MachXO2™ Family Datasheet

Lattice Semiconductor Corporation

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Datasheet

MachXO2 Family Handbook
HB1010 Version 03.8, May 2013
May 2013
© 2013 Lattice Semiconductor Corp. All Lattice trademarks, registered trademarks, patents, and disclaimers are as listed at www.latticesemi.com/legal. All other brand
or product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders. The specifications and information herein are subject to change without notice.
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Section I. MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
Introduction
Features ............................................................................................................................................................. 1-1
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ 1-2
Architecture
Architecture Overview ........................................................................................................................................ 2-1
PFU Blocks ........................................................................................................................................................ 2-2
Slices......................................................................................................................................................... 2-3
Modes of Operation................................................................................................................................... 2-4
RAM Mode ................................................................................................................................................ 2-5
ROM Mode................................................................................................................................................ 2-5
Routing............................................................................................................................................................... 2-5
Clock/Control Distribution Network .................................................................................................................... 2-5
sysCLOCK Phase Locked Loops (PLLs) .................................................................................................. 2-7
sysMEM Embedded Block RAM Memory .......................................................................................................... 2-9
Programmable I/O Cells (PIC) ......................................................................................................................... 2-13
PIO ................................................................................................................................................................... 2-15
Input Register Block................................................................................................................................ 2-15
Output Register Block ............................................................................................................................. 2-16
Tri-state Register Block........................................................................................................................... 2-18
Input Gearbox .................................................................................................................................................. 2-18
Output Gearbox................................................................................................................................................ 2-20
DDR Memory Support...................................................................................................................................... 2-21
DQS Read Write Block..................................................................................................................................... 2-22
sysIO Buffer ..................................................................................................................................................... 2-22
Typical I/O Behavior During Power-up.................................................................................................... 2-23
Supported Standards .............................................................................................................................. 2-23
sysIO Buffer Banks ................................................................................................................................. 2-25
Hot Socketing................................................................................................................................................... 2-27
On-chip Oscillator............................................................................................................................................. 2-27
Embedded Hardened IP Functions and User Flash Memory........................................................................... 2-27
Hardened I2C IP Core............................................................................................................................. 2-28
Hardened SPI IP Core ............................................................................................................................ 2-29
Hardened Timer/Counter ........................................................................................................................ 2-30
User Flash Memory (UFM)............................................................................................................................... 2-32
Standby Mode and Power Saving Options ...................................................................................................... 2-32
Power On Reset............................................................................................................................................... 2-33
Configuration and Testing ................................................................................................................................ 2-34
IEEE 1149.1-Compliant Boundary Scan Testability................................................................................ 2-34
Device Configuration............................................................................................................................... 2-34
TraceID ............................................................................................................................................................ 2-35
Density Shifting ................................................................................................................................................ 2-35
DC and Switching Characteristics
Absolute Maximum Ratings ............................................................................................................................... 3-1
Recommended Operating Conditions ................................................................................................................ 3-1
Power Supply Ramp Rates ................................................................................................................................ 3-1
Power-On-Reset Voltage Levels........................................................................................................................ 3-2
Programming/Erase Specifications .................................................................................................................... 3-2
MachXO2 Family Handbook
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Hot Socketing Specifications.............................................................................................................................. 3-2
ESD Performance .............................................................................................................................................. 3-2
DC Electrical Characteristics.............................................................................................................................. 3-3
Static Supply Current – ZE Devices................................................................................................................... 3-4
Static Power Consumption Contribution of Different Components – ZE Devices .............................................. 3-4
Static Supply Current – HC/HE Devices ............................................................................................................ 3-5
Programming and Erase Flash Supply Current – ZE Devices ........................................................................... 3-5
Programming and Erase Flash Supply Current – HC/HE Devices .................................................................... 3-6
