
(don't care)
(don't care)
<memory
address>
135 get application
status
one of these values is returned:
0 stop
1 run
2 step
3 reset
(don't care)
(don't care)
(don't care)
136 get firmware
version
return the module type and
firmware revision either as a
string or in binary format
0 string
1 binary
(don’t care)
(don’t care)
137 restore factory
settings
reset all settings stored in the
EEPROM to their factory defaults
This command does not send back
a reply.
(don’t care)
(don’t care)
must be 1234
138 Request target
position reached event
send an additional reply when the
motor has reached its target
position
(don't care)
(don't care)
(don't care)
Sge regly farmat 0f command 136:
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 59
www.trinamic.com
Special reply format of command 136:
Type set to 0 - reply as a string:
Byte index
Contents
1
Host Address
29
Version string (8 characters, e.g. 1021V120)
There is no checksum in this reply format!
Type set to 1 - version number in binary format:
Please use the normal reply format.
The version number is output in the value field of the reply in the following way:
Byte index in value field
Contents
1
Version number, low byte
2
Version number, high byte
3
Type number, low byte
(currently not used)
4
Type number, high byte
(currently not used)
BB m 0 ht E 255 ,) E 255
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 60
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4 Axis Parameters
The following sections describe all axis parameters that can be used with the SAP, GAP, AAP, STAP and
RSAP commands.
Meaning of the letters in column Access:
Access
type
Related
command(s)
Description
R
GAP
Parameter readable
W
SAP, AAP
Parameter writable
E
STAP, RSAP
Parameter automatically restored from EEPROM after reset or power-on. These
parameters can be stored permanently in EEPROM using STAP command and
also explicitly restored (copied back from EEPROM into RAM) using RSAP
Basic parameters should be adjusted to motor / application for proper module operation.
Parameters for the more experienced user please do not change unless you are absolutely
sure.
Number
Axis Parameter
Description
Range [Unit]
Acc.
0
Target (next)
position
The desired position in position mode (see
ramp mode, no. 128).
−2.147.483.648…
+2.147.483.647 [µsteps]
RW
1
Actual position
The current position of the motor. Should only
be overwritten for reference point setting.
−2.147.483.648…
+2.147.483.647 [µsteps]
RW
2
Target (next)
speed
The desired speed in velocity mode (see ramp
mode, no. 128). In position mode, this
parameter is set automatically: to the maximum
speed during acceleration, and to zero during
deceleration and rest.
-268.435.455…
+268.435.454
[pps]
RW
3
Actual speed
The current rotation speed.
-268.435.455…
+268.435.454 [pps]
RW
4
Maximum
positioning
speed
Maximum feasible positioning speed. Has to be
adapted to motor and application
0… +268.435.454
[pps]
RWE
5
Maximum
acceleration
Limit for acceleration and deceleration. Has to
be adapted to motor and application.
1… +33554431
[pps/s]
RWE
6
Max. motor run
current
Attention: setting motor current too high might
permanently damage the motor!
The maximum value is 255. This value means
100% of maximum programmable current of the
module. Current can be adjusted / scaled down
by specifying a lower value between 0 and 255.
This value is transformed into 32 different
internal current settings supported by the
hardware (0… 255 divided by eight; e.g. 0… 7 ->
1/32 of max. current, 8… 15 -> 2/32 of max.
Current … 247…255 -> max. current).
0… 255
   

    

RWE
7
Standby current
Current limit after the motor has stopped plus
power down delay time (see parameter 214).
Same range and meaning as for parameter 6
0… 255
   

    

RWE
8
Position reached
1 when target position = actual position
0 otherwise
0/1
R
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 61
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Number
Axis Parameter
Description
Range [Unit]
Acc.
9
Home switch
status
The logical state of the home switch.
0/1
R
10
Right limit
switch status
The logical state of the (right) limit switch.
0/1
R
11
Left limit switch
status
The logical state of the left limit switch (in
three switch mode)
0/1
R
12
Right limit
switch disable
If set, deactivates the stop function of the right
switch (default: right limit switch disabled)
0/1
RWE
13
Left limit switch
disable
Deactivates the stop function of the left switch
resp. reference switch if set (default: left limit
switch disabled).
0/1
RWE
128
Ramp mode
Automatically set when using ROR, ROL, MST
and MVP.
