coolStep‘“ stallGuardE A TRINAMIC MOTION CONTROL
MODULE FOR STEPPER MOTORS MODULE
TRINAMIC Motion Control GmbH & Co. KG
Hamburg, Germany
www.trinamic.com
Firmware Version V1.27
TMCL™ FIRMWARE MANUAL
+ + TMCM-1140
+ +
UNIQUE FEATURES:
1-Axis Stepper
Controller / Driver
2
A
/ 24
V
sensOstep™ Encoder
USB, RS485, and CAN
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 2
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Table of Contents
1 Features ........................................................................................................................................................................... 4
2 Putting the Module into Operation ........................................................................................................................ 6
2.1 Basic Set-Up .......................................................................................................................................................... 6
2.1.1 Start the TMCL-IDE Software Development Environment ................................................................. 8
2.2 Using TMCL Direct Mode .................................................................................................................................... 9
2.2.1 Important Motor Settings ......................................................................................................................... 10
2.3 Testing with a Simple TMCL Program ......................................................................................................... 11
3 TMCL and the TMCL-IDE: Introduction ................................................................................................................. 12
3.1 Binary Command Format ................................................................................................................................ 12
3.1.1 Checksum Calculation ................................................................................................................................ 13
3.2 Reply Format ....................................................................................................................................................... 13
3.2.1 Status Codes ................................................................................................................................................. 14
3.3 Standalone Applications .................................................................................................................................. 14
3.4 TMCL Command Overview .............................................................................................................................. 15
3.4.1 TMCL Commands ......................................................................................................................................... 15
3.4.2 Commands Listed According to Subject Area .................................................................................... 16
3.5 The ASCII Interface ........................................................................................................................................... 20
3.5.1 Format of the Command Line ................................................................................................................. 20
3.5.2 Format of a Reply ....................................................................................................................................... 20
3.5.3 Configuring the ASCII Interface ............................................................................................................. 21
3.6 Commands ........................................................................................................................................................... 22
3.6.1 ROR (rotate right) ....................................................................................................................................... 22
3.6.2 ROL (rotate left) ........................................................................................................................................... 23
3.6.3 MST (motor stop)......................................................................................................................................... 24
3.6.4 MVP (move to position) ............................................................................................................................ 25
3.6.5 SAP (set axis parameter) ........................................................................................................................... 27
3.6.6 GAP (get axis parameter) .......................................................................................................................... 28
3.6.7 STAP (store axis parameter) ..................................................................................................................... 29
3.6.8 RSAP (restore axis parameter) ................................................................................................................. 30
3.6.9 SGP (set global parameter) ...................................................................................................................... 31
3.6.10 GGP (get global parameter)...................................................................................................................... 32
3.6.11 STGP (store global parameter) ................................................................................................................ 33
3.6.12 RSGP (restore global parameter) ............................................................................................................ 34
3.6.13 RFS (reference search) ................................................................................................................................ 35
3.6.14 SIO (set input / output) ............................................................................................................................. 36
3.6.15 GIO (get input /output) ............................................................................................................................. 38
3.6.16 CALC (calculate) ............................................................................................................................................ 40
3.6.17 COMP (compare)........................................................................................................................................... 41
3.6.18 JC (jump conditional) ................................................................................................................................. 42
3.6.19 JA (jump always) ......................................................................................................................................... 43
3.6.20 CSUB (call subroutine) ............................................................................................................................... 44
3.6.21 RSUB (return from subroutine) ................................................................................................................ 45
3.6.22 WAIT (wait for an event to occur) ......................................................................................................... 46
3.6.23 STOP (stop TMCL program execution) ................................................................................................... 47
3.6.24 SCO (set coordinate) ................................................................................................................................... 48
3.6.25 GCO (get coordinate) .................................................................................................................................. 49
3.6.26 CCO (capture coordinate) .......................................................................................................................... 50
3.6.27 ACO (accu to coordinate) .......................................................................................................................... 51
3.6.28 CALCX (calculate using the X register) .................................................................................................. 52
3.6.29 AAP (accumulator to axis parameter) .................................................................................................... 53
3.6.30 AGP (accumulator to global parameter) ............................................................................................... 54
3.6.31 CLE (clear error flags) ................................................................................................................................. 55
3.6.32 VECT (set interrupt vector) ........................................................................................................................ 56
3.6.33 EI (enable interrupt) ................................................................................................................................... 57
3.6.34 DI (disable interrupt) .................................................................................................................................. 58
3.6.35 RETI (return from interrupt) ..................................................................................................................... 59
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3.6.36 Customer Specific TMCL Command Extension (UF0… UF7 / User Function) ............................... 60
3.6.37 Request Target Position Reached Event ............................................................................................... 60
3.6.38 TMCL Control Functions ............................................................................................................................. 61
4 Axis Parameters .......................................................................................................................................................... 63
4.1 stallGuard2 ........................................................................................................................................................... 70
4.2 coolStep Related Axis Parameters ................................................................................................................ 70
5 Global Parameters ...................................................................................................................................................... 72
5.1 Bank 0 ................................................................................................................................................................... 72
5.2 Bank 1 ................................................................................................................................................................... 74
5.3 Bank 2 ................................................................................................................................................................... 74
5.4 Bank 3 ................................................................................................................................................................... 75
6 Hints and Tips ............................................................................................................................................................. 76
6.1 Reference Search ............................................................................................................................................... 76
6.2 Changing the Prescaler Value of an Encoder ............................................................................................ 79
6.3 Using the RS485 Interface .............................................................................................................................. 80
7 TMCL Programming Techniques and Structure ................................................................................................. 81
7.1 Initialization ........................................................................................................................................................ 81
7.2 Main Loop ............................................................................................................................................................ 81
7.3 Using Symbolic Constants .............................................................................................................................. 81
7.4 Using Variables .................................................................................................................................................. 82
7.5 Using Subroutines ............................................................................................................................................. 82
7.6 Mixing Direct Mode and Standalone Mode ................................................................................................ 83
8 Life Support Policy ..................................................................................................................................................... 84
9 Revision History .......................................................................................................................................................... 85
9.1 Firmware Revision ............................................................................................................................................ 85
9.2 Document Revision ........................................................................................................................................... 85
10 References .................................................................................................................................................................... 86
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 4
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1 Features
The TMCM-1140 is a single axis controller/driver module for 2-phase bipolar stepper motors with state of
the art feature set. It is highly integrated, offers a convenient handling and can be used in many
decentralized applications. The module can be mounted on the back of NEMA 17 (42mm flange size)
stepper motors and has been designed for coil currents up to 2 A RMS and 24 V DC supply voltage. With its
high energy efficiency from TRINAMIC’s coolStep™ technology cost for power consumption is kept down. The
TMCL™ firmware allows for both, standalone operation and direct mode.
MAIN CHARACTERISTICS
Motion controller
- Motion profile calculation in real-time
- On the fly alteration of motor parameters (e.g. position, velocity, acceleration)
- High performance microcontroller for overall system control and serial communication protocol
handling
Bipolar stepper motor driver
- Up to 256 microsteps per full step
- High-efficient operation, low power dissipation
- Dynamic current control
- Integrated protection
- stallGuard2 feature for stall detection
- coolStep feature for reduced power consumption and heat dissipation
Encoder
- sensOstep magnetic encoder (1024 increments per rotation) e.g. for step-loss detection under all
operating conditions and positioning supervision
Interfaces
- RS485 2-wire communication interface
- CAN 2.0B communication interface
- USB full speed (12Mbit/s) device interface
- 4 multipurpose inputs:
- 3x general-purpose digital inputs
(Alternate functions: STOP_L / STOP_R / HOME switch inputs or A/B/N encoder input)
- 1x dedicated analog input
- 2 general purpose outputs
- 1x open-drain 1A max.
- 1x +5V supply output (can be switched on/off in software)
Software
- TMCL: standalone operation or remote controlled operation,
program memory (non volatile) for up to 2048 TMCL commands, and
PC-based application development software TMCL-IDE available for free.
Electrical and mechanical data
- Supply voltage: +24 V DC nominal (9… 28 V DC)
- Motor current: up to 2 A RMS / 2.8 A peak (programmable)
Refer to separate Hardware Manual, too.
WW
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 5
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TRINAMICS UNIQUE FEATURES EASY TO USE WITH TMCL
stallGuard2 stallGuard2 is a high-precision sensorless load measurement using the back EMF on the
coils. It can be used for stall detection as well as other uses at loads below those which
stall the motor. The stallGuard2 measurement value changes linearly over a wide range of
load, velocity, and current settings. At maximum motor load, the value goes to zero or
near to zero. This is the most energy-efficient point of operation for the motor.
Load
[Nm]
stallGuard2
Initial stallGuard2
(SG) value: 100%
Max. load
stallGuard2 (SG) value: 0
Maximum load reached.
Motor close to stall.
Motor stalls
Figure 1.1 stallGuard2 load measurement SG as a function of load
coolStep™ coolStep is a load-adaptive automatic current scaling based on the load measurement via
stallGuard2 adapting the required current to the load. Energy consumption can be reduced
by as much as 75%. coolStep allows substantial energy savings, especially for motors
which see varying loads or operate at a high duty cycle. Because a stepper motor
application needs to work with a torque reserve of 30% to 50%, even a constant-load
application allows significant energy savings because coolStep automatically enables
torque reserve when required. Reducing power consumption keeps the system cooler,
increases motor life, and allows reducing cost.
0
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
0,6
0,7
0,8
0,9
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Efficiency
Velocity [RPM]
Efficiency with coolStep
Efficiency with 50% torque reserve
Figure 1.2 Energy efficiency example with coolStep
The things you need: PRECAUTIONS
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 6
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2 Putting the Module into Operation
Here you can find basic information for putting your TMCM-1140 into operation. If you are already common
with TRINAMICs modules you may skip this chapter.
The things you need:
- TMCM-1140
- Interface (RS485/CAN/USB) suitable to your module with cables
- Nominal supply voltage +24V DC for your module
- TMCL-IDE program and PC
- Stepper motor
2.1 Basic Set-Up
The following paragraph will guide you through the steps of connecting the unit and making first
movements with the motor.
CONNECTING THE MODULE
In/Out
Interface
USB
Motor
1
Motor
1
USB
Serial USB
interface
Converter
e.g. USB-2-485
USB
RS485
CAN
Converter
e.g. USB-2-X
CAN
Pin 6 CAN_L
Pin 5 CAN_H
Pin 1 GND
RS485
Pin 4 RS485-
Pin 3 RS485+
Pin 1 GND
Power supply
Pin 2 9… 28V DC
Pin 1 GND
Note, that the
GND pin has to
be used for
power supply
and for the
interfaces also.
Figure 2.1: Starting up
PRECAUTIONS
Do not connect or disconnect the TMCM-1140 while powered!
Do not connect or disconnect the motor while powered!
Do not exceed the maximum power supply voltage of 28 V DC!
Note, that the module is not protected against reverse polarity!
START WITH POWER SUPPLY OFF!
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TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 7
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1. Connect power supply and choose your interface
a) Connect CAN or RS485 and power supply
CAN interface will be de-activated in case USB is connected due to internal sharing of hardware
resources.
Pin Label Description
1
System and signal ground
2
VDD (+9V…+28V)
3
RS485 interface, diff. signal (non-inverting)
4
RS485 interface, diff. signal (inverting)
5 CAN_H CAN interface, diff. signal (non-inverting)
6
CAN interface, diff. signal (inverting)
b) Connect USB interface (as alternative to CAN and RS485; use a normal USB cable)
Download and install the file TMCM-1140.inf (www.trinamic.com).
Pin Label Description
1 VBUS +5V power
2
Data
3
Data +
4
ground
5
ground
2. Connect In/Out connector
If you like to work with the GPIOs or switches, use the In/Out connector.
Pin Label Description
1
System and signal ground
2
VDD, connected to VDD pin of the power and communication connector
3 OUT_1
Open-drain output (max. 1A)
Integrated freewheeling diode to VDD
4 OUT_0
+5V supply output (max. 100mA)
Can be switched on/off in software
5 AIN_0
Dedicated analog input,
Input voltage range: 0..+10V
Resolution: 12bit (0..4095)
6
IN_0,
STOP_L,
ENC_A
General purpose digital input (+24V compatible)
Alternate function 1: left stop switch input
Alternate function 2: external incremental encoder channel A input
7
IN_1,
STOP_R,
ENC_B
General purpose digital input (+24V compatible)
Alternate function 1: right stop switch input
Alternate function 2: external incremental encoder channel B input
8
IN_2,
HOME,
ENC_N
General purpose digital input (+24V compatible)
Alternate function 1: home switch input
Alternate function 2: external incremental encoder index / zero channel input
3. Connect the motor
Pin Label Description
1
Pin 2 of motor coil B
2 OB1 Pin 1 of motor coil B
3
Pin 2 of motor coil A
4
Pin 1 of motor coil A
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TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 8
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4. Switch ON the power supply
Turn power ON. The green LED for power lights up and the motor is powered but in standstill
now.
If this does not occur, switch power OFF and check your connections as well as the power
supply.