sysIO Recommended Operating Conditions...................................................................................................... 3-7
sysIO Single-Ended DC Electrical Characteristics............................................................................................. 3-8
sysIO Differential Electrical Characteristics ....................................................................................................... 3-9
LVDS......................................................................................................................................................... 3-9
LVDS Emulation...................................................................................................................................... 3-10
BLVDS .................................................................................................................................................... 3-11
LVPECL .................................................................................................................................................. 3-12
RSDS ...................................................................................................................................................... 3-13
Typical Building Block Function Performance – HC/HE Devices.....................................................................3-14
Pin-to-Pin Performance (LVCMOS25 12mA Drive) ................................................................................ 3-14
Register-to-Register Performance .......................................................................................................... 3-14
Typical Building Block Function Performance – ZE Devices ........................................................................... 3-15
Pin-to-Pin Performance (LVCMOS25 12mA Drive) ................................................................................ 3-15
Register-to-Register Performance .......................................................................................................... 3-15
Derating Logic Timing ...................................................................................................................................... 3-15
Maximum sysIO Buffer Performance ............................................................................................................... 3-16
MachXO2 External Switching Characteristics – HC/HE Devices..................................................................... 3-17
MachXO2 External Switching Characteristics – ZE Devices ........................................................................... 3-23
sysCLOCK PLL Timing .................................................................................................................................... 3-31
MachXO2 Oscillator Output Frequency ........................................................................................................... 3-33
MachXO2 Standby Mode Timing – ZE Devices............................................................................................... 3-33
MachXO2 Standby Mode Timing – HC/HE Devices ........................................................................................ 3-33
Flash Download Time ...................................................................................................................................... 3-34
JTAG Port Timing Specifications ..................................................................................................................... 3-34
sysCONFIG Port Timing Specifications ........................................................................................................... 3-36
I2C Port Timing Specifications ......................................................................................................................... 3-36
SPI Port Timing Specifications......................................................................................................................... 3-36
Switching Test Conditions................................................................................................................................ 3-37
Pinout Information
Signal Descriptions ............................................................................................................................................ 4-1
Pin Information Summary................................................................................................................................... 4-3
For Further Information ...................................................................................................................................... 4-8
Thermal Management ........................................................................................................................................ 4-8
For Further Information ............................................................................................................................. 4-8
Ordering Information
MachXO2 Part Number Description................................................................................................................... 5-1
Ordering Information .......................................................................................................................................... 5-1
Ultra Low Power Commercial Grade Devices, Halogen Free (RoHS) Packaging .................................... 5-2
High-Performance Commercial Grade Devices with Voltage Regulator,
Halogen Free (RoHS) Packaging ....................................................................................................... 5-4
High-Performance Commercial Grade Devices without Voltage Regulator,
Halogen Free (RoHS) Packaging ....................................................................................................... 5-8
Ultra Low Power Industrial Grade Devices, Halogen Free (RoHS) Packaging......................................... 5-9
High-Performance Industrial Grade Devices with Voltage Regulator,
Halogen Free (RoHS) Packaging ..................................................................................................... 5-13
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High Performance Industrial Grade Devices Without Voltage Regulator,
Halogen Free (RoHS) Packaging ..................................................................................................... 5-16
R1 Device Specifications ................................................................................................................................. 5-18
Supplemental Information
For Further Information ...................................................................................................................................... 6-1
Revision History
Section II. MachXO2 Family Technical Notes
Power Estimation and Management for MachXO2 Devices
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ 8-1
Power Modes ..................................................................................................................................................... 8-1
Power Controller ................................................................................................................................................ 8-2
Bank Controller .................................................................................................................................................. 8-5
Power Guard ...................................................................................................................................................... 8-6
Low Power Design Implementation.................................................................................................................... 8-7
Power Supply Sequencing and Hot Socketing................................................................................................... 8-8
Recommended Power-up Sequence ................................................................................................................. 8-8
Power Calculator................................................................................................................................................ 8-8
Power Calculator Hardware Assumptions................................................................................................. 8-9
Power Calculator and Power Equations.................................................................................................... 8-9
Typical and Worst Case Process Power/ICC.......................................................................................... 8-11
Junction Temperature ............................................................................................................................. 8-11