0: position mode. Steps are generated, when
the parameters actual position and target
position differ. Trapezoidal speed ramps are
provided.
1: velocity mode. The motor will run
continuously and the speed will be changed
with constant (maximum) acceleration, if the
parameter target speed is changed.
0/1
RW
130
Minimum speed
Ramp generation for acceleration and
deceleration begins and ends with this start
and stop value.
0… +268.435.454
[pps]
Default = 0
RWE
140
Microstep
resolution
0
full step
1
half step
2
4 microsteps
3
8 microsteps
4
16 microsteps
5
32 microsteps
6
64 microsteps
7
128 microsteps
8
256 microsteps (default)
0… 8
RWE
161
Double step
enable
Every edge of the cycle releases a
step/microstep. It does not make sense to
activate this parameter for internal use.
Double step enable can be used with step/dir
interface.
0 double step off
1 double step on
0/1
RW
162
Chopper blank
time
Selects the comparator blank time. This time
needs to safely cover the switching event and
the duration of the ringing on the sense
resistor. For low current drivers, a setting of 1
or 2 is good.
0… 3
RW
163
Chopper mode
Selection of the chopper mode:
0 spread cycle
1 classic const. off time
0/1
RW
164
Chopper
hysteresis
decrement
Hysteresis decrement setting. This setting
determines the slope of the hysteresis during
on time and during fast decay time.
0 fast decrement
3 very slow decrement
0… 3
RW
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 62
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Number
Axis Parameter
Description
Range [Unit]
Acc.
165
Chopper
hysteresis end
Hysteresis end setting. Sets the hysteresis end
value after a number of decrements. Decrement
interval time is controlled by axis parameter
164.
-3… -1
negative hysteresis end setting
0
zero hysteresis end setting
1… 12
positive hysteresis end setting
-3… 12
RW
166
Chopper
hysteresis start
Hysteresis start setting. Please remark, that this
value is an offset to the hysteresis end value.
0… 8
RW
167
Chopper off time
The off time setting controls the minimum
chopper frequency. An off time within the
range of 5µs to 20µs will fit.
Off time setting for constant tOFF chopper:
NCLK= 12 + 32*tOFF (Minimum is 64 clocks)
Setting this parameter to zero completely
disables all driver transistors and the motor can
free-wheel.
0 / 2… 15
RW
168
smartEnergy
current minimum
Sets the lower motor current limit for
coolStep™ operation by scaling the max. motor
run current value (parameter 6).
minimum motor current:
0 1/2 of parameter 6
1 1/4 of parameter 6
0/1
RW
169
smartEnergy
current down
step
Sets the number of stallGuard2 readings above
the upper threshold necessary for each current
decrement of the motor current.
Number of stallGuard2 measurements per
decrement:
Scaling: 0… 3: 32, 8, 2, 1
0: slow decrement
3: fast decrement
0… 3
RW
170
smartEnergy
hysteresis
Sets the distance between the lower and the
upper threshold for stallGuard2™ reading.
Above the upper threshold the motor current
becomes decreased.
0… 15
RW
Hysteresis:
(smartEnergy hysteresis value + 1) * 32
Upper stallGuard threshold:
(smartEnergy hysteresis start + smartEnergy
hysteresis + 1) * 32
171
smartEnergy
current up step
Sets the current increment step. The current
becomes incremented for each measured
stallGuard2 value below the lower threshold
(see smartEnergy hysteresis start).
current increment step size:
Scaling: 0… 3: 1, 2, 4, 8
0: slow increment
3: fast increment / fast reaction to rising load
1… 3
RW
172
smartEnergy
hysteresis start
The lower threshold for the stallGuard2 value
(see smart Energy current up step).
0… 15
RW
motor current scaling factor: E 255
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 63
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Number
Axis Parameter
Description
Range [Unit]
Acc.
173
stallGuard2™
filter enable
Enables the stallGuard2 filter for more precision
of the measurement. If set, reduces the
measurement frequency to one measurement
per four fullsteps.
In most cases it is expedient to set the filtered
mode before using coolStep™.
Use the standard mode for step loss detection.
0 standard mode
1 filtered mode
0/1
RW
174
stallGuard2™
threshold
This signed value controls stallGuard2 threshold
level for stall output and sets the optimum
measurement range for readout. A lower value
gives a higher sensitivity. Zero is the starting
value. A higher value makes stallGuard2™ less
sensitive and requires more torque to indicate
a stall.