2.1.1 Start the TMCL-IDE Software Development Environment
The TMCL-IDE is available on www.trinamic.com.
Installing the TMCL-IDE:
Make sure the COM port you intend to use is not blocked by another program.
Open TMCL-IDE by clicking TMCL.exe.
Choose Setup and Options and thereafter the Connection tab.
Choose COM port and type with the parameters shown in Figure 2.2 (baud rate 9600). Click OK.
USB interface
If the file TMCM-1140.inf is installed correctly, the module will be identified automatically.
Figure 2.2 Setup dialogue and connection tab of the TMCL-IDE.
Please refer to the TMCL-IDE User Manual for more information (see www.TRINAMIC.com).
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2.2 Using TMCL Direct Mode
1. Start TMCL Direct Mode.
Direct Mode
2. If the communication is established the TMCM-1140 is automatically detected. If the module is not
detected, please check all points above (cables, interface, power supply, COM port, baud rate).
3. Issue a command by choosing Instruction, Type (if necessary), Motor, and Value and click
Execute to send it to the module.
Examples:
- ROR rotate right, motor 0, value 500 -> Click Execute. The motor is rotating now.
- MST motor stop, motor 0 -> Click Execute. The motor stops now.
Top right of the TMCL Direct Mode window is the button Copy to editor. Click here to copy the chosen
command and create your own TMCL program. The command will be shown immediately on the editor.
Note:
Chapter 4 of this manual (axis parameters) includes a diagram which points out the coolStep related axis
parameters and their functions.
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2.2.1 Important Motor Settings
There are some axis parameters which have to be adjusted right in the beginning after installing your
module. Please set the upper limiting values for the speed (axis parameter 4), the acceleration (axis
parameter 5), and the current (axis parameter 6). Further set the standby current (axis parameter 7) and
choose your microstep resolution with axis parameter 140. Please use the SAP (Set Axis Parameter)
command for adjusting these values. The SAP command is described in paragraph 3.6.5. You can use the
TMCL-IDE direct mode for easily configuring your module.
IMPORTANT AXIS PARAMETERS FOR MOTOR SETTING
Number
Axis Parameter
Description
Range [Unit]
4 Maximum
positioning
speed
Should not exceed the physically highest possible
value. Adjust the pulse divisor (axis parameter
154), if
the speed value is very low
(<50) or above the upper
limit.
0… 2047
16MHz
65536 2
𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝_𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑝𝑝𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 steps
sec
5
Maximum
acceleration
The limit for acceleration (and deceleration). Changing
this parameter requires re-
calculation of the
acceleration factor (no. 146) and the acceleration
divisor (no. 137), which is done automatically. See
TMC 429 datasheet for calculation of physical units.
0… 2047*1
6
Absolute max.
current
(CS / Current
Scale)
The maximum value is 255. This value means 100% of
the maximum current of the module. The current
adjustment is within the range 0… 255 and can be
adjusted in 32 steps.
The most important motor setting, since too high
values might cause motor damage!
0… 7
79…87
160… 167
240… 247
8… 15
88… 95
168… 175
248… 255
16… 23
96… 103
176… 183
24… 31
104… 111
184… 191
32… 39
112… 119
192… 199
40… 47
120… 127
200… 207
48… 55 128… 135 208… 215
56… 63
136… 143
216… 223
64… 71
144… 151
224… 231
72… 79
152… 159
232… 239
0… 255
𝐼𝐼𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 =< 𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣
2.8𝐴𝐴
255
𝐼𝐼𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅 =< 𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣 2𝐴𝐴
255
7 Standby current
The current limit two seconds after the motor has
stopped.
0… 255
𝐼𝐼𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 =< 𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣
2.8𝐴𝐴
255
𝐼𝐼𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅 =< 𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣 >× 2𝐴𝐴
255
140 Microstep
resolution
0 full step
1
half step
2
4 microsteps
3
8 microsteps
4
16 microsteps
5 32 microsteps
6
64 microsteps
7
128 microsteps
8
256 microsteps
0… 8
*1 Unit of acceleration: 𝑅𝑅𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀
𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝_𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑝𝑝𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑝𝑝_𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑝𝑝𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 

Attention:
The most important motor setting is the absolute maximum motor current setting, since too high values
might cause motor damage!
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2.3 Testing with a Simple TMCL Program
Type in the following program:
Assemble
Download Run
Stop
1. Click the Assemble icon to convert the TMCL program into binary code.
2. Then download the program to the TMCM-1140 module by clicking the Download icon.
3. Click the Run icon. The desired program will be executed.
4. Click the Stop button to stop the program.
ROL 0, 500 //Rotate motor 0 with speed 10000
WAIT TICKS, 0, 500
MST 0
ROR 0, 500 //Rotate motor 0 with 50000
WAIT TICKS, 0, 500
MST 0
SAP 4, 0, 500 //Set max. Velocity
SAP 5, 0, 50 //Set max. Acceleration
Loop: MVP ABS, 0, 10000 //Move to Position 10000
WAIT POS, 0, 0 //Wait until position reached
MVP ABS, 0, -10000 //Move to Position -10000
WAIT POS, 0, 0 //Wait until position reached
JA Loop //Infinite Loop
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3 TMCL and the TMCL-IDE: Introduction
As with most TRINAMIC modules the software running on the microprocessor of the TMCM-1140 consists
of two parts, a boot loader and the firmware itself. Whereas the boot loader is installed during production
and testing at TRINAMIC and remains untouched throughout the whole lifetime, the firmware can be
updated by the user. New versions can be downloaded free of charge from the TRINAMIC website
(http://www.trinamic.com).
The TMCM-1140 supports TMCL direct mode (binary commands) and standalone TMCL program execution.
You can store up to 2048 TMCL instructions on it. In direct mode and most cases the TMCL communication
over RS485, CAN, or USB follows a strict master/slave relationship. That is, a host computer (e.g. PC/PLC)
acting as the interface bus master will send a command to the TMCM-1140. The TMCL interpreter on the
module will then interpret this command, do the initialization of the motion controller, read inputs and
write outputs or whatever is necessary according to the specified command. As soon as this step has been
done, the module will send a reply back over RS485/CAN/USB to the bus master. Only then should the
master transfer the next command. Normally, the module will just switch to transmission and occupy the
bus for a reply, otherwise it will stay in receive mode. It will not send any data over the interface without
receiving a command first. This way, any collision on the bus will be avoided when there are more than
two nodes connected to a single bus.
The Trinamic Motion Control Language [TMCL] provides a set of structured motion control commands.
Every motion control command can be given by a host computer or can be stored in an EEPROM on the
TMCM module to form programs that run standalone on the module. For this purpose there are not only
motion control commands but also commands to control the program structure (like conditional jumps,
compare and calculating).
Every command has a binary representation and a mnemonic. The binary format is used to send
commands from the host to a module in direct mode, whereas the mnemonic format is used for easy
usage of the commands when developing standalone TMCL applications using the TMCL-IDE (IDE means
Integrated Development Environment).
There is also a set of configuration variables for the axis and for global parameters which allow individual
configuration of nearly every function of a module. This manual gives a detailed description of all TMCL
commands and their usage.
3.1 Binary Command Format
Every command has a mnemonic and a binary representation. When commands are sent from a host to a
module, the binary format has to be used. Every command consists of a one-byte command field, a one-
byte type field, a one-byte motor/bank field and a four-byte value field. So the binary representation of a
command always has seven bytes. When a command is to be sent via RS485 or USB interface, it has to be
enclosed by an address byte at the beginning and a checksum byte at the end. In this case it consists of
nine bytes.
This is different when communicating is via the CAN bus. Address and checksum are included in the CAN
standard and do not have to be supplied by the user.
The binary command format for R485/USB is as follows:
Bytes Meaning
1
Module address
1
Command number
1
Type number
1 Motor or Bank number
4
Value (MSB first!)
1
Checksum
- The checksum is calculated by adding up all the other bytes using an 8-bit addition.
- When using CAN bus, just leave out the first byte (module address) and the last byte (checksum).
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3.1.1 Checksum Calculation
As mentioned above, the checksum is calculated by adding up all bytes (including the module address
byte) using 8-bit addition. Here are two examples to show how to do this:
- in C:
unsigned char i, Checksum;
unsigned char Command[9];
//Set the “Command” array to the desired command
Checksum = Command[0];
for(i=1; i<8; i++)
Checksum+=Command[i];
Command[8]=Checksum; //insert checksum as last byte of the command
//Now, send it to the module
- in Delphi:
var
i, Checksum: byte;
Command: array[0..8] of byte;
//Set the “Command” array to the desired command
//Calculate the Checksum:
Checksum:=Command[0];
for i:=1 to 7 do Checksum:=Checksum+Command[i];
Command[8]:=Checksum;
//Now, send the “Command” array (9 bytes) to the module
3.2 Reply Format
Every time a command has been sent to a module, the module sends a reply.
The reply format for RS485/ /USB is as follows:
Bytes Meaning
1 Reply address
1
Module address
1
Status (e.g. 100 means no error)
1
Command number
4 Value (MSB first!)
1 Checksum
- The checksum is also calculated by adding up all the other bytes using an 8-bit addition.
- When using CAN bus, just leave out the first byte (module address) and the last byte (checksum).
- Do not send the next command before you have received the reply!
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3.2.1 Status Codes
The reply contains a status code. The status code can have one of the following values:
Code Meaning
100 Successfully executed, no error
101 Command loaded into TMCL
program EEPROM
1
Wrong checksum
2
Invalid command
3
Wrong type
4
Invalid value
5 Configuration EEPROM locked
6 Command not available
3.3 Standalone Applications
The module is equipped with a TMCL memory for storing TMCL applications. You can use TMCL-IDE for
developing standalone TMCL applications. You can download a program into the EEPROM and afterwards it
will run on the module. The TMCL-IDE contains an editor and the TMCL assembler where the commands
can be entered using their mnemonic format. They will be assembled automatically into their binary
representations. Afterwards this code can be downloaded into the module to be executed there.
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3.4 TMCL Command Overview
In this section a short overview of the TMCL commands is given.
3.4.1 TMCL Commands
Command Number Parameter Description
ROR
1
<motor number>, <velocity>
Rotate right with specified velocity
ROL
2
<motor number>, <velocity>
Rotate left with specified velocity
MST
3
<motor number>
Stop motor movement
MVP
4
ABS|REL|COORD, <motor number>,
<position|offset>
Move to position (absolute or relative)
SAP
5
<parameter>, <motor number>, <value>
Set axis parameter (motion control
specific settings)
GAP
6
<parameter>, <motor number>
Get axis parameter (read out motion
control specific settings)
STAP
7
<parameter>, <motor number>
Store axis parameter permanently (non
volatile)
RSAP
8
<parameter>, <motor number>
Restore axis parameter
SGP
9
<parameter>, <bank number>, value
Set global parameter (module specific
settings e.g. communication settings
or TMCL™ user variables)
GGP 10 <parameter>, <bank number> Get global parameter (read out module
specific settings e.g. communication
settings or TMCL™ user variables)
STGP
11
<parameter>, <bank number>
Store global parameter (TMCL™ user
variables only)
RSGP
12
<parameter>, <bank number>
Restore global parameter (TMCL™ user
variable only)
RFS
13
START|STOP|STATUS, <motor number>
Reference search
SIO
14
<port number>, <bank number>, <value>
Set digital output to specified value
GIO 15 <port number>, <bank number> Get value of analogue/digital input
CALC
19
<operation>, <value>
Process accumulator & value
COMP
20
<value>
Compare accumulator <-> value
JC
21
<condition>, <jump address>
Jump conditional
JA
22
<jump address>
Jump absolute
CSUB 23 <subroutine address> Call subroutine
RSUB
24
Return from subroutine
EI
25
<interrupt number>
Enable interrupt
DI
26
<interrupt number>
Disable interrupt
WAIT
27
<condition>, <motor number>, <ticks>
Wait with further program execution
STOP 28 Stop program execution
SCO 30 <coordinate number>, <motor number>,
<position>
Set coordinate
GCO 31 <coordinate number>, <motor number> Get coordinate
CCO
32
<coordinate number>, <motor number>
Capture coordinate
CALCX
33
<operation>
Process accumulator & X-register
AAP
34
<parameter>, <motor number>
Accumulator to axis parameter
AGP 35 <parameter>, <bank number> Accumulator to global parameter
VECT 37 <interrupt number>, <label> Set interrupt vector
RETI
38
Return from interrupt
ACO
39
<coordinate number>, <motor number>
Accu to coordinate
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3.4.2 Commands Listed According to Subject Area
3.4.2.1 Motion Commands
These commands control the motion of the motor. They are the most important commands and can be
used in direct mode or in standalone mode.
Mnemonic
Command number
Meaning
ROL
2
Rotate left
ROR 1 Rotate right
MVP
4
Move to position
MST
3
Motor stop
RFS
13
Reference search
SCO
30
Store coordinate
CCO 32 Capture coordinate
GCO
31
Get coordinate
3.4.2.2 Parameter Commands
These commands are used to set, read and store axis parameters or global parameters. Axis parameters
can be set independently for each axis, whereas global parameters control the behavior of the module
itself. These commands can also be used in direct mode and in standalone mode.