Maximum Safe Ambient Temperature .................................................................................................... 8-11
Operating Temperature Range ............................................................................................................... 8-11
Dynamic Power Multiplier (DPM) ............................................................................................................ 8-11
Power Budgeting..................................................................................................................................... 8-11
Dynamic Power Savings ......................................................................................................................... 8-12
Activity Factor Calculation....................................................................................................................... 8-12
Thermal Impedance and Airflow ............................................................................................................. 8-13
Reducing Power Consumption................................................................................................................ 8-13
Power Calculator Assumptions ............................................................................................................... 8-14
Technical Support Assistance.......................................................................................................................... 8-15
Revision History ............................................................................................................................................... 8-15
Using User Flash Memory and Hardened Control Functions in MachXO2 Devices
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ 9-1
WISHBONE Bus Interface ................................................................................................................................. 9-2
WISHBONE Protocol ................................................................................................................................ 9-3
WISHBONE Design Tips........................................................................................................................... 9-3
Generating an EFB Module with IPexpress ....................................................................................................... 9-3
Hardened I2C IP Cores...................................................................................................................................... 9-6
Primary I2C ............................................................................................................................................... 9-8
Secondary I2C .......................................................................................................................................... 9-9
Configuring I2C Cores with IPexpress .................................................................................................... 9-10
Hardened SPI IP Core ..................................................................................................................................... 9-14
SPI Interface Signals............................................................................................................................... 9-15
Configuring the SPI Core with IPexpress................................................................................................ 9-16
Timer/Counter .................................................................................................................................................. 9-20
Timer/Counter Modes of Operation......................................................................................................... 9-21
Timer/Counter IP Signals........................................................................................................................ 9-24
Configuring the Timer/Counter................................................................................................................ 9-24
Flash Memory (UFM/Configuration) Access .................................................................................................... 9-29
Flash Memory (UFM/Configuration) Access Ports........................................................................................... 9-29
Interface to UFM .............................................................................................................................................. 9-30
Initializing the UFM with IPexpress ......................................................................................................... 9-31
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Configuration Flash Memory ............................................................................................................................ 9-33
Interface to Dynamic PLL Configuration Settings ............................................................................................ 9-34
Technical Support Assistance.......................................................................................................................... 9-36
Revision History ............................................................................................................................................... 9-37
MachXO2 sysIO Usage Guide
Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................... 10-1
sysIO Buffer Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 10-1
Supported sysIO Standards ............................................................................................................................. 10-2
sysIO Banking Scheme.................................................................................................................................... 10-3
sysIO Standards Supported by I/O Banks ....................................................................................................... 10-5
Power Supply Requirements............................................................................................................................ 10-6
VCCIO Requirement for I/O Standards............................................................................................................ 10-6
Input Reference Voltage ......................................................................................................................... 10-8
sysIO Buffer Configuration ............................................................................................................................... 10-9
LVCMOS Buffer Configurations .............................................................................................................. 10-9
Differential Buffer Configurations .......................................................................................................... 10-10
True Differential Output And Output Drive ............................................................................................ 10-10
Software sysIO Attributes............................................................................................................................... 10-10
HDL Attributes....................................................................................................................................... 10-10
sysIO Primitives .................................................................................................................................... 10-14
Design Consideration and Usage .................................................................................................................. 10-15
sysIO Buffer Features Common to All MachXO2 Devices.................................................................... 10-15
sysIO Buffer Rules Specific to MachXO2-256 and MachXO2-640 ....................................................... 10-15
sysIO Buffer Rules Specific to MachXO2-640U, MachXO2-1200/U,
MachXO2-2000/U, MachXO2-4000, and MachXO2-7000 ............................................................. 10-15
Technical Support Assistance........................................................................................................................ 10-16
Revision History ............................................................................................................................................. 10-16
Appendix A. sysIO HDL Attributes ................................................................................................................. 10-17
Attributes in VHDL Language................................................................................................................ 10-17
PULLMODE .......................................................................................................................................... 10-18