0
Indifferent value
1… 63
less sensitivity
-1… -64
higher sensitivity
-64… 63
RW
175
Slope control
high side
Determines the slope of the motor driver
outputs. Set to 2 or 3 for this module or rather
use the default value.
0: lowest slope
3: fastest slope
0… 3
RW
176
Slope control
low side
Determines the slope of the motor driver
outputs. Set identical to slope control high side.
0… 3
RW
177
short protection
disable
0: Short to GND protection is on
1: Short to GND protection is disabled
Use default value!
0/1
RW
178
Short detection
timer
0: 3.2µs
1: 1.6µs
2: 1.2µs
3: 0.8µs
Use default value!
0..3
RW
180
smartEnergy
actual current
This status value provides the actual motor
current setting as controlled by coolStep. The
value goes up to the max. internal motor run
current scaling value (0..31) specified via
parameter 6 and down to the smartEnergy
current minimum (fraction of max. motor run
current set via parameter 168).
motor current scaling factor:
0 … 31: 1/32, 2/32, … 32/32
(32/32: maximum current supported by module)
0… 31
RW
181
Stop on stall
Below this speed motor will not be stopped.
Above this speed motor will stop in case
stallGuard2 load value reaches zero.
0… +268.435.454
[pps]
RW
182
smartEnergy
threshold speed
Above this speed coolStep will be enabled.
0… +268.435.454
[pps]
RW
183
smartEnergy
slow run current
Sets the motor current which is used blow the
threshold speed.
0… 255
   

    

RW
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 64
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Number
Axis Parameter
Description
Range [Unit]
Acc.
193
Ref. search mode
1
search left stop switch only
2
search rightstop switch, then search
left stop switch
3
search right stop switch, then search
left stop switch from both sides
4
search left stop switch from both sides
5
search home switch in negative
direction, reverse the direction when
left stop switch reached
6
search home switch in positive
direction, reverse the direction when
right stop switch reached
7
search home switch in positive
direction, ignore end switches
8
search home switch in negative
direction, ignore end switches
Additional functions:
- Add 128 to a mode value for inverting the
home switch (can be used with mode 5… 8).
- Add 64 to a mode for driving the right
instead of the left reference switch (can be
used with mode 1… 4).
1… 8
RWE
194
Referencing
search speed
For the reference search this value directly
specifies the search speed.
-268.435.455…
+268.435.454 [pps]
RWE
195
Referencing
switch speed
Similar to parameter no. 194, the speed for the
switching point calibration can be selected.
-268.435.455…
+268.435.454 [pps]
RWE
196
End switch
distance
This parameter provides the distance between
the end switches after executing the RFS
command (mode 2 or 3).
0… +268.435.454
R
197
Last reference
position
Reference search: the last position before
setting the counter to zero can be read out.
-231… 231-1
[µsteps]
R
200
Boost current
Current used for acceleration and deceleration
phases.
If set to 0 the same current as set by axis
parameter 6 will be used.
0… 255
    

    

RWE
204
Freewheeling
delay
Time after which the power to the motor will
be cut when its velocity has reached zero.
0… 65535
0 = never
[msec]
RWE
206
Actual load value
Readout of the actual load value used for stall
detection.
0… 1023
R
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 65
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Number
Axis Parameter
Description
Range [Unit]
Acc.
208
TMC262 driver
error flags
Bit 0
stallGuard™ status
(1: threshold reached)
Bit 1
Overtemperature
(1: driver is shut down due to
overtemperature)
Bit 2
Pre-warning overtemperature
(1: threshold is exceeded)
Bit 3
Short to ground A
(1: short condition detected, driver currently
shut dn)
Bi 4
Short to ground B
(1: short condition detected, driver currently
shut down)
Bit 5
Open load A
(1: no chopper event has happened during
the last period with constant coil polarity)
Bit 6
Open load B
(1: no chopper event has happened during
the last period with constant coil polarity)
Bit 7
Always set
(1: no step impulse occurred on the step
input during the last 2^20 clock cycles)
Please refer to the TMC262 Datasheet for more
information.
0/1
R
209
Encoder position
The value of an encoder register can be read
out or written.