3.4.2.3 Control Commands
These commands are used to control the program flow (loops, conditions, jumps etc.). It does not make
sense to use them in direct mode. They are intended for standalone mode only.
Mnemonic
Command number
Meaning
JA 22 Jump always
JC 21 Jump conditional
COMP
20
Compare accumulator with constant value
CSUB
23
Call subroutine
RSUB
24
Return from subroutine
WAIT 27 Wait for a specified event
STOP
28
End of a TMCL™ program
3.4.2.4 I/O Port Commands
These commands control the external I/O ports and can be used in direct mode and in standalone mode.
Mnemonic
Command number
Meaning
SIO
14
Set output
GIO 15 Get input
Mnemonic
Command number
Meaning
SAP
5
Set axis parameter
GAP
6
Get axis parameter
STAP
7
Store axis parameter into EEPROM
RSAP 8 Restore axis parameter from EEPROM
SGP 9 Set global parameter
GGP
10
Get global parameter
STGP
11
Store global parameter into EEPROM
RSGP
12
Restore global parameter from EEPROM
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3.4.2.5 Calculation Commands
These commands are intended to be used for calculations within TMCL applications. Although they could
also be used in direct mode it does not make much sense to do so.
Mnemonic
Command number
Meaning
CALC 19 Calculate using the accumulator and a constant value
CALCX
33
Calculate using the accumulator and the X register
AAP
34
Copy accumulator to an axis parameter
AGP
35
Copy accumulator to a global parameter
ACO
39
Copy accu to coordinate
For calculating purposes there is an accumulator (or accu or A register) and an X register. When executed
in a TMCL program (in standalone mode), all TMCL commands that read a value store the result in the
accumulator. The X register can be used as an additional memory when doing calculations. It can be
loaded from the accumulator.
When a command that reads a value is executed in direct mode the accumulator will not be affected. This
means that while a TMCL program is running on the module (standalone mode), a host can still send
commands like GAP and GGP to the module (e.g. to query the actual position of the motor) without
affecting the flow of the TMCL™ program running on the module.
3.4.2.6 Interrupt Commands
Due to some customer requests, interrupt processing has been introduced in the TMCL firmware for ARM
based modules.
Mnemonic Command number Meaning
EI
25
Enable interrupt
DI
26
Disable interrupt
VECT
37
Set interrupt vector
RETI
38
Return from interrupt
3.4.2.6.1 Interrupt Types
There are many different interrupts in TMCL, like timer interrupts, stop switch interrupts, position reached
interrupts, and input pin change interrupts. Each of these interrupts has its own interrupt vector. Each
interrupt vector is identified by its interrupt number. Please use the TMCL included file Interrupts.inc for
symbolic constants of the interrupt numbers.
3.4.2.6.2 Interrupt Processing
When an interrupt occurs and this interrupt is enabled and a valid interrupt vector has been defined for
that interrupt, the normal TMCL program flow will be interrupted and the interrupt handling routine will
be called. Before an interrupt handling routine gets called, the context of the normal program will be
saved automatically (i.e. accumulator register, X register, TMCL flags).
There is no interrupt nesting, i.e. all other interrupts are disabled while an interrupt handling routine is
being executed.
On return from an interrupt handling routine, the context of the normal program will automatically be
restored and the execution of the normal program will be continued.
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3.4.2.6.3 Interrupt Vectors
The following table shows all interrupt vectors that can be used.
Interrupt number
Interrupt type
0
Timer 0
1
Timer 1
2 Timer 2
3
(Target) position reached
15
Stall (stallGuard2)
21
Deviation
27 Stop left
28 Stop right
39
IN_0 change
40
IN_1 change
41
IN_2 change
42
IN_3 change
255 Global interrupts
3.4.2.6.4 Further Configuration of Interrupts
Some interrupts need further configuration (e.g. the timer interval of a timer interrupt). This can be done
using SGP commands with parameter bank 3 (SGP <type>, 3, <value>). Please refer to the SGP command
(paragraph 3.6.9) for further information about that.
3.4.2.6.5 Using Interrupts in TMCL
For using an interrupt proceed as follows:
- Define an interrupt handling routine using the VECT command.
- If necessary, configure the interrupt using an SGP <type>, 3, <value> command.
- Enable the interrupt using an EI <interrupt> command.
- Globally enable interrupts using an EI 255 command.
- An interrupt handling routine must always end with a RETI command
EXAMPLE FOR THE USE OF A TIMER INTERRUPT:
VECT 0, Timer0Irq //define the interrupt vector
SGP 0, 3, 1000 //configure the interrupt: set its period to 1000ms
EI 0 //enable this interrupt
EI 255 //globally switch on interrupt processing
//Main program: toggles output 3, using a WAIT command for the delay
Loop:
SIO 3, 2, 1
WAIT TICKS, 0, 50
SIO 3, 2, 0
WAIT TICKS, 0, 50
JA Loop
//Here is the interrupt handling routine
Timer0Irq:
GIO 0, 2 //check if OUT0 is high
JC NZ, Out0Off //jump if not
SIO 0, 2, 1 //switch OUT0 high
RETI //end of interrupt
Out0Off:
SIO 0, 2, 0 //switch OUT0 low
RETI //end of interrupt
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In the example above, the interrupt numbers are used directly. To make the program better readable use
the provided include file Interrupts.inc. This file defines symbolic constants for all interrupt numbers which
can be used in all interrupt commands. The beginning of the program above then looks like the following:
#include Interrupts.inc
VECT TI_TIMER0, Timer0Irq
SGP TI_TIMER0, 3, 1000
EI TI_TIMER0
EI TI_GLOBAL
Please also take a look at the other example programs.
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3.5 The ASCII Interface
There is also an ASCII interface that can be used to communicate with the module and to send some
commands as text strings.
THE FOLLOWING COMMANDS CAN BE USED IN ASCII MODE:
ROL, ROR, MST, MVP, SAP, GAP, STAP, RSAP, SGP, GGP, STGP, RSGP, RFS, SIO, GIO, SCO, GCO, CCO, UF0, UF1,
UF2, UF3, UF4, UF5, UF6, and UF7.
Note:
Only direct mode commands can be entered in ASCII mode!
SPECIAL COMMANDS WHICH ARE ONLY AVAILABLE IN ASCII MODE:
- BIN: This command quits ASCII mode and returns to binary TMCL™ mode.
- RUN: This command can be used to start a TMCL™ program in memory.
- STOP: Stops a running TMCL™ application.
ENTERING AND LEAVING ASCII MODE:
1. The ASCII command line interface is entered by sending the binary command 139 (enter ASCII mode).
2. Afterwards the commands are entered as in the TMCL-IDE.
3. For leaving the ASCII mode and re-enter the binary mode enter the command BIN.
3.5.1 Format of the Command Line
As the first character, the address character has to be sent. The address character is A when the module
address is 1, B for modules with address 2 and so on. After the address character there may be spaces
(but this is not necessary). Then, send the command with its parameters. At the end of a command line a
<CR> character has to be sent.
EXAMPLES FOR VALID COMMAND LINES:
AMVP ABS, 1, 50000
A MVP ABS, 1, 50000
AROL 2, 500
A MST 1
ABIN
The command lines above address the module with address 1. To address e.g. module 3, use address
character C instead of A. The last command line shown above will make the module return to binary
mode.
3.5.2 Format of a Reply
After executing the command the module sends back a reply in ASCII format.
The reply consists of:
- the address character of the host (host address that can be set in the module)
- the address character of the module
- the status code as a decimal number
- the return value of the command as a decimal number
- a <CR> character
So, after sending AGAP 0, 1 the reply would be BA 100 5000 if the actual position of axis 1 is 5000, the
host address is set to 2 and the module address is 1. The value 100 is the status code 100 that means
command successfully executed.
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3.5.3 Configuring the ASCII Interface
The module can be configured so that it starts up either in binary mode or in ASCII mode. Global
parameter 67 is used for this purpose (please see also chapter 5.1).
Bit 0 determines the startup mode: if this bit is set, the module starts up in ASCII mode, else it will start
up in binary mode (default).
Bit 4 and Bit 5 determine how the characters that are entered are echoed back. Normally, both bits are set
to zero. In this case every character that is entered is echoed back when the module is addressed.
Character can also be erased using the backspace character (press the backspace key in a terminal
program).
When bit 4 is set and bit 5 is clear the characters that are entered are not echoed back immediately but
the entire line will be echoed back after the <CR> character has been sent.
When bit 5 is set and bit 4 is clear there will be no echo, only the reply will be sent. This may be useful in
RS485 systems.
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3.6 Commands
The module specific commands are explained in more detail on the following pages. They are listed
according to their command number.
3.6.1 ROR (rotate right)
With this command the motor will be instructed to rotate with a specified velocity in right direction
(increasing the position counter).
Internal function: First, velocity mode is selected. Then, the velocity value is transferred to axis parameter
#0 (target velocity).
The module is based on the TMC429 stepper motor controller and the TMC262 power driver. This makes
possible choosing a velocity between 0 and 2047.
Related commands: ROL, MST, SAP, GAP
Mnemonic: ROR 0, <velocity>
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
1 (don't care) 0* <velocity>
0… 2047
*motor number is always O as only one motor is involved
Reply in direct mode:
STATUS VALUE
100 OK (don't care)
Example:
Rotate right, velocity = 350
Mnemonic: ROR 0, 350
Binary:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex) $01 $01 $00 $00 $00 $00 $01 $5e
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3.6.2 ROL (rotate left)
With this command the motor will be instructed to rotate with a specified velocity (opposite direction
compared to ROR, decreasing the position counter).
Internal function: First, velocity mode is selected. Then, the velocity value is transferred to axis parameter
#0 (target velocity).
The module is based on the TMC429 stepper motor controller and the TMC262 power driver. This makes
possible choosing a velocity between 0 and 2047.
Related commands: ROR, MST, SAP, GAP
Mnemonic: ROL 0, <velocity>
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO. TYPE MOT/BANK VALUE
2 (don't care) 0
*
<velocity>
0… 2047
*motor number is always O as only one motor is involved
Reply in direct mode:
STATUS
VALUE
100 OK (don't care)
Example:
Rotate left, velocity = 1200
Mnemonic: ROL 0, 1200
Binary:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex)
$01 $02 $00 $00 $00 $00 $04 $b0
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3.6.3 MST (motor stop)
With this command the motor will be instructed to stop with a soft stop.
Internal function: The axis parameter target velocity is set to zero.
Related commands: ROL, ROR, SAP, GAP
Mnemonic: MST 0
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
3
(don't care)
0*
(don't care)
*motor number is always O as only one motor is involved
Reply in direct mode:
STATUS
VALUE
100 OK
(don't care)
Example:
Stop motor
Mnemonic: MST 0
Binary:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex)
$01
$03
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
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3.6.4 MVP (move to position)
With this command the motor will be instructed to move to a specified relative or absolute position. It
will use the acceleration/deceleration ramp and the positioning speed programmed into the unit. This
command is non-blocking that is, a reply will be sent immediately after command interpretation and
initialization of the motion controller. Further commands may follow without waiting for the motor
reaching its end position. The maximum velocity and acceleration are defined by axis parameters #4 and
#5.
The range of the MVP command is 32 bit signed (−2.147.483.648… +2.147.483.647). Positioning can be
interrupted using MST, ROL or ROR commands.
THREE OPERATION TYPES ARE AVAILABLE:
- Moving to an absolute position in the range from −2.147.483.648… +2.147.483.647 (-231… 231-1).
- Starting a relative movement by means of an offset to the actual position. In this case, the new
resulting position value must not exceed the above mentioned limits, too.
- Moving the motor to a (previously stored) coordinate (refer to SCO for details).
Please note, that the distance between the actual position and the new one should not be more than
2.147.483.647 (231-1) microsteps. Otherwise the motor will run in the opposite direction in order to take the
shorter distance.
Internal function: A new position value is transferred to the axis parameter #2 target position”.
Related commands: SAP, GAP, SCO, CCO, GCO, MST
Mnemonic: MVP <ABS|REL|COORD>, 0, <position|offset|coordinate number>
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO. TYPE MOT/BANK VALUE
4
0 ABS absolute
0*
<position>
1 REL relative
0
<offset>
2 COORD coordinate
0
<coordinate number>
(0… 20)
*motor number is always O as only one motor is involved
Reply in direct mode:
STATUS
VALUE
100 OK (don't care)
Example:
Move motor to (absolute) position 90000
Mnemonic: MVP ABS, 0, 9000
Binary:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function Target-
address
Instruction
Number Type Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex)
$01
$04
$00
$00
$00
$01
$5f
$90
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Example:
Move motor from current position 1000 steps backward (move relative 1000)
Mnemonic: MVP REL, 0, -1000
Binary:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function
Target-
address
Instructio
n
Number
Type Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex) $01 $04 $01 $00 $ff $ff $fc $18
Example:
Move motor to previously stored coordinate #8
Mnemonic: MVP COORD, 0, 8
Binary:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number Type Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex) $01 $04 $02 $00 $00 $00 $00 $08
When moving to a coordinate, the coordinate has to be set properly in advance with the help of the
SCO, CCO or ACO command.