Attributes in Verilog Language .............................................................................................................. 10-19
Appendix B. sysIO Attributes Using the Spreadsheet View ........................................................................... 10-21
VREF Assignment in the Spreadsheet View.........................................................................................10-22
Bank VCCIO Setting in the Spreadsheet View ..................................................................................... 10-22
Appendix C. sysIO Attributes Using Preference File (ASCII File) .................................................................. 10-23
Implementing High-Speed Interfaces with MachXO2 Devices
Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................... 11-1
Architecture for High-Speed Interfaces ............................................................................................................ 11-1
Gearing Logic Distribution....................................................................................................................... 11-1
Different Types of I/O Logic Cells ........................................................................................................... 11-2
Clock Domain Transfer at PIO Cells ....................................................................................................... 11-5
External High-Speed Interface Description ...................................................................................................... 11-7
High-Speed Interface Building Blocks.............................................................................................................. 11-8
ECLK....................................................................................................................................................... 11-8
ECLKSYNC............................................................................................................................................. 11-8
SCLK....................................................................................................................................................... 11-8
CLKDIV ................................................................................................................................................... 11-8
PLL.......................................................................................................................................................... 11-8
DQSDLL.................................................................................................................................................. 11-9
Input DDR (IDDR) ................................................................................................................................... 11-9
Output DDR (ODDR)............................................................................................................................... 11-9
Delays ..................................................................................................................................................... 11-9
DQSBUF ................................................................................................................................................. 11-9
IDDRDQS................................................................................................................................................ 11-9
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ODDRDQS............................................................................................................................................ 11-10
Generic High-Speed DDR Interfaces ............................................................................................................. 11-10
High-Speed GDDR Interface Types...................................................................................................... 11-10
High-Speed GDDR Interface Details..................................................................................................... 11-11
Using IPexpress to build Generic High-Speed DDR Interfaces ..................................................................... 11-23
Building the SDR Interface.................................................................................................................... 11-24
Building DDR Generic Interfaces .......................................................................................................... 11-26
Building a Generic DDR 7:1 Interface................................................................................................... 11-30
Generic High-Speed DDR Design Guidelines................................................................................................ 11-32
I/O Logic Cells and Gearing Logic ........................................................................................................ 11-32
High-Speed ECLK Bridge ..................................................................................................................... 11-33
Reset Synchronization Requirement..................................................................................................... 11-33
Timing Analysis for High-Speed GDDR Interfaces ............................................................................... 11-34
DDR/DDR2/LPDDR SDRAM Interfaces Overview......................................................................................... 11-39
DDR/DDR2/LPDDR SDRAM Interfaces Implementation ............................................................................... 11-41
DQS Grouping....................................................................................................................................... 11-42
DQS Circuitry ........................................................................................................................................ 11-42
I/O Logic Data Path............................................................................................................................... 11-43
DDR/DDR2/LPDDR Memory READ Implementation............................................................................ 11-43
DDR/DDR2/LPDDR Memory WRITE Implementation .......................................................................... 11-43
DDR Memory Interface Generation Using IPexpress .................................................................................... 11-45
DDR Memory DQ/DQS Design Rules and Guidelines...................................................................................11-48
DDR/DDR2/LPDDR Pinout Guidelines .......................................................................................................... 11-49
DDR Software Primitives and Attributes ........................................................................................................ 11-49
Input DDR Primitives............................................................................................................................. 11-50
Output DDR Primitives .......................................................................................................................... 11-52
DDR Control Logic Primitives................................................................................................................ 11-54
Technical Support Assistance........................................................................................................................ 11-59
Revision History ............................................................................................................................................. 11-60
Memory Usage Guide for MachXO2 Devices
Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................... 12-1
Memories in MachXO2 Devices....................................................................................................................... 12-1
Utilizing IPexpress............................................................................................................................................ 12-2
IPexpress Flow........................................................................................................................................ 12-3
ECC in Memory Modules ........................................................................................................................ 12-6
IP Regeneration/Modification .................................................................................................................. 12-7
Utilizing PMI ............................................................................................................................................ 12-8