[encoder steps]
32bit counter value
RW
210
Encoder
prescaler
Prescaler for the encoder.
See paragraph 6.1
RWE
212
Maximum
encoder
deviation
When the actual position (parameter 1) and the
encoder position (parameter 209) differ more
than set here the motor will be stopped. This
function is switched off when the maximum
deviation is set to zero.
0… 65535
[encoder steps]
RWE
214
Power down
delay
Standstill period before the current is changed
down to standby current. The standard value is
200 (value equates 2000msec).
1… 65535
[10msec]
RWE
215
Absolute
encoder value
Absolute value of the encoder.
0… 1023
[encoder steps]
R
254
Step/Dir mode
0
Turn OFF step/dir mode
1
Use of the ENABLE input on step/dir connector to
switch between hold current and run current (no
automatic switching)
2
Automatic switching between hold and run current:
after the first step pulse the module automatically
switches over to run current, and a configurable
time after the last step pulse the module
automatically switches back to hold current. The
ENABLE input on the step/dir connector does not
have any functionality.
3
Always use run current, never switch to hold
current. The ENABLE input on the step/dir connector
does not have any functionality.
4
Automatic current switching like (2), but the ENABLE
input is used to switch the driver stage completely
off or on.
5
Always use run current like (3), but the ENABLE pin
is used to switch the driver stage completely off or
on.
0… 5
RWE
m Tosh-.1) resolution ofdriver v fullstepsofmomr
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 66
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4.1 Velocity Calculation
The axis parameters listed below are related to the speed of the motor. The table is an excerpt of the
complete table of axis parameters in this chapter.
The unit of the velocity <value> is pulse per second (pps). For calculating the speed it is necessary to set
the microstep resolution of the driver (axis parameter 140) first. Further, the fullsteps of the motor must
be given. Now, calculate as follows:
   
 
  
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 67
www.trinamic.com
4.2 stallGuard2
The module is equipped with TMC262 motor driver chip. The TMC262 features load measurement that can
be used for stall detection. stallGuard2 delivers a sensorless load measurement of the motor as well as a
stall detection signal. The measured value changes linear with the load on the motor in a wide range of
load, velocity and current settings. At maximum motor load the stallGuard2 value goes to zero. This
corresponds to a load angle of 9between the magnetic field of the stator and magnets in the rotor.
This also is the most energy efficient point of operation for the motor.
Stall detection means that the motor will be stopped when the load gets too high. It is configured by
axis parameter #174.
Stall detection can also be used for finding the reference point. Do not use RFS in this case.
4.3 coolStep Related Axis Parameters
The figure below gives an overview of the coolStep related parameters. Please have in mind that the
figure shows only one example for a drive. There are parameters which concern the configuration of the
current. Other parameters are for velocity regulation and for time adjustment.
It is necessary to identify and configure the thresholds for current (I6, I7 and I183) and velocity (V182).
Furthermore the stallGuard2 feature has to be adjusted and enabled (SG170 and SG181).
The reduction or increasing of the current in the coolStep area (depending on the load) has to be
configured with parameters I169 and I171.
In this chapter only basic axis parameters are mentioned which concern coolStep and stallGuard2. The
complete list of axis parameters in chapter 4 contains further parameters which offer more configuration
possibilities.
Velocity
Time
T214
coolStep™ area
I7
I7
area without coolStep™
coolStep™ adjustment points and thresholds
SG170
SG181
V182
I6
I183 I183
Current
V123 Velocity and parameter
I123 Current and parameter
T123 Time parameter
I7
I6
I183
I6/2*
* The lower threshold of the coolStep™ current can be adjusted up to I6/4. Refer to parameter 168.
The current depends on
the load of the motor.
SG123 stallGuard2™ parameter
Figure 4.1: coolStep adjustment points and thresholds
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 68
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Number
Axis parameter
Description
I6
absolute max. current (CS /
Current Scale)
The maximum value is 255. This value means 100% of the
maximum current of the module. The current adjustment is
within the range 0… 255 and can be adjusted in 32 steps (0…
255 divided by eight; e.g. step 0 = 0… 7, step 1 = 8… 15 and so
on).
The most important motor setting, since too high values might
cause motor damage!
I7
standby current
The current limit two seconds after the motor has stopped.