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3.6.5 SAP (set axis parameter)
With this command most of the motion control parameters of the module can be specified. The settings
will be stored in SRAM and therefore are volatile. That is, information will be lost after power off.
Please use command STAP (store axis parameter) in order to store any setting permanently.
For a table with parameters and values which can be used together with this command please refer to
chapter 4.
Internal function: The parameter format is converted ignoring leading zeros (or ones for negative values).
The parameter is transferred to the correct position in the appropriate device.
Related commands: GAP, STAP, RSAP, AAP
Mnemonic: SAP <parameter number>, 0, <value>
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
5
<parameter number>
0*
<value>
*motor number is always O as only one motor is involved
Reply in direct mode:
STATUS VALUE
100 OK (don't care)
Example:
Set the absolute maximum current of motor to 200mA
Mnemonic: SAP 6, 0, 200
Binary:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex)
$01
$05
$06
$00
$00
$00
$00
$c8
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3.6.6 GAP (get axis parameter)
Most parameters of the TMCM-1140 can be adjusted individually for the axis. With this parameter they can
be read out. In standalone mode the requested value is also transferred to the accumulator register for
further processing purposes (such as conditioned jumps). In direct mode the value read is only output in
the value field of the reply (without affecting the accumulator).
For a table with parameters and values which can be used together with this command please refer to
chapter 4.
Internal function: The parameter is read out of the correct position in the appropriate device. The
parameter format is converted adding leading zeros (or ones for negative values).
Related commands: SAP, STAP, AAP, RSAP
Mnemonic: GAP <parameter number>, 0
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
6
<parameter number>
0*
(don't care)
*motor number is always O as only one motor is involved
Reply in direct mode:
STATUS
VALUE
100 OK
(don't care)
Example:
Get the actual position of motor
Mnemonic: GAP 0, 1
Binary:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function
Target-
address
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex)
$01
$01
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
Reply:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function
Host-
address
Target-
address
Status Instructio
n
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex) $02 $01 $64 $06 $00 $00 $02 $c7
status=no error, position=711
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3.6.7 STAP (store axis parameter)
An axis parameter previously set with a Set Axis Parameter command (SAP) will be stored permanent. Most
parameters are automatically restored after power up (refer to axis parameter list in chapter 4).
For a table with parameters and values which can be used together with this command please refer to
chapter 4.
Internal function: An axis parameter value stored in SRAM will be transferred to EEPROM and loaded from
EEPORM after next power up.
Related commands: SAP, RSAP, GAP, AAP
Mnemonic: STAP <parameter number>, 0
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO. TYPE MOT/BANK VALUE
7 <parameter number> 0
*
1 (don't care)*2
*1motor number is always O as only one motor is involved
*2the value operand of this function has no effect. Instead, the currently used value (e.g. selected by SAP) is saved.
Reply in direct mode:
STATUS
VALUE
100 OK
(don't care)
Parameter ranges:
Parameter number
Motor number
Value
s. chapter 4
0
s. chapter 4
Example:
Store the maximum speed of motor
Mnemonic: STAP 4, 0
Binary:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function
Target-
address
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex)
$01
$04
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
Note:
The STAP command will not have any effect when the configuration EEPROM is locked (refer to 5.1). In
direct mode, the error code 5 (configuration EEPROM locked, see also section 3.2.1) will be returned in this
case.
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3.6.8 RSAP (restore axis parameter)
For all configuration-related axis parameters non-volatile memory locations are provided. By default, most
parameters are automatically restored after power up (refer to axis parameter list in chapter 4). A single
parameter that has been changed before can be reset by this instruction also.
For a table with parameters and values which can be used together with this command please refer to
chapter 4.
Internal function: The specified parameter is copied from the configuration EEPROM memory to its RAM
location.
Relate commands: SAP, STAP, GAP, and AAP
Mnemonic: RSAP <parameter number>, 0
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
8
<parameter number>
0*
(don't care)
*motor number is always O as only one motor is involved
Reply structure in direct mode:
STATUS VALUE
100 OK (don't care)
Example:
Restore the maximum current of motor
Mnemonic: RSAP 6, 0
Binary:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex) $01 $08 $06 $00 $00 $00 $00 $00
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3.6.9 SGP (set global parameter)
With this command most of the module specific parameters not directly related to motion control can be
specified and the TMCL user variables can be changed. Global parameters are related to the host interface,
peripherals or application specific variables. The different groups of these parameters are organized in
banks to allow a larger total number for future products. Currently, only bank 0 and 1 are used for global
parameters, and bank 2 is used for user variables. Bank 3 is used for interrupt configuration.
All module settings will automatically be stored non-volatile (internal EEPROM of the processor). The
TMCL user variables will not be stored in the EEPROM automatically, but this can be done by using
STGP commands.
For a table with parameters and bank numbers which can be used together with this command please
refer to chapter 5.
Internal function: the parameter format is converted ignoring leading zeros (or ones for negative values).
The parameter is transferred to the correct position in the appropriate (on board) device.
Related commands: GGP, STGP, RSGP, AGP
Mnemonic: SGP <parameter number>, <bank number>, <value>
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO. TYPE MOT/BANK VALUE
9 <parameter number> <bank number> <value>
Reply in direct mode:
STATUS VALUE
100 OK (don't care)
Example:
Set the serial address of the target device to 3
Mnemonic: SGP 66, 0, 3
Binary:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex) $01 $09 $42 $00 $00 $00 $00 $03
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 32
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3.6.10 GGP (get global parameter)
All global parameters can be read with this function. Global parameters are related to the host interface,
peripherals or application specific variables. The different groups of these parameters are organized in
banks to allow a larger total number for future products. Currently, only bank 0 and 1 are used for global
parameters, and bank 2 is used for user variables. Bank 3 is used for interrupt configuration.
For a table with parameters and bank numbers which can be used together with this command please
refer to chapter 5.
Internal function: The parameter is read out of the correct position in the appropriate device. The
parameter format is converted adding leading zeros (or ones for negative values).
Related commands: SGP, STGP, RSGP, AGP
Mnemonic: GGP <parameter number>, <bank number>
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
10
(see chapter 6)
<bank number>
(don't care)
Reply in direct mode:
STATUS
VALUE
100 OK
(don't care)
Example:
Get the serial address of the target device
Mnemonic: GGP 66, 0
Binary:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function
Target-
address
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex)
$01
$42
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
Reply:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function Host-
address
Target-
address
Status Instructio
n
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex)
$02
$64
$0a
$00
$00
$00
$01
Status=no error, Value=1
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 33
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3.6.11 STGP (store global parameter)
This command is used to store TMCL user variables permanently in the EEPROM of the module. Some
global parameters are located in RAM memory, so without storing modifications are lost at power down.
This instruction enables enduring storing. Most parameters are automatically restored after power up.
For a table with parameters and bank numbers which can be used together with this command please
refer to chapter 5.
Internal function: The specified parameter is copied from its RAM location to the configuration EEPROM.
Related commands: SGP, GGP, RSGP, AGP
Mnemonic: STGP <parameter number>, <bank number>
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO. TYPE MOT/BANK VALUE
11 (see chapter 8) <bank number>
(see chapter 5)
(don't care)
Reply in direct mode:
STATUS VALUE
100 OK (don't care)
Example:
Store the user variable #42
Mnemonic: STGP 42, 2
Binary:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex) $01 $0b $2a $02 $00 $00 $00 $00
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 34
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3.6.12 RSGP (restore global parameter)
With this command the contents of a TMCL user variable can be restored from the EEPROM. By default,
most parameters are automatically restored after power up. A single parameter that has been changed
before can be reset by this instruction.
Internal function: the specified parameter is copied from the configuration EEPROM memory to its RAM
location.
Relate commands: SGP, STGP, GGP, and AGP
Mnemonic: RSAP <parameter number>, <bank number>
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
12
<parameter number>
<bank number>
(don't care)
Reply structure in direct mode:
STATUS
VALUE
100 OK
(don't care)
For a table with parameters and bank numbers which can be used together with this command please
refer to chapter 5.
Example:
Restore user variable #42
Mnemonic: RSGP 42, 2
Binary:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number Type Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex)
$01
$0c
$2a
$02
$00
$00
$00
$00
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 35
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3.6.13 RFS (reference search)
The TMCM-1140 has a built-in reference search algorithm which can be used. The reference search
algorithm provides switching point calibration and three switch modes. The status of the reference search
can also be queried to see if it has already finished. (In a TMCL program it is better to use the WAIT
command to wait for the end of a reference search.) Please see the appropriate parameters in the axis
parameter table to configure the reference search algorithm to meet your needs (chapter 4). The reference
search can be started, stopped, and the actual status of the reference search can be checked.
Internal function: the reference search is implemented as a state machine, so interaction is possible
during execution.
Related commands: WAIT
Mnemonic: RFS <START|STOP|STATUS>, <motor>
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
13
0 START start ref. search
1 STOP abort ref. search
2 STATUS get status
0
see below
REPLY IN DIRECT MODE:
When using type 0 (START) or 1 (STOP):
STATUS
VALUE
100 OK
don’t care
When using type 2 (STATUS):
STATUS
VALUE
100 OK
0
ref. search active
other values
no ref. search
active
Example:
Start reference search of motor 0
Mnemonic: RFS START, 0
Binary:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex)
$01
$0d
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
With this module it is possible to use stall detection instead of a reference search.
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 36
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3.6.14 SIO (set input / output)
- SIO sets the status of the general digital output either to low (0) or to high (1). Bank 2 is used for
this purpose.
- SIO is used to switch the pull-up resistors for all digital inputs ON (1) and OFF (0). Bank 0 is used
for this purpose.
Internal function: the passed value is transferred to the specified output line.
Related commands: GIO, WAIT
Mnemonic: SIO <port number>, <bank number>, <value>
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
14 <port number> <bank number>
<value>
0/1
Bank 2 is used for setting the status of the general digital output either to low (0) or to high (1).
Reply structure:
STATUS
VALUE
100 OK don’t care
Example:
Set OUT_1 to high (bank 2, output 1)
Mnemonic: SIO 1, 2, 1
Binary:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex) $01 $0e $07 $02 $00 $00 $00 $01
Multipurpose I/O
1
8
Figure 3.1 I/O connector
I/O PORTS USED FOR SIO AND COMMAND
Pin I/O port Command Range
3
OUT_0
SIO 0, 2, <n>
1/0
4
OUT_1
SIO 1, 2, <n>
1/0
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 37
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ADDRESSING BOTH OUTPUT LINES WITH ONE SIO COMMAND
- Set the type parameter to 255 and the bank parameter to 2.
- The value parameter must then be set to a value between 0… 255, where every bit represents one
output line.
- Furthermore, the value can also be set to -1. In this special case, the contents of the lower 8 bits
of the accumulator are copied to the output pins.
Example:
Set all output pins high.
Mnemonic: SIO 255, 2, 3
THE FOLLOWING PROGRAM WILL SHOW THE STATES OF THE INPUT LINES ON THE OUTPUT LINES
Loop: GIO 255, 0
SIO 255, 2,-1
JA Loop
SPECIAL COMMAND FOR SWITCHING THE PULL-UP RESISTORS FOR ALL THREE DIGITAL INPUTS ON / OFF
Pin
I/O port
Command
Range
6
7
8
IN_1
IN_2
IN_3
SIO 0, 0, <n>
1/0
1: ON
0: OFF
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 38
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3.6.15 GIO (get input /output)
With this command the status of all general purpose inputs of the module can be read out. The function
reads a digital or analogue input port. Digital lines will read 0 and 1, while the ADC channels deliver their
12 bit result in the range of 0… 4095.
GIO IN STANDALONE MODE
In standalone mode the requested value is copied to the accumulator (accu) for further processing
purposes such as conditioned jumps.
GIO IN DIRECT MODE
In direct mode the value is only output in the value field of the reply, without affecting the accumulator.
The actual status of a digital output line can also be read.
Internal function: the specified line is read.
Related commands: SIO, WAIT
Mnemonic: GIO <port number>, <bank number>
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO. TYPE MOT/BANK VALUE
15 <port number> <bank number> don’t care
Reply in direct mode:
STATUS VALUE
100 OK <status of the port>
Example:
Get the analogue value of ADC channel 0
Mnemonic: GIO 0, 1
Binary:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number Type Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex)
$01
$0f
$00
$01
$00
$00
$00
$00
Reply:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function
Host-
address
Target-
address
Status
Instructio
n
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex)
$02
$01
$64
$0f
$00
$00
$01
$2e
Status = no error, value = 320
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 39
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Multipurpose I/O
1
8
Figure 3.2 I/O connector
3.6.15.1 I/O Bank 0 – Digital Inputs
The ADIN lines can be read as digital or analogue inputs at the same time. The analogue values can
be accessed in bank 1.