Memory Module Inference ...................................................................................................................... 12-8
IPexpress Memory Modules............................................................................................................................. 12-8
Single Port RAM (RAM_DQ) – EBR Based ............................................................................................12-8
Dual Port RAM (RAM_DP_TRUE) – EBR Based ................................................................................. 12-12
Pseudo Dual Port RAM (RAM_DP) – EBR Based ................................................................................ 12-19
Read Only Memory (ROM) – EBR Based............................................................................................. 12-22
First In First Out (FIFO_DC) – EBR Based ........................................................................................... 12-23
FIFO_DC Flags .............................................................................................................................................. 12-24
FIFO_DC Dual and Dynamic Threshold Options ........................................................................................... 12-25
FIFO_DC Operation ....................................................................................................................................... 12-25
Distributed Single Port RAM (Distributed_SPRAM) – PFU Based........................................................ 12-27
Distributed Dual Port RAM (Distributed_DPRAM) – PFU Based .......................................................... 12-29
Distributed ROM (Distributed_ROM) – PFU-Based .............................................................................. 12-31
RAM-Based Shift Register .................................................................................................................... 12-32
MachXO2 Primitives....................................................................................................................................... 12-34
Single Port RAM (SP8KC) – EBR Based.............................................................................................. 12-34
True Dual Port RAM (DP8KC) – EBR-Based........................................................................................ 12-36
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Pseudo Dual Port RAM (PDPW8KC) – EBR-Based ............................................................................. 12-38
Dual-Clock FIFO (FIFO8KB) – EBR Based .......................................................................................... 12-40
FIFO_DC Flags ..................................................................................................................................... 12-41
Distributed SPRAM (SPR16X4C) – PFU Based ................................................................................... 12-42
Distributed DPRAM (DPR16X4C) – PFU Based................................................................................... 12-43
Distributed ROM (ROMnnnX1A) – PFU Based..................................................................................... 12-43
Initializing Memory ......................................................................................................................................... 12-44
Initialization File Format ........................................................................................................................ 12-44
Technical Support Assistance........................................................................................................................ 12-46
Revision History ............................................................................................................................................. 12-46
Appendix A. Attribute Definitions.................................................................................................................... 12-47
DATA_WIDTH....................................................................................................................................... 12-47
REGMODE............................................................................................................................................ 12-47
RESETMODE ....................................................................................................................................... 12-47
CSDECODE.......................................................................................................................................... 12-47
WRITEMODE........................................................................................................................................ 12-47
GSR ...................................................................................................................................................... 12-47
ASYNC_RESET_RELEASE ................................................................................................................. 12-48
INIT_DATA............................................................................................................................................ 12-48
Appendix B. Setting FIFO_DC Pointer Attributes........................................................................................... 12-49
MachXO2 sysCLOCK PLL Design and Usage Guide
Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................... 13-1
Clock/Control Distribution Network .................................................................................................................. 13-1
MachXO2 Top Level View................................................................................................................................ 13-1
Primary Clocks ................................................................................................................................................. 13-2
Dynamic Clock Mux (DCMA) ........................................................................................................................... 13-2
DCMA Primitive Definition....................................................................................................................... 13-2
DCMA Declaration in VHDL Source Code .............................................................................................. 13-3
DCMA Usage with Verilog Source Code................................................................................................. 13-3
Dynamic Clock Control (DCCA) ....................................................................................................................... 13-4
DCCA Primitive Definition ....................................................................................................................... 13-4
DCCA Declaration in VHDL Source Code .............................................................................................. 13-4
DCCA Usage with Verilog Source Code ................................................................................................. 13-5
Edge Clocks ..................................................................................................................................................... 13-5
Edge Clock Bridge .................................................................................................................................. 13-5
ECLKBRIDGECS Primitive Definition .............................................................................................................. 13-5
ECLKBRIDGECS Declaration in VHDL Source Code ............................................................................ 13-6
ECLKBRIDGECS Usage with Verilog Source Code ............................................................................... 13-6
Edge Clock Synchronization (ECLKSYNCA) ................................................................................................... 13-7
ECLKSYNCA Primitive Definition............................................................................................................ 13-7
ECLKSYNCA Declaration in VHDL Source Code................................................................................... 13-7
ECLKSYNCA Usage with Verilog Source Code ..................................................................................... 13-8
Secondary High Fan-out Nets.......................................................................................................................... 13-8
Clock Dividers (CLKDIVC) ............................................................................................................................... 13-8
CLKDIVC Primitive Definition.................................................................................................................. 13-9