I168
smartEnergy current minimum
(SEIMIN)
Sets the lower motor current limit for coolStep™ operation by
scaling the CS (Current Scale, see axis parameter 6) value.
Minimum motor current:
0 1/2 of CS
1 1/4 of CS
I169
smartEnergy current down
step
Sets the number of stallGuard2™ readings above the upper
threshold necessary for each current decrement of the motor
current. Number of stallGuard2™ measurements per decrement:
Scaling: 0… 3: 32, 8, 2, 1
0: slow decrement
3: fast decrement
I171
smartEnergy current up step
Sets the current increment step. The current becomes
incremented for each measured stallGuard2 value below the
lower threshold (see smartEnergy hysteresis start).
current increment step size:
Scaling: 0… 3: 1, 2, 4, 8
0: slow increment
3: fast increment / fast reaction to rising load
I183
smartEnergy slow run current
Sets the motor current which is used below the threshold
speed. Please adjust the threshold speed with axis parameter
182.
SG170
smartEnergy hysteresis
Sets the distance between the lower and the upper threshold
for stallGuard2™ reading. Above the upper threshold the motor
current becomes decreased.
SG181
stop on stall
Below this speed motor will not be stopped. Above this speed
motor will stop in case stallGuard2™ load value reaches zero.
V182
smartEnergy threshold speed
Above this speed coolStep becomes enabled.
T214
power down delay
Standstill period before the current is changed down to standby
current. The standard value is 200 (value equates 2000msec).
For further information about the coolStep™ feature please refer to the TMC262 Datasheet.
Global garameters are gvouged Into 4 banks:
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 69
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5 Global parameters
Global parameters are grouped into 4 banks:
- bank 0 (global configuration of the module)
- bank 1 (user C variables)
- bank 2 (user TMCL variables)
- bank 3 (interrupt configuration)
Please use SGP and GGP commands to write and read global parameters.
5.1 Bank 0
Parameters with numbers from 64 on configure parameters like the serial address of the module RS485
baud rate. Change these parameters in order to meet your requirements. The best and easiest way to do
this is to use the appropriate functions of the TMCL-IDE. The parameters with numbers between 64 and
128 are stored in EEPROM only.
An SGP command on such a parameter will always store it permanently and no extra STGP
command is needed.
Take care when changing these parameters, and use the appropriate functions of the TMCL-IDE to
do it in an interactive way.
Meaning of the letters in column Access:
Access
type
Related
command(s)
Description
R
GGP
Parameter readable
W
SGP, AGP
Parameter writable
E
SGP, AGP
Parameter automatically restored from EEPROM after reset or power-on. These
parameters can be stored permanently in EEPROM using STGP command and
also explicitly restored (copied back from EEPROM into RAM) using RSGP.
The PD-1021 does not support parameters 0… 38. They are used for modules which address more than
one motor.
Number
Global parameter
Description
Range
Access
64
EEPROM magic
Setting this parameter to a different value as $E4
will cause re-initialization of the axis and global
parameters (to factory defaults) after the next
power up. This is useful in case of miss-
configuration.
0… 255
RWE
65
RS485 baud rate
0
9600 baud (default)
1
14400 baud
2
19200 baud
3
28800 baud
4
38400 baud
5
57600 baud
6
76800 baud
Not supported by Windows!
7
115200 baud
8
230400 baud
9
250000 baud
Not supported by Windows!
10
500000 baud
Not supported by Windows!
11
1000000 baud
Not supported by Windows!
0… 11
RWE
66
serial address
The module (target) address for RS485 (default: 1)
0… 255
RWE
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 70
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Number
Global parameter
Description
Range
Access
68
serial heartbeat
Serial heartbeat for the RS485 interface. If this time
limit is up and no further command is noticed the
motor will be stopped.
0 parameter is disabled
[ms]
RWE
73
configuration
EEPROM lock flag
Write: 1234 to lock the EEPROM, 4321 to unlock it.
Read: 1=EEPROM locked, 0=EEPROM unlocked.
0/1
RWE
75
telegram pause
time
Pause time before the reply is sent.
For RS485 it is often necessary to set it to 15 (for
RS485 adapters controlled by the RTS pin).
0… 255
RWE
76
serial host address
Host address used in the reply telegrams sent back
via RS485 (default: 2).
0255
RWE
77
auto start mode
0: do not start TMCL application after power up
(default).