ENC_N CHANNEL READ-OUT COMMAND
I/O port
Command
ENC_N channel input
0 off
1 active
GIO 11, 0
READING ALL DIGITAL INPUTS WITH ONE GIO COMMAND
- Set the type parameter to 255 and the bank parameter to 0.
- In this case the status of all digital input lines will be read to the lower eight bits of the
accumulator.
USE FOLLOWING PROGRAM TO REPRESENT THE STATES OF THE INPUT LINES ON THE OUTPUT LINES
Loop: GIO 255, 0
SIO 255, 2,-1
JA Loop
Note: IN_0 can be used as analog or digital input.
3.6.15.2 I/O Bank 1 – Analogue Inputs
The ADIN lines can be read back as digital or analogue inputs at the same time. The digital states
can be accessed in bank 0.
READING OUT OPERATING VOLTAGE AND TEMPERATURE:
I/O port
Command
Operating voltage [1/10 V]
GIO 8, 1
Temperature [˚C] GIO 9, 1
Pin
I/O port
Command
Range
5
IN_0
GIO 0, 0
0/1
6
IN_1
GIO 1, 0
0/1
7 IN_2 GIO 2, 0 0/1
8
IN_3
GIO 3, 0
0/1
Pin
I/O port
Command
Range
5
IN_0
GIO 0, 1
0… 4095
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 40
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3.6.15.3 I/O Bank 2 –States of Digital Outputs
The states of the OUT lines (that have been set by SIO commands) can be read back using bank 2.
3.6.16 CALC (calculate)
A value in the accumulator variable, previously read by a function such as GAP (get axis parameter) can be
modified with this instruction. Nine different arithmetic functions can be chosen and one constant operand
value must be specified. The result is written back to the accumulator, for further processing like
comparisons or data transfer.
Related commands: CALCX, COMP, JC, AAP, AGP, GAP, GGP
Mnemonic: CALC <operation>, <value>
where <op> is ADD, SUB, MUL, DIV, MOD, AND, OR, XOR, NOT or LOAD
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
19
0 ADD add to accu
1 SUB
subtract from
accu
2 MUL multiply accu by
3 DIV divide accu by
4 MOD
modulo divide
by
5 AND
logical and accu
with
6 OR
logical or accu
with
7 XOR
logical exor accu
with
8 NOT
logical invert
accu
9 LOAD
load operand
to accu
(don't care)
<operand>
Example:
Multiply accu by -5000
Mnemonic: CALC MUL, -5000
Binary:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex)
$01
$02
$00
$FF
$FF
$EC
$78
Pin
I/O port
Command
Range
3
OUT_0
GIO 0, 2, <n>
1/0
4
OUT_1
GIO 1, 2, <n>
1/0
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 41
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3.6.17 COMP (compare)
The specified number is compared to the value in the accumulator register. The result of the comparison
can for example be used by the conditional jump (JC) instruction. This command is intended for use in
standalone operation only.
The host address and the reply are only used to take the instruction to the TMCL program memory while
the program loads down. It does not make sense to use this command in direct mode.
Internal function: The specified value is compared to the internal accumulator, which holds the value of a
preceding get or calculate instruction (see GAP/GGP/ CALC/CALCX). The internal arithmetic status flags are
set according to the comparison result.
Related commands: JC (jump conditional), GAP, GGP, CALC, CALCX
Mnemonic: COMP <value>
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
20
(don't care)
(don't care)
<comparison value>
Example:
Jump to the address given by the label when the position of motor is greater than or equal to
1000.
GAP 1, 2, 0 //get axis parameter, type: no. 1 (actual position), motor: 0, value: 0 (don't care)
COMP 1000 //compare actual value to 1000
JC GE, Label //jump, type: 5 greater/equal, the label must be defined somewhere else in the
program
Binary format of the COMP 1000 command:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex) $01 $14 $00 $00 $00 $00 $03 $e8
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 42
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3.6.18 JC (jump conditional)
The JC instruction enables a conditional jump to a fixed address in the TMCL program memory, if the
specified condition is met. The conditions refer to the result of a preceding comparison. Please refer to
COMP instruction for examples. This function is for standalone operation only.
The host address and the reply are only used to take the instruction to the TMCL program memory while
the program loads down. It does not make sense to use this command in direct mode. See the host-only
control functions for details.
Internal function: the TMCL program counter is set to the passed value if the arithmetic status flags are in
the appropriate state(s).
Related commands: JA, COMP, WAIT, CLE
Mnemonic: JC <condition>, <label>
where <condition>=ZE|NZ|EQ|NE|GT|GE|LT|LE|ETO|EAL|EDV|EPO
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
21 0 ZE - zero
1 NZ - not zero
2 EQ - equal
3 NE - not equal
4 GT - greater
5 GE - greater/equal
6 LT - lower
7 LE - lower/equal
8 ETO - time out error
(don't care) <jump address>
Example:
Jump to address given by the label when the position of motor is greater than or equal to 1000.
GAP 1, 0, 0 //get axis parameter, type: no. 1 (actual position), motor: 0, value: 0 (don't care)
COMP 1000 //compare actual value to 1000
JC GE, Label //jump, type: 5 greater/equal
...
...
Label: ROL 0, 1000
Binary format of JC GE, Label when Label is at address 10:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex)
$01 $15 $05 $00 $00 $00 $00 $0a
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 43
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3.6.19 JA (jump always)
Jump to a fixed address in the TMCL program memory. This command is intended for standalone operation
only.
The host address and the reply are only used to take the instruction to the TMCL program memory while
the program loads down. This command cannot be used in direct mode.
Internal function: the TMCL program counter is set to the passed value.
Related commands: JC, WAIT, CSUB
Mnemonic: JA <Label>
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO. TYPE MOT/BANK VALUE
22 (don't care) (don't care) <jump address>
Example: An infinite loop in TMCL
Loop: MVP ABS, 0, 10000
WAIT POS, 0, 0
MVP ABS, 0, 0
WAIT POS, 0, 0
JA Loop //Jump to the label Loop
Binary format of JA Loop assuming that the label Loop is at address 20:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number Type Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex)
$01
$16
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
$14
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 44
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3.6.20 CSUB (call subroutine)
This function calls a subroutine in the TMCL program memory. It is intended for standalone operation only.
The host address and the reply are only used to take the instruction to the TMCL program memory while
the program loads down. This command cannot be used in direct mode.
Internal function: The actual TMCL program counter value is saved to an internal stack, afterwards
overwritten with the passed value. The number of entries in the internal stack is limited to 8. This also
limits nesting of subroutine calls to 8. The command will be ignored if there is no more stack space left.
Related commands: RSUB, JA
Mnemonic: CSUB <Label>
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO. TYPE MOT/BANK VALUE
23 (don't care) (don't care) <subroutine address>
Example: Call a subroutine
Loop: MVP ABS, 0, 10000
CSUB SubW //Save program counter and jump to label SubW
MVP ABS, 0, 0
JA Loop
SubW: WAIT POS, 0, 0
WAIT TICKS, 0, 50
RSUB //Continue with the command following the CSUB command
Binary format of the CSUB SubW command assuming that the label SubW is at address 100:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex)
$01
$17
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
$64
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 45
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3.6.21 RSUB (return from subroutine)
Return from a subroutine to the command after the CSUB command. This command is intended for use in
standalone mode only.
The host address and the reply are only used to take the instruction to the TMCL program memory while
the program loads down. This command cannot be used in direct mode.
Internal function: The TMCL program counter is set to the last value of the stack. The command will be
ignored if the stack is empty.
Related command: CSUB
Mnemonic: RSUB
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO. TYPE MOT/BANK VALUE
24 (don't care) (don't care) (don't care)
Example: please see the CSUB example (section 3.6.20).
Binary format of RSUB:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex)
$01
$18
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 46
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3.6.22 WAIT (wait for an event to occur)
This instruction interrupts the execution of the TMCL program until the specified condition is met. This
command is intended for standalone operation only.
The host address and the reply are only used to take the instruction to the TMCL program memory while
the program loads down. This command cannot be used in direct mode.
THERE ARE FIVE DIFFERENT WAIT CONDITIONS THAT CAN BE USED:
- TICKS: Wait until the number of timer ticks specified by the <ticks> parameter has been reached.
- POS: Wait until the target position of the motor specified by the <motor> parameter has been
reached. An optional timeout value (0 for no timeout) must be specified by the <ticks> parameter.
- REFSW: Wait until the reference switch of the motor specified by the <motor> parameter has been
triggered. An optional timeout value (0 for no timeout) must be specified by the <ticks> parameter.
- LIMSW: Wait until a limit switch of the motor specified by the <motor> parameter has been
triggered. An optional timeout value (0 for no timeout) must be specified by the <ticks> parameter.
- RFS: Wait until the reference search of the motor specified by the <motor> field has been reached.
An optional timeout value (0 for no timeout) must be specified by the <ticks> parameter.
The timeout flag (ETO) will be set after a timeout limit has been reached. You can then use a JC ETO
command to check for such errors or clear the error using the CLE command.
Internal function: The TMCL program counter is held until the specified condition is met.
Related commands: JC, CLE
Mnemonic: WAIT <condition>, 0, <ticks>
where <condition> is TICKS|POS|REFSW|LIMSW|RFS
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
27
0 TICKS - timer ticks*1
don’t care
<no. of ticks
*1
>
1 POS - target position reached 0*2
<no. of ticks*1 for timeout>,
0 for no timeout
2 REFSW reference switch
0
*2
<no. of ticks
*1
for timeout>,
0 for no timeout
3 LIMSW limit switch
0
*2
<no. of ticks
*1
for timeout>,
0 for no timeout
4 RFS reference search
completed
0
*2
<no. of ticks
*1
for timeout>,
0 for no timeout
*1 one tick is 10 milliseconds (in standard firmware)
*2 motor number is always O as only one motor is involved
Example:
Wait for motor to reach its target position, without timeout
Mnemonic: WAIT POS, 0, 0
Binary:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex)
$01
$1b
$01
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 47
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3.6.23 STOP (stop TMCL program execution)
This function stops executing a TMCL program. The host address and the reply are only used to transfer
the instruction to the TMCL program memory.
This command should be placed at the end of every standalone TMCL program. It is not to be used in
direct mode.
Internal function: TMCL instruction fetching is stopped.
Related commands: none
Mnemonic: STOP
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
28
(don't care)
(don't care)
(don't care)
Example:
Mnemonic: STOP
Binary:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number Type Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex)
$01 $1c $00 $00 $00 $00 $00 $00
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3.6.24 SCO (set coordinate)
Up to 20 position values (coordinates) can be stored for every axis for use with the MVP COORD command.
This command sets a coordinate to a specified value. Depending on the global parameter 84, the
coordinates are only stored in RAM or also stored in the EEPROM and copied back on startup (with the
default setting the coordinates are stored in RAM only).
Please note that the coordinate number 0 is always stored in RAM only.
Internal function: the passed value is stored in the internal position array.
Related commands: GCO, CCO, MVP
Mnemonic: SCO <coordinate number>, 0, <position>
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO. TYPE MOT/BANK VALUE
30 <coordinate number>
0… 20
0 <position>
-231… +231
Reply in direct mode:
STATUS VALUE
100 OK don’t care
Example:
Set coordinate #1 of motor to 1000
Mnemonic: SCO 1, 0, 1000
Binary:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function Target-
address
Instruction
Number Type Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex) $01 $1e $01 $00 $00 $00 $03 $e8
Note:
Two special functions of this command have been introduced that make it possible to copy all coordinates
or one selected coordinate to the EEPROM.
THESE FUNCTIONS CAN BE ACCESSED USING THE FOLLOWING SPECIAL FORMS OF THE SCO COMMAND:
SCO 0, 255, 0 copies all coordinates (except coordinate number 0) from RAM to
the EEPROM.
SCO <coordinate number>, 255, 0 copies the coordinate selected by <coordinate number> to the
EEPROM. The coordinate number must be a value between 1 and
20.
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 49
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3.6.25 GCO (get coordinate)
This command makes possible to read out a previously stored coordinate. In standalone mode the
requested value is copied to the accumulator register for further processing purposes such as conditioned
jumps. In direct mode, the value is only output in the value field of the reply, without affecting the
accumulator. Depending on the global parameter 84, the coordinates are only stored in RAM or also stored
in the EEPROM and copied back on startup (with the default setting the coordinates are stored in RAM,
only).
Please note that the coordinate number 0 is always stored in RAM, only.
Internal function: the desired value is read out of the internal coordinate array, copied to the accumulator
register and in direct mode returned in the value field of the reply.
Related commands: SCO, CCO, MVP
Mnemonic: GCO <coordinate number>, 0
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
31 <coordinate number>
0… 20
0 don’t care
Reply in direct mode:
STATUS VALUE
100 OK don’t care
Example:
Get motor value of coordinate 1
Mnemonic: GCO 1, 0
Binary:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number Type Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex) $01 $1f $01 $00 $00 $00 $00 $00
Reply:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function
Target-
address
Target-
address
Status Instructio
n
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex)
$02
$01
$64
$0a
$00
$00
$00
$00
Value: 0
Note:
Two special functions of this command have been introduced that make it possible to copy all
coordinates or one selected coordinate from the EEPROM to the RAM.