CLKDIVC Declaration in VHDL Source Code .........................................................................................13-9
CLKDIVC Usage with Verilog Source Code..........................................................................................13-10
CLKDIVC Instantiation .......................................................................................................................... 13-10
sysCLOCK PLL .............................................................................................................................................. 13-11
Functional Description........................................................................................................................... 13-11
PLL Features......................................................................................................................................... 13-12
PLL Inputs and Outputs ........................................................................................................................ 13-12
PLL Attributes........................................................................................................................................ 13-16
MachXO2 PLL Primitive Definition ................................................................................................................. 13-17
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Dynamic Phase Adjustment ........................................................................................................................... 13-18
Frequency Calculation ................................................................................................................................... 13-19
Fractional-N Synthesis Operation .................................................................................................................. 13-20
Low Power Features ...................................................................................................................................... 13-20
Dynamic Clock Enable .......................................................................................................................... 13-20
Standby Mode....................................................................................................................................... 13-21
Configuring the PLL Using IPexpress ............................................................................................................ 13-21
Configuration Tab.................................................................................................................................. 13-22
Configuration Modes ............................................................................................................................. 13-22
IPexpress Output .................................................................................................................................. 13-25
Use of the Pre-MAP Preference Editor ................................................................................................. 13-25
PLL Reference Clock Switch (PLLREFCS).................................................................................................... 13-26
Internal Oscillator (OSCH) ............................................................................................................................. 13-27
OSCH Primitive Definition ..................................................................................................................... 13-27
OSCH Declaration in VHDL Source Code ............................................................................................13-28
Technical Support Assistance........................................................................................................................ 13-29
Revision History ............................................................................................................................................. 13-29
Appendix A. Primary Clock Sources and Distribution .................................................................................... 13-31
Appendix B. Edge Clock Sources and Connectivity....................................................................................... 13-33
Appendix C. Clock Preferences ..................................................................................................................... 13-35
Appendix D. PLL WISHBONE Bus Operation................................................................................................ 13-38
PLL Architecture.................................................................................................................................... 13-38
Appendix E. MachXO2 Device Usage with Lattice Diamond Design Software.............................................. 13-46
MachXO2 Programming and Configuration Usage Guide
Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................... 14-1
MachXO2 Features .......................................................................................................................................... 14-1
Definition of Terms ........................................................................................................................................... 14-1
Configuration Details........................................................................................................................................ 14-2
Configuration Process and Flow ...................................................................................................................... 14-3
Power-up Sequence................................................................................................................................ 14-4
Initialization ............................................................................................................................................. 14-4
Configuration........................................................................................................................................... 14-4
Wake-up.................................................................................................................................................. 14-5
User Mode............................................................................................................................................... 14-5
Clearing the Configuration Memory and Re-initialization ........................................................................ 14-5
Memory Space Accessibility ................................................................................................................... 14-6
Bitstream/PROM Sizes ........................................................................................................................... 14-6
Feature Row............................................................................................................................................ 14-7
Configuration Modes ............................................................................................................................... 14-9
sysCONFIG™ Ports................................................................................................................................ 14-9
sysCONFIG Pins..................................................................................................................................... 14-9
Configuration Modes ...................................................................................................................................... 14-17
SDM Mode ............................................................................................................................................ 14-17
Master SPI Configuration Mode (MSPI)................................................................................................ 14-18
Dual Boot Configuration Mode .............................................................................................................. 14-20
Slave SPI Mode (SSPI)......................................................................................................................... 14-21
I2C Configuration Mode ........................................................................................................................ 14-22
WISHBONE Configuration Mode .......................................................................................................... 14-24
JTAG Mode ........................................................................................................................................... 14-25