1: start TMCL application automatically after power
up.
0/1
RWE
79
End switch polarity
0: normal polarity
1: reverse polarity
0/1
RWE
81
TMCL code
protection
Protect a TMCL program against disassembling or
overwriting.
0 no protection
1 protection against disassembling
2 protection against overwriting
3 protection against disassembling and
overwriting
If you switch off the protection against
disassembling, the program will be erased first!
0,1,2,3
RWE
84
coordinate storage
0 coordinates are stored in the RAM only (but
can be copied explicitly between RAM and EEPROM)
1 coordinates are always stored in the EEPROM
only
0 or 1
RWE
87
Serial secondary
address
Second module (target) address for RS485. The
reply on this command is suppressed.
0… 255
RWE
128
TMCL application
status
0 stop
1 run
2 step
3 reset
03
R
129
download mode
0 normal mode
1 download mode
0/1
R
130
TMCL program
counter
The index of the currently executed TMCL
instruction.
R
132
tick timer
A 32 bit counter that gets incremented by one
every millisecond. It can also be reset to any start
value.
RW
133
random number
Choose a random number.
0… 147483647
R
5.2 Bank 1
The global parameter bank 1 is normally not available. It may be used for customer specific extensions of
the firmware. Together with user definable commands (see section 7.3) these variables form the interface
between extensions of the firmware (written in C) and TMCL applications.
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 71
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5.3 Bank 2
Bank 2 contains general purpose 32 bit variables for the use in TMCL applications. They are located in
RAM and the first 56 variables can be stored permanently in EEPROM, also. After booting, their values are
automatically restored to the RAM. Up to 256 user variables are available.
Meaning of the letters in column Access:
Access
type
Related
command(s)
Description
R
GGP
Parameter readable
W
SGP, AGP
Parameter writable
E
STGP, RSGP
Parameter automatically restored from EEPROM after reset or power-on.
These parameters can be stored permanently in EEPROM using STGP
command and also explicitly restored (copied back from EEPROM into RAM)
using RSGP
Number
Global parameter
Description
Range
Access
0
general purpose variable #0
for use in TMCL applications
-231… +231
RWE
1
general purpose variable #1
for use in TMCL applications
-231… +231
RWE
2
general purpose variable #2
for use in TMCL applications
-231… +231
RWE
3
general purpose variable #3
for use in TMCL applications
-231… +231
RWE
4
general purpose variable #4
for use in TMCL applications
-231… +231
RWE
5
general purpose variable #5
for use in TMCL applications
-231… +231
RWE
6
general purpose variable #6
for use in TMCL applications
-231… +231
RWE
7
general purpose variable #7
for use in TMCL applications
-231… +231
RWE
8
general purpose variable #8
for use in TMCL applications
-231… +231
RWE
9
general purpose variable #9
for use in TMCL applications
-231… +231
RWE
10
general purpose variable #10
for use in TMCL applications
-231… +231
RWE
11
general purpose variable #11
for use in TMCL applications
-231… +231
RWE
12
general purpose variable #12
for use in TMCL applications
-231… +231
RWE
13
general purpose variable #13
for use in TMCL applications
-231… +231
RWE
14
general purpose variable #14
for use in TMCL applications
-231… +231
RWE
15
general purpose variable #15
for use in TMCL applications
-231+231
RWE
16
general purpose variable #16
for use in TMCL applications
-231… +231
RWE
17
general purpose variable #17
for use in TMCL applications
-231… +231
RWE
18
general purpose variable #18
for use in TMCL applications
-231… +231
RWE
19
general purpose variable #19
for use in TMCL applications
-231… +231
RWE
20… 55
general purpose variables #20…
#55
for use in TMCL applications
-231… +231
RWE
56… 255
general purpose variables #56…
#255
for use in TMCL applications
-231… +231
RW
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 72
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5.4 Bank 3
Bank 3 contains interrupt parameters. Some interrupts need configuration (e.g. the timer interval of a
timer interrupt). This can be done using the SGP commands with parameter bank 3 (SGP <type>, 3,
<value>). The parameter number defines the priority of an interrupt. Interrupts with a lower number
have a higher priority.
Meaning of the letters in column Access:
Access
type
Related
command(s)
Description
R
GGP
Parameter readable
W
SGP, AGP
Parameter writable
The following table shows all interrupt parameters that can be set.