THESE FUNCTIONS CAN BE ACCESSED USING THE FOLLOWING SPECIAL FORMS OF THE GCO COMMAND:
GCO 0, 255, 0 copies all coordinates (except coordinate number 0) from the
EEPROM to the RAM.
GCO <coordinate number>, 255, 0 copies the coordinate selected by <coordinate number> from the
EEPROM to the RAM. The coordinate number must be a value
between 1 and 20.
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 50
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3.6.26 CCO (capture coordinate)
The actual position of the axis is copied to the selected coordinate variable. Depending on the global
parameter 84, the coordinates are only stored in RAM or also stored in the EEPROM and copied back on
startup (with the default setting the coordinates are stored in RAM only). Please see the SCO and GCO
commands on how to copy coordinates between RAM and EEPROM.
Note, that the coordinate number 0 is always stored in RAM only.
Internal function: the selected (24 bit) position values are written to the 20 by 3 bytes wide coordinate
array.
Related commands: SCO, GCO, MVP
Mnemonic: CCO <coordinate number>, 0
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
32
<coordinate number>
0… 20
0
don’t care
Reply in direct mode:
STATUS
VALUE
100 OK
don’t care
Example:
Store current position of the axis 0 to coordinate 3
Mnemonic: CCO 3, 0
Binary:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex)
$01
$20
$03
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 51
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3.6.27 ACO (accu to coordinate)
With the ACO command the actual value of the accumulator is copied to a selected coordinate of the
motor. Depending on the global parameter 84, the coordinates are only stored in RAM or also stored in
the EEPROM and copied back on startup (with the default setting the coordinates are stored in RAM only).
Please note also that the coordinate number 0 is always stored in RAM only. For Information about
storing coordinates refer to the SCO command.
Internal function: the actual value of the accumulator is stored in the internal position array.
Related commands: GCO, CCO, MVP COORD, SCO
Mnemonic: ACO <coordinate number>, 0
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO. TYPE MOT/BANK VALUE
39 <coordinate number>
0… 20
0 don’t care
Reply in direct mode:
STATUS VALUE
100 OK don’t care
Example:
Copy the actual value of the accumulator to coordinate 1 of motor 0
Mnemonic: ACO 1, 0
Binary:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex) $01 $27 $01 $00 $00 $00 $00 $00
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 52
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3.6.28 CALCX (calculate using the X register)
This instruction is very similar to CALC, but the second operand comes from the X register. The X register
can be loaded with the LOAD or the SWAP type of this instruction. The result is written back to the
accumulator for further processing like comparisons or data transfer.
Related commands: CALC, COMP, JC, AAP, AGP
Mnemonic: CALCX <operation>
with <operation>=ADD|SUB|MUL|DIV|MOD|AND|OR|XOR|NOT|LOAD|SWAP
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
33 0 ADD add X register to accu
1 SUB subtract X register from accu
2 MUL multiply accu by X register
3 DIV divide accu by X-register
4 MOD modulo divide accu by x-register
5 AND logical and accu with X-register
6 OR logical or accu with X-register
7 XOR logical exor accu with X-register
8 NOT logical invert X-register
9 LOAD load accu to X-register
10 SWAP swap accu with X-register
(don't care) (don't care)
Example:
Multiply accu by X-register
Mnemonic: CALCX MUL
Binary:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex)
$01
$21
$02
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
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3.6.29 AAP (accumulator to axis parameter)
The content of the accumulator register is transferred to the specified axis parameter. For practical usage,
the accumulator has to be loaded e.g. by a preceding GAP instruction. The accumulator may have been
modified by the CALC or CALCX (calculate) instruction.
For a table with parameters and values which can be used together with this command please refer to
chapter 4.
Related commands: AGP, SAP, GAP, SGP, GGP, CALC, CALCX
Mnemonic: AAP <parameter number>, 0
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
34
<parameter number>
0*
<don't care>
* Motor number is always 0 as only one motor is involved
Reply in direct mode:
STATUS
VALUE
100 OK
(don't care)
Example:
Positioning motor by a potentiometer connected to the analogue input #0:
Start: GIO 0,1 // get value of analogue input line 0
CALC MUL, 4 // multiply by 4
AAP 0,0 // transfer result to target position of motor 0
JA Start // jump back to start
Binary format of the AAP 0,0 command:
Byte Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex)
$01
$22
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 54
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3.6.30 AGP (accumulator to global parameter)
The content of the accumulator register is transferred to the specified global parameter. For practical
usage, the accumulator has to be loaded e.g. by a preceding GAP instruction. The accumulator may have
been modified by the CALC or CALCX (calculate) instruction.
Note:
The global parameters in bank 0 are EEPROM-only and thus should not be modified automatically by a
standalone application. (See chapter 5 for a complete list of global parameters).
Related commands: AAP, SGP, GGP, SAP, GAP
Mnemonic: AGP <parameter number>, <bank number>
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
35
<parameter number>
<bank number>
(don't care)
Reply in direct mode:
STATUS
VALUE
100 OK
(don't care)
For a table with parameters and bank numbers which can be used together with this command please
refer to chapter 5.
Example:
Copy accumulator to TMCL user variable #3
Mnemonic: AGP 3, 2
Binary:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex)
$01
$23
$03
$02
$00
$00
$00
$00
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 55
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3.6.31 CLE (clear error flags)
This command clears the internal error flags. It is intended for use in standalone mode only and must
not be used in direct mode.
The following error flags can be cleared by this command (determined by the <flag> parameter):
- ALL: clear all error flags.
- ETO: clear the timeout flag.
- EDV: clear the deviation flag
Related commands: JC
Mnemonic: CLE <flags>
where <flags>=ALL|ETO|EDV|EPO
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO. TYPE MOT/BANK VALUE
36
0 (ALL) all flags
1 (ETO) timeout flag
3 (EDV) deviation flag
(don't care)
(don't care)
Example:
Reset the timeout flag
Mnemonic: CLE ETO
Binary:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type
Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex)
$01
$24
$01
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
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3.6.32 VECT (set interrupt vector)
The VECT command defines an interrupt vector. It needs an interrupt number and a label as parameter
(like in JA, JC and CSUB commands).
This label must be the entry point of the interrupt handling routine.
Related commands: EI, DI, RETI
Mnemonic: VECT <interrupt number>, <label>
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
37 <interrupt number> don’t care <label>
THE FOLLOWING TABLE SHOWS ALL INTERRUPT VECTORS THAT CAN BE USED:
Interrupt number
Interrupt type
0
Timer 0
1
Timer 1
2
Timer 2
3 (Target) position reached
15 Stall (stallGuard2)
21
Deviation
27
Stop left
28
Stop right
39 IN_0 change
40 IN_1 change
41
IN_2 change
42
IN_3 change
Example: Define interrupt vector at target position 500
VECT 3, 500
Binary format of VECT:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function Target-
address
Instruction
Number Type Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex) $01 $25 $03 $00 $00 $00 $01 $F4
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3.6.33 EI (enable interrupt)
The EI command enables an interrupt. It needs the interrupt number as parameter. Interrupt number 255
globally enables interrupts.
Related command: DI, VECT, RETI
Mnemonic: EI <interrupt number>
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
25 <interrupt number> don’t care don’t care
THE FOLLOWING TABLE SHOWS ALL INTERRUPT VECTORS THAT CAN BE USED:
Interrupt number
Interrupt type
0 Timer 0
1 Timer 1
2
Timer 2
3
(Target) position reached
15
Stall (stallGuard2™)
21 Deviation
27 Stop left
28
Stop right
39
IN_0 change
40
IN_1 change
41 IN_2 change
42 IN_3 change
Examples:
Enable interrupts globally
EI, 255
Binary format of EI:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex) $01 $19 $FF $00 $00 $00 $00 $00
Enable interrupt when target position reached
EI, 3
Binary format of EI:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number
Type Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex)
$01
$03
$00
$00
$00
$00
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3.6.34 DI (disable interrupt)
The DI command disables an interrupt. It needs the interrupt number as parameter. Interrupt number 255
globally disables interrupts.
Related command: EI, VECT, RETI
Mnemonic: DI <interrupt number>
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
26 <interrupt number> don’t care don’t care
THE FOLLOWING TABLE SHOWS ALL INTERRUPT VECTORS THAT CAN BE USED:
Interrupt number
Interrupt type
0 Timer 0
1 Timer 1
2
Timer 2
3
(Target) position reached
15
Stall (stallGuard2™)
21 Deviation
27 Stop left
28
Stop right
39
IN_0 change
40
IN_1 change
41 IN_2 change
42 IN_3 change
Examples:
Disable interrupts globally
DI, 255
Binary format of DI:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function Target-
address
Instruction
Number Type Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex) $01 $1A $FF $00 $00 $00 $00 $00
Disable interrupt when target position reached
DI, 3
Binary format of DI:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number Type Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex)
$01
$1A
$03
$00
$00
$00
$00
$00
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3.6.35 RETI (return from interrupt)
This command terminates the interrupt handling routine, and the normal program execution continues.
At the end of an interrupt handling routine the RETI command must be executed.
Internal function: the saved registers (A register, X register, flags) are copied back. Normal program
execution continues.
Related commands: EI, DI, VECT
Mnemonic: RETI
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
38
don’t care
don’t care
don’t care
Example: Terminate interrupt handling and continue with normal program execution
RETI
Binary format of RETI:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function
Target-
address
Instruction
Number Type Motor/
Bank
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex) $01 $26 $00 $00 $00 $00 $01 $00
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3.6.36 Customer Specific TMCL Command Extension (UF0 UF7 / User
Function)
The user definable functions UF0… UF7 are predefined, functions without topic for user specific purposes.
Contact TRINAMIC for the customer specific programming of these functions.
Internal function: Call user specific functions implemented in C by TRINAMIC.
Related commands: none
Mnemonic: UF0… UF7
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
64… 71 (user defined) (user defined) (user defined)
Reply in direct mode:
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function
Target-
address
Target-
address
Status Instructio
n
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex)
$02 $01 (user
defined)
64… 71 (user
defined)
(user
defined)
(user
defined)
(user
defined)
3.6.37 Request Target Position Reached Event
This command is the only exception to the TMCL protocol, as it sends two replies: One immediately after
the command has been executed (like all other commands also), and one additional reply that will be sent
when the motor has reached its target position.
This instruction can only be used in direct mode (in standalone mode, it is covered by the WAIT
command) and hence does not have a mnemonic.
Internal function: Send an additional reply when the motor has reached its target position
Mnemonic: ---
Binary representation:
INSTRUCTION NO.
TYPE
MOT/BANK
VALUE
138
0/1
(don’t care)
1
Reply in direct mode (right after execution of this command):
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function Target-
address
Target-
address
Status Instructio
n
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex)
$02
$01
100
138
$00
$00
$00
Motor bit
mask
Additional reply in direct mode (after motors have reached their target positions):
Byte Index 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Function
Target-
address
Target-
address
Status
Instructio
n
Operand
Byte3
Operand
Byte2
Operand
Byte1
Operand
Byte0
Value (hex)
$02
$01
128
138
$00
$00
$00
Motor bit
mask
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3.6.38 TMCL Control Functions
The following functions are for host control purposes only and are not allowed for standalone mode.
In most cases, there is no need for the customer to use one of those functions (except command 139).
TMCL control commands have no mnemonics, as they cannot be used in TMCL programs. These Functions
are to be used only by the TMCL-IDE (e.g. to download a TMCL application into the module).
CONTROL COMMANDS THAT COULD BE USEFUL FOR A USER HOST APPLICATION ARE:
- get firmware revision (command 136, please note the special reply format of this command,
described at the end of this section)
- run application (command 129)
All other functions can be achieved by using the appropriate functions of the TMCL-IDE!
Instruction
Description
Type
Value
128 stop application a running TMCL standalone
application is stopped
(don't care) (don't care)
(don't care)
129 run application TMCL
execution is started (or
continued)
0 - run from
current address
1 - run from
specified address
(don't care)
(don't care)
starting address
130 step application
only the next command of a
TMCL application is executed
(don't care)
(don't care)
131 reset application
the program counter is set to
zero, and the standalone
application is stopped (when
running or stepped)
(don't care) (don't care)
(don't care)
132 start download
mode
target command execution is
stopped and all following
commands are transferred to
the TMCL memory
(don't care)
starting address
of the
application
133 quit download
mode
target command execution is
resumed
(don't care) (don't care)
(don't care)
134 read TMCL
memory
the specified program memory
location is read
(don't care)
<memory
address>
135 get application
status
one of these values is
returned:
0 stop
1 run
2 step
3 reset
(don't care)
(don't care)
136 get firmware
version
return the module type and
firmware revision either as a
string or in binary format
0 – string
1 binary
(don’t care)
137 restore factory
settings
reset all
settings stored in the
EEPROM to their factory
defaults
This command does not send
back a reply.
(don’t care) (don’t care)
must be 1234
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 62
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SPECIAL REPLY FORMAT OF COMMAND 136:
Type set to 0 - reply as a string:
Byte index
Contents
1
Host Address
29
Version string (8 characters, e.g. 1140V1.17)
- There is no checksum in this reply format!
- To get also the last byte when using the CAN bus interface, just send this command in an eight
byte frame instead of a seven byte frame. Then, eight bytes will be sent back, so you will get all
characters of the version string.
Type set to 1 - version number in binary format:
- Please use the normal reply format.
- The version number is output in the value field of the reply in the following way:
Byte index in value field
Contents
1
Version number, low byte
2
Version number, high byte
3 Type number, low byte
4
Type number, high byte
BB :2047 mm}: :2047 mm M mm W, m ]
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 63
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4 Axis Parameters
The following sections describe all axis parameters that can be used with the SAP, GAP, AAP, STAP and
RSAP commands.
MEANING OF THE LETTERS IN COLUMN ACCESS:
Access
type
Related
command(s)
Description
R GAP Parameter readable
W SAP, AAP Parameter writable
E STAP, RSAP Parameter automatically restored from EEPROM after reset or power-on. These
parameters can be stored permanently in EEPROM using STAP command and
also explicitly restored (copied back from EEPROM into RAM) using RSAP.
Basic parameters should be adjusted to motor / application for proper module operation.
Parameters for the more experienced user please do not change unless you are absolutely
sure.
Number Axis Parameter Description Range [Unit] Acc.
0
Target (next)
position
The desired position in position mode (see
ramp mode, no. 138).
± 2
31
-1
[µsteps]
RW
1 Actual position
The current position of the motor. Should
only be overwritten for reference point
setting.
±
231-1
[µsteps]
RW
2 Target (next)
speed
The desired speed in velocity mode (see ramp
mode, no. 138). In position mode, this
parameter is set by hardware: to the
maximum speed during acceleration, and to
zero during deceleration and rest.
±
2047
16MHz
65536 2𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝_𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑝𝑝𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
steps
sec
RW
3 Actual speed The current rotation speed.
±
2047
16MHz
65536 2𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝_𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑝𝑝𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 steps
sec
RW
4
Maximum
positioning
speed
Should not exceed the physically highest
possible value. Adjust the pulse divisor (axis
parameter 154), if the speed value is
very low
(<50) or above the upper limit.
0… 2047
16MHz
65536 2
𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝_𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑝𝑝𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 steps
sec
RWE
5 Maximum
acceleration
The limit for acceleration (and deceleration).
Changing this parameter requires re-
calculation of the acceleration factor (no. 146)
and the acceleration divisor (no. 137), which is
done automatically. See TMC 429 datasheet for
calculation of physical units.
0… 2047* RWE
28A A :< wm»="">X '7 in l p” 4; 2A R r 2 8A ,le :< wm»="">x 255 ,W:< i="" ”7="" vfluz‘="" 255="" defau="" “mm="" 29mm="" mmr&="" 5553::="" m="" d="">
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 64
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Number Axis Parameter Description Range [Unit] Acc.
6
Absolute max.
current
(CS / Current
Scale)
The maximum value is 255. This value means
100% of the maximum current of the module.
The current adjustment is within the range 0
255 and can be adjusted in 32 steps.
The most important motor setting, since too
high values might cause motor damage!
0… 7
79…87
160… 167
240… 247
8… 15
88… 95
168… 175
248… 255
16… 23
96… 103
176… 183
24… 31
104… 111
184… 191
32… 39
112… 119
192… 199
40… 47
120… 127
200… 207
48… 55
128… 135
208… 215
56… 63
136… 143
216… 223
64… 71
144… 151
224… 231
72… 79
152… 159
232… 239
0… 255
𝐼𝐼𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 =< 𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣 >×
2.8𝐴𝐴
255
𝐼𝐼𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅 =< 𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣 2𝐴𝐴
255
RWE
7 Standby current
The current limit two seconds after the motor
has stopped.
0… 255
𝐼𝐼𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 =< 𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣 >×
2.8𝐴𝐴
255
𝐼𝐼𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅 =< 𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣 >× 2𝐴𝐴
255
RWE
8 Target pos.
reached
Indicates that the actual position equals the
target position.
0/1 R
9 Ref. switch
status
The logical state of the reference home
switch.
0/1 R
10 Right limit
switch status
The logical state of the (right) limit switch. 0/1 R
11 Left limit switch
status
The logical state of the left limit switch (in
three switch mode)
0/1 R
12 Right limit
switch disable
If set, deactivates the stop function of the
right switch
0/1 RWE
13 Left limit switch
disable
Deactivates the stop function of the left
switch resp. reference switch if set.
0/1 RWE
130
Minimum speed
Should always be set 1 to ensure exact
reaching of the target position.
0… 2047
Default = 1
16MHz
65536 2𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝_𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑝𝑝𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 steps
sec
RWE
135
Actual
acceleration
The current acceleration (read only).
0… 2047
*
R
138
Ramp mode
Automatically set when using ROR, ROL, MST
and MVP.
0: position mode. Steps are generated, when
the parameters actual position and target
position differ. Trapezoidal speed ramps are
provided.
2: velocity mode. The motor will run
continuously and the speed will be changed
with constant (maximum) acceleration, if the
parameter target speed is changed.
For special purposes, the soft mode (value 1)
with exponential decrease of speed can be
selected.
0/1/2
RWE
be
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 65
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Number Axis Parameter Description Range [Unit] Acc.
140
Microstep
resolution
0
full step
1 half step
2 4 microsteps
3
8 microsteps
4
16 microsteps
5
32 microsteps
6 64 microsteps
7
128 microsteps
8
256 microsteps
0… 8
RWE
149
Soft stop flag
If cleared, the motor will stop immediately
(disregarding motor limits), when the
reference or limit switch is hit.
0/1
RWE
153 Ramp divisor
The exponent of the scaling factor for the
ramp generator-
should be de/incremented
carefully (in steps of one).
0… 13 RWE
154
Pulse divisor
The exponent of the scaling factor for the
pulse (step) generator
should be
de/incremented carefully (in steps of one).
0… 13
RWE
160 Step
interpolation
enable
Step interpolation is supported with a 16
microstep setting only. In this setting, each
step
impulse at the input causes the
execution of 16 times 1/256 microsteps. This
way, a smooth motor movement like in 256
microstep resolution is achieved.
0 step interpolation off
1 step interpolation on
0/1 RW
162
Chopper blank
time
Selects the comparator blank time. This time
needs to safely cover the switching event and
the duration of the ringing on the sense
resistor. For low current drivers, a setting of 1
or 2 is good.
0… 3
RW
163
Chopper mode
Selection of the chopper mode:
0 spread cycle
1 classic const. off time
0/1
RW
164 Chopper
hysteresis
decrement
Hysteresis decrement setting. This setting
determines the slope of the hysteresis during
on time and during fast decay time.
0 fast decrement
3 very slow decrement
0… 3 RW
165 Chopper
hysteresis end
Hysteresis end setting. Sets the hysteresis end
value after a number of decrements.
Decrement interval time is controlled by axis
parameter 164.
-3… -1 negative hysteresis end setting
0 zero hysteresis end setting
1… 12
positive hysteresis end setting
-3… 12 RW
166
Chopper
hysteresis start
Hysteresis start setting. Please remark, that
this value is an offset to the hysteresis end
value.
0… 8
RW
m
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 66
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Number Axis Parameter Description Range [Unit] Acc.
167
Chopper off time
The off time setting controls the minimum
chopper frequency. An off time
within the
range of 5µs to 20µs will fit.
Off time setting for constant tOff chopper:
NCLK= 12 + 32*tOFF (Minimum is 64 clocks)
Setting this parameter to zero completely
disables all driver transistors and the motor
can free-wheel.
0 / 2… 15
RW
168 smartEnergy
current minimum
(SEIMIN)
Sets the lower motor current limit for
coolStep™ operation by scaling the CS
(Current Scale, see axis parameter 6) value.
minimum motor current:
0 1/2 of CS
1 1/4 of CS
0/1 RW
169 smartEnergy
current down
step
Sets
the number of stallGuard2™ readings
above the upper threshold necessary for each
current decrement of the motor current.
Number of stallGuard2™ measurements per
decrement:
Scaling: 0… 3: 32, 8, 2, 1
0: slow decrement
3: fast decrement
0… 3 RW
170 smartEnergy
hysteresis
Sets the distance between the lower and the
upper threshold for stallGuard2™ reading.
Above the upper threshold the motor current
becomes decreased.
0… 15 RW
Hysteresis:
(smartEnergy hysteresis value + 1) * 32
Upper stallGuard threshold:
(smartEnergy hysteresis start + smartEnergy
hysteresis + 1) * 32
171
smartEnergy
current up step
Sets the current increment step. The current
becomes incremented for each measured
stallGuard2™ value below the lower threshold
(see smartEnergy hysteresis start).
current increment step size:
Scaling: 0… 3: 1, 2, 4, 8
0: slow increment
3: fast increment / fast reaction to rising load
1… 3
RW
172 smartEnergy
hysteresis start
The lower threshold for the stallGuard2
value (see smart Energy current up step).
0… 15 RW
173
stallGuard2 filter
enable
Enables the stallGuard2™ filter for more
precision of the measurement. If set, reduces
the measurement frequency to one
measurement per four fullsteps.
In most cases it is expedient to set the
filtered mode before using coolStep™.
Use the standard mode for step loss
detection.
0 standard mode
1 filtered mode
0/1
RW
C actual motor turrent Stalmg factor 0... 20 ”‘4‘“ 2ku m W9 m w 23,1 [mm
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 67
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Number Axis Parameter Description Range [Unit] Acc.
174
stallGuard2
threshold
This signed value controls stallGuard2™
threshold
level for stall output and sets the
optimum measurement range for readout. A
lower value gives a higher sensitivity. Zero is
the starting value. A higher value makes
stallGuard2™ less sensitive and requires more
torque to indicate a stall.
0
Indifferent value
1… 63
less sensitivity
-1… -64 higher sensitivity
-64… 63
RW
175 Slope control
high side
Determines the slope of the motor driver
outputs. Set to 2 or 3 for this module or
rather use the default value.
0: lowest slope
3: fastest slope
0… 3 RW
176 Slope control
low side
Determines the slope of the motor driver
outputs.
Set identical to slope control high
side.
0… 3 RW
177
short protection
disable
0: Short to GND protection is on
1: Short to GND protection is disabled
Use default value!
0/1
RW
178 Short detection
timer
0: 3.2µs
1: 1.6µs
2: 1.2µs
3: 0.8µs
Use default value!
0..3 RW
179
Vsense
sense resistor voltage based current scaling
0: Full scale sense resistor voltage is 1/18 VDD
1: Full scale sense resistor voltage is 1/36 VDD
(refers to a
current setting of 31 and DAC
value 255)
Use default value. Do not change!
0/1
RW
180 smartEnergy
actual current
This status value provides the
actual motor
current
setting as controlled by coolStep™.
The value goes up to the CS value and down
to the portion of CS as specified by SEIMIN.
actual motor current scaling factor:
0 … 31: 1/32, 2/32, … 32/32
0… 31 RW
181
Stop on stall
Below this speed motor will not be stopped.
Above this speed motor will stop in case
stallGuard2™ load value reaches zero.
0… 2047
RW
182
smartEnergy
threshold speed
Above this speed coolStep™ becomes
enabled.
0… 2047
16MHz
65536 2𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝_𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑝𝑝𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 steps
sec
RW
183
smartEnergy
slow run current
Sets the motor current which is used below
the threshold speed.
0… 255
𝐼𝐼𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 =< 𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣
2.8𝐴𝐴
255
𝐼𝐼𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅 =< 𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣 >× 2𝐴𝐴
255
RW
ve 28A 2A [M :< mime="">x : ed
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 68
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Number Axis Parameter Description Range [Unit] Acc.
193
Ref. search mode
1
search left stop switch only
2 search rightstop switch, then search
left stop switch
3
search right stop switch, then search
left stop switch from both sides
4
search left stop switch from both sides
5
search home switch in negative
direction, reverse the direction when
left stop switch reached
6
search home switch in positive
d
irection, reverse the direction when
right stop switch reached
7
search home switch in positive
direction, ignore end switches
8
search home switch in negative
direction, ignore end switches
Additional functions:
- Add 128 to a mode value for inverting
the
home switch (can be used with
mode 5
8).
-
Add 64 to a mode for driving the right
instead of the left reference switch (
can
be used with mode 1… 4).
1… 8
RWE
194 Referencing
search speed
For the reference search this value directly
specifies the search speed.
0… 2047
RWE
195 Referencing
switch speed
Similar to parameter no. 194, the speed for
the switching point calibration can be
selected.
0… 2047
RWE
196
Distance end
switches
This parameter provides the distance between
the end switches after
executing the RFS
command (mode 2 or 3).
0… 2.147.483.647
R
197 Last reference
position
Reference search: the last position before
setting the counter to zero can be read out.
-231… 231-1
[µsteps]
R
200 Boost current
Current used for acceleration and deceleration
phases.
If set to 0 the same current as set by axis
parameter 6 will be used.