Number
Global parameter
Description
Range
Acc.
0
Timer 0 period (ms)
Time between two interrupts (ms)
0… 4.294.967.295
[ms]
RW
1
Timer 1 period (ms)
Time between two interrupts (ms)
0… 4.294.967.295
[ms]
RW
2
Timer 2 period (ms)
Time between two interrupts (ms)
0… 4.294.967.295
[ms]
RW
27
Stop left 0 trigger transition
0=off, 1=low-high, 2=high-low,
3=both
0… 3
RW
28
Stop right 0 trigger
transition
0=off, 1=low-high, 2=high-low,
3=both
0… 3
RW
39
Input 0 trigger transition
0=off, 1=low-high, 2=high-low,
3=both
0… 3
RW
40
Input 1 trigger transition
0=off, 1=low-high, 2=high-low,
3=both
0… 3
RW
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6 Hints and Tips
This chapter gives some hints and tips on using the functionality of TMCL™, for example how to use and
parameterize the built-in reference point search algorithm or the incremental sensOstep™ encoder.
Further you will find basic information about stallGuard2™ and coolStep™.
6.1 Reference Search
The built-in reference search features switching point calibration and support of one or two reference
switches. The internal operation is based on a state machine that can be started, stopped and monitored
(instruction RFS, no. 13, chapter 3.5.13). The settings of the automatic stop functions corresponding to the
switches (axis parameters 12 and 13) have no influence on the reference search.
Please note:
- Until the reference switch is found for the first time, the searching speed is identical to the
maximum positioning speed (axis parameter 4), unless reduced by axis parameter 194.
- After hitting the reference switch, the motor slowly moves until the switch is released. Finally the
switch is re-entered in the other direction, setting the reference point to the center of the two
switching points. This low calibrating speed is a quarter of the maximum positioning speed by
default (axis parameter 195).
- The reference switch is connected in series with the left limit switch. The differentiation between
the left limit switch and the home switch is made through software. Switches with open contacts
(normally closed) are used.
Choose one of these values for axis parameter 193:
Value
Description
1
search left stop switch only
2
search right stop switch, then search
left stop switch
3
search right stop switch, then search
left stop switch from both sides
4
search left stop switch from both sides
5
search home switch in negative
direction, reverse the direction when
left stop switch reached
6
search home switch in positive
direction, reverse the direction when
right stop switch reached
7
search home switch in positive
direction, ignore end switches
8
search home switch in negative
direction, ignore end switches
Adding 128 to these values reverses the polarity of the home switch input.
The next two pages show all possible modes of reference search according to the specific
commands on top of each drawing.
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 74
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SAP 193, 0, 3
negative limit switch
positive limit switch
SAP 193, 0, 4
negative limit switch
Search right stop switch, then search left stop switch from both sides.
Search left stop switch from both sides.
SAP 193, 0, 1
negative limit switch
SAP 193, 0, 2
negative limit switch
positive limit switch
Search left stop switch only.
Search right stop switch, then search left stop switch.
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 75
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SAP 193, 0, 5
negative limit switch
positive limit switch
home switch
SAP 193, 0, 6
negative limit switch
positive limit switch
home switch
SAP 193, 0, 7
home switch
SAP 193, 0, 8
home switch
Search home switch in negative direction, reverse the direction when
left stop switch reached.
Search home switch in positive direction, reverse the direction when
right stop switch reached.
Search home switch in positive direction, ignore end switches.
Search home switch in negative direction, ignore end switches.
For the opevatlon thh encoder DLease (onsxder the foHowmq hmls: To select a Dvescaler the folLowmq values can be used for z Examgte
PD-1021 TMCL Firmware V1.29 Manual (Rev. 1.06 / 2014-APR-14) 76
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6.2 Changing the Prescaler Value of an Encoder
The built-in encoder has 1024 steps per rotation.
For the operation with encoder please consider the following hints:
- The encoder counter can be read by software and can be used to control the exact position of the
motor. This also makes closed loop operation possible.
- To read out or to change the position value of the encoder, axis parameter #209 is used.
- So, to read out the position of your encoder 0 use GAP 209, 0. The position values can also be
changed using command SAP 209, 0, <n>, with n = ± 0,1,2,…
- To change the encoder settings, axis <