0… 255
𝐼𝐼𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝 =< 𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣
2.8𝐴𝐴
255
𝐼𝐼𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅 =< 𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣𝑣 >× 2𝐴𝐴
255
RWE
204 Freewheeling Time after which the power to the
motor will
be cut when its velocity has reached zero.
0… 65535
0 = never
[msec]
RWE
206
Actual load value
Readout of the actual load value with used
for stall detection (stallGuard2™).
0… 1023
R
207
Extended error
flags
1
Motor stopped because of
stallGuard2 detection.
2
Motor stopped because of encoder
deviation.
3 Motor stopped because of (1) and
(2).
Will be reset automatically by the next motion
command.
1… 3
R
ad be be leHz‘ m; mvuarnramv mmr microsteps sec2
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 69
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Number Axis Parameter Description Range [Unit] Acc.
208
TMC262 driver
error flags
Bit 0
stallGuard2 status
(1: threshold reached)
Bit 1
Overtemperature
(1: driver is shut down due to
overtemperature)
Bit 2
Pre-warning overtemperature
(1: Threshold is exceeded)
Bit 3
Short to ground A
(1: Short condition detected,driver
currently shut down)
Bit 4
Short to ground B
(1: Short condition detected, driver currently
shut down)
Bit 5
Open load A
(1: no chopper event has happened during
the last period with constant coil polarity)
Bit 6
Open load B
(1: no chopper event has happened during
the last period with constant coil polarity)
Bit 7
Stand still
(1: No step impulse occurred on the step
input during the last 2^20 clock cycles)
0/1
R
209 Encoder position
sensOstep
The value of an encoder register can be read
out or written.
[encoder steps] RW
210 Encoder
prescaler
sensOstep
Prescaler for the sensOstep encoder. See paragraph 6.2 RWE
212
Maximum
encoder
deviation
sensOstep
When the actual position (parameter 1) and
the encoder position (parameter 209) differ
more than set here the motor will be
stopped. This function
is switched off when
the maximum deviation is set to zero.
0… 65535
[encoder steps]
RWE
214
Power down
delay
Standstill period before the current is changed
down to standby current. The standard value
is 200 (value equates 2000msec).
1… 65535
[10msec]
RWE
216 Encoder position
external encoder
The value of the external encoder register can
be read out or written.
This parameter is only used if an external
encoder is connected.
[encoder steps] RW
217
Encoder
prescaler
external encoder
Prescaler for external encoder.
See paragraph 6.2
218 Maximum
encoder
deviation
external encoder
When the actual position (parameter 1) and
the encoder position (parameter 216
) differ
more than set here the motor will be
stopped. This function is switched off when
the maximum deviation is set to zero.
This parameter is only used if an external
encoder is connected.
0… 65535
[encoder steps]
* Unit of acceleration: 𝑅𝑅𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀
𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝_𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑝𝑝𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑝𝑝_𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑝𝑝𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 

TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 70
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4.1 stallGuard2
The module is equipped with TMC262 motor driver chip. The TMC262 features load measurement that can
be used for stall detection. stallGuard2 delivers a sensorless load measurement of the motor as well as a
stall detection signal. The measured value changes linear with the load on the motor in a wide range of
load, velocity and current settings. At maximum motor load the stallGuard2 value goes to zero. This
corresponds to a load angle of 90° between the magnetic field of the stator and magnets in the rotor. This
also is the most energy efficient point of operation for the motor.
Stall detection means that the motor will be stopped when the load gets too high. It is configured by axis
parameter #174.
Stall detection can also be used for finding the reference point. Do not use RFS in this case.
4.2 coolStep Related Axis Parameters
The figure below gives an overview of the coolStep related parameters. Please have in mind that the
figure shows only one example for a drive. There are parameters which concern the configuration of the
current. Other parameters are for velocity regulation and for time adjustment.
THE FOLLOWING ADJUSTMENTS HAVE TO BE MADE:
- Thresholds for current (I6, I7 and I183) and velocity (V182) have to be identified and set.
- The stallGuard2 feature has to be adjusted and enabled with parameters SG170 and SG181.
- The reduction or increasing of the current in the coolStep area (depending on the load) has to be
configured with parameters I169 and I171.
In this chapter only basic axis parameters are mentioned which concern coolStep and stallGuard2. The
complete list of axis parameters in chapter 4 contains further parameters which offer more configuration
possibilities.
Velocity
Time
T
214
coolStep™ area
I
7
I
7
area without coolStep™
coolStep™ Adjustment Points and Thresholds
SG
170
SG
181
V
182
I6
I
183
I
183
Current
V
123
Velocity and parameter
I
123
Current and parameter
T
123
Time parameter
I
7
I
6
I
183
I
6
/2*
* The lower threshold of the coolStep™ current can be adjusted up to I6/4. Refer to parameter 168.
The current depends on
the load of the motor.
SG
123
stallGuard2™ parameter
Figure 4.1: coolStep™ adjustment points and thresholds
or
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 71
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COOLSTEP RELATED AXIS PARAMETERS
smartEnergy is an earlier name for coolStep.
Number
Axis parameter
Description
I6 Absolute max. current (CS /
Current Scale)
The maximum value is 255. This value means 100% of the
maximum current of the module. The current adjustment is
within the range 0… 255 and can be adjusted in 32 steps (0…
255 divided by eight; e.g. step 0 = 0… 7, step 1 = 8… 15 and so
on).
The most important motor setting, since too high values might
cause motor damage!
I
7 Standby current The current limit two seconds after the motor has stopped.
I168 smartEnergy current minimum
(SEIMIN)
Sets the lower motor current limit for coolStep™ operation by
scaling the CS (Current Scale, see axis parameter 6) value.
Minimum motor current:
0 1/2 of CS
1 1/4 of CS
I169 smartEnergy current down
step
Sets the number of stallGuard2™ readings above the upper
threshold necessary for each current decrement of the motor
current. Number of stallGuard2™ measurements per decrement:
Scaling: 0… 3: 32, 8, 2, 1
0: slow decrement
3: fast decrement
I171 smartEnergy current up step
Sets the current increment step. The current becomes
incremented for each measured stallGuard2™ value below the
lower threshold (see smartEnergy hysteresis start).
current increment step size:
Scaling: 0… 3: 1, 2, 4, 8
0: slow increment
3: fast increment / fast reaction to rising load
I183 smartEnergy slow run current
Sets the motor current which is used below the threshold
speed. Please adjust the threshold speed with axis parameter
182.
SG170 smartEnergy hysteresis
Sets the distance between the lower and the upper threshold
for stallGuard2™ reading. Above the upper threshold the motor
current becomes decreased.
SG181 Stop on stall
Below this speed motor will not be stopped. Above this speed
motor will stop in case stallGuard2™ load value reaches zero.
V
182 smartEnergy threshold speed Above this speed coolStep™ becomes enabled.
T214 Power down delay
Standstill period before the current is changed down to standby
current. The standard value is 200 (value equates 2000msec).
For further information about the coolStep™ feature please refer to the TMC262 Datasheet.
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 72
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5 Global Parameters
GLOBAL PARAMETERS ARE GROUPED INTO 4 BANKS:
- bank 0 (global configuration of the module)
- bank 1 (user C variables)
- bank 2 (user TMCL variables)
- bank 3 (interrupt configuration)
Please use SGP and GGP commands to write and read global parameters.
5.1 Bank 0
Parameters with numbers from 64 on configure stuff like the serial address of the module RS485 baud rate
or the CAN bit rate. Change these parameters to meet your needs. The best and easiest way to do this is
to use the appropriate functions of the TMCL-IDE. The parameters with numbers between 64 and 128 are
stored in EEPROM only.
Attention:
- An SGP command on such a parameter will always store it permanently and no extra STGP command
is needed.
- Take care when changing these parameters, and use the appropriate functions of the TMCL-IDE to do
it in an interactive way!
MEANING OF THE LETTERS IN COLUMN ACCESS
Access
Type
Related
Command(s)
Description
R
GGP
Parameter readable
W SGP, AGP Parameter writable
E STGP, RSGP Parameter automatically restored from EEPROM after reset or power-on. These
parameters can be stored permanently in EEPROM using STGP command and
also explicitly restored (copied back from EEPROM into RAM) using RSGP.
GLOBAL PARAMETERS (BANK O)
Number Parameter Description Range Access
64
EEPROM magic
Setting this parameter to a different value as
$E4 will cause re-
initialization of the axis and
global parameters (to factory defaults) after
the next power up. This is useful in case of
miss-configuration.
0… 255
RWE
65
RS485 baud rate
0
9600 baud
Default
1
14400 baud
2
19200 baud
3
28800 baud
4
38400 baud
5
57600 baud
6
76800 baud
Not supported by Windows!
7
115200 baud
8
230400 baud
9
250000 baud
Not supported by Windows!
10
500000 baud
Not supported by Windows!
11
1000000 baud
Not supported by Windows!
0… 11
RWE
66
Serial address
The module (target) address for RS485.
0… 255
RWE
vd
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 73
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Number Parameter Description Range Access
67
ASCII mode
Configure the TMCL ASCII interface:
Bit 0: 0 start up in binary (normal) mode
1 start up in ASCII mode
Bits 4 and 5:
00 echo back each character
01 echo back complete command
10
do not send echo, only send command
reply
RWE
68
Serial heartbeat
Serial heartbeat for the RS485 interface. If this
time limit is up and no further command is
noticed the motor will be stopped.
0 parameter is disabled
[ms]
RWE
69 CAN bit rate 2 20kBit/s
3
50kBit/s
4
100kBit/s
5
125kBit/s
6 250kBit/s
7 500kBit/s
8
1000kBit/s
Default
2… 8 RWE
70
CAN reply ID
The CAN ID for replies from the board
(default: 2)
0… 7ff
RWE
71
CAN ID
The module (target) address for CAN (default:
1)
0… 7ff
RWE
73 Configuration
EEPROM lock flag
Write: 1234 to lock the
EEPROM, 4321 to
unlock it.
Read: 1=EEPROM locked, 0=EEPROM unlocked.
0/1 RWE
75 Telegram pause
time
Pause time before the reply via RS485 is sent.
For RS485 it is often necessary to set it to 15
(for RS485 adapters controlled by the RTS pin).
For CAN int
erface this parameter has no
effect!
0… 255 RWE
76 Serial host
address
Host address used in the reply telegrams sent
back via RS485.
0… 255 RWE
77
Auto start mode
0: Do not start TMCL application after power
up (default).
1: Start TMCL application
automatically after
power up.
0/1
RWE
79 End switch
polarity
0: normal polarity
1: reverse polarity
0/1 RWE
81 TMCL code
protection
Protect a TMCL program against disassembling
or overwriting.
0 no protection
1 protection against disassembling
2 protection against overwriting
3 protection against disassembling and
overwriting
If you switch off the protection against
disassembling, the program will be erased
first!
Changing this value from 1 or 3 to 0 or 2, the
TMCL program will be wiped off.
0,1,2,3 RWE
83 CAN secondary
address
Second CAN ID for the module. Switched off
when set to zero.
0… 7ff RWE
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 74
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Number Parameter Description Range Access
84
Coordinate
storage
0 coordinates are stored in the RAM only
(but can
be copied explicitly between RAM and
EEPROM)
1
coordinates are always stored in the
EEPROM
only
0/1
RWE
85 Do not restore
user variables
0 user variables are restored (default)
1 – user variables are not restored (default)
0/1 RWE
87 Serial secondary
address
Second module (target) address for RS485. 0… 255 RWE
128 TMCL application
status
0 stop
1 run
2 step
3 reset
0… 3 R
129 Download mode 0 normal mode
1 download mode
0/1 R
130 TMCL program
counter
The index of the currently executed TMCL
instruction.
R
132 Tick timer
A 32 bit counter that gets incremented by one
every millisecond. It can also be reset to any
start value.
0… 232 RW
133
Random number
Choose a random number.
0… 2147483647
RW
5.2 Bank 1
The global parameter bank 1 is normally not available. It may be used for customer specific extensions of
the firmware. Together with user definable commands these variables form the interface between
extensions of the firmware (written in C) and TMCL applications.
5.3 Bank 2
Bank 2 contains general purpose 32 bit variables for the use in TMCL applications. They are located in RAM
and the first 56 variables can be stored permanently in EEPROM, also. After booting, their values are
automatically restored to the RAM. Up to 256 user variables are available.
MEANING OF THE LETTERS IN COLUMN ACCESS
Access
Type
Related
Command(s)
Description
R
GGP
Parameter readable
W
SGP, AGP
Parameter writable
E STGP, RSGP Parameter automatically restored from EEPROM after reset or power-on. These
parameters can be stored permanently in EEPROM using STGP command and
also explicitly restored (copied back from EEPROM into RAM) using RSGP.
GENERAL PURPOSE VARIABLES FOR TMCL APPLICATIONS (BANK 2)
Number
Global parameter
Description
Range
Access
0… 55
general purpose variables #0…
#55
for use in TMCL applications
-2
31
… +2
31
RWE
56… 255
general purpose variables #56
#255
for use in TMCL applications -231… +231 RW
TMCM-1140 TMCL Firmware V1.27 Manual (Rev. 1.03 / 2013-SEP-02) 75