TransFR Operation ............................................................................................................................... 14-25
Software Selectable Options.......................................................................................................................... 14-26
Configuration Mode and Port Options................................................................................................... 14-26
Bitstream Generation Options............................................................................................................... 14-29
Security Options.................................................................................................................................... 14-31
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Device Wake-up Sequence............................................................................................................................ 14-32
Wake-up Signals................................................................................................................................... 14-33
Wake-up Clock Selection...................................................................................................................... 14-33
Advanced Configuration Information.............................................................................................................. 14-34
Flash Programming............................................................................................................................... 14-34
MachXO2 JEDEC File Format .............................................................................................................. 14-35
MachXO2 Flash Memory Programming Flow ....................................................................................... 14-38
MachXO2 Programming Commands ....................................................................................................14-46
Reading Flash Pages............................................................................................................................ 14-47
References..................................................................................................................................................... 14-48
Technical Support Assistance........................................................................................................................ 14-48
Revision History ............................................................................................................................................. 14-49
Using TraceID in
MachXO2 Devices ...................................................................................................................................... 15-1
Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................... 15-1
Why is TraceID Important? .............................................................................................................................. 15-1
How Does TraceID Work? ............................................................................................................................... 15-1
How to Program User-Defined Code of the TraceID........................................................................................ 15-2
Accessing the TraceID Register....................................................................................................................... 15-2
TraceID Access Through the JTAG Port................................................................................................. 15-3
TraceID Access Through the WISHBONE Slave Interface..................................................................... 15-3
TraceID Access Through the Slave SPI Port .......................................................................................... 15-4
TraceID Access Through the I2C Port .................................................................................................... 15-4
Example Uses of TraceID ................................................................................................................................ 15-6
Technical Support Assistance.......................................................................................................................... 15-6
Revision History ............................................................................................................................................... 15-6
MachXO2 SED Usage Guide
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ 1-1
SED Overview.................................................................................................................................................... 1-1
SED Limitations.................................................................................................................................................. 1-2
SED Operating Modes ....................................................................................................................................... 1-2
Standard SED ........................................................................................................................................... 1-3
One-Shot SED .......................................................................................................................................... 1-3
Signal Descriptions ............................................................................................................................................ 1-4
SED Clock Driver ............................................................................................................................................... 1-4
SED Attributes.................................................................................................................................................... 1-4
Port Descriptions................................................................................................................................................ 1-5
SEDENABLE............................................................................................................................................. 1-5
SEDSTART ............................................................................................................................................... 1-5
SEDFRCERR............................................................................................................................................ 1-5
SEDSTDBY............................................................................................................................................... 1-5
SEDCLKOUT ............................................................................................................................................ 1-5
SEDDONE ................................................................................................................................................ 1-6
SEDINPROG............................................................................................................................................. 1-6
SEDERR ................................................................................................................................................... 1-6
SED Flow ........................................................................................................................................................... 1-6
Timing Diagram for SED Operation ................................................................................................................... 1-7
SED Run Time ................................................................................................................................................... 1-7
Sample Code ..................................................................................................................................................... 1-8
SED VHDL Examples ............................................................................................................................... 1-8
SED Verilog Examples.............................................................................................................................. 1-9
Technical Support Assistance............................................................................................................................ 1-9
Revision History ............................................................................................................................................... 1-10
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Using User Flash Memory and Hardened Control Functions
in MachXO2 Devices Reference Guide
Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................... 17-1
EFB Register Map................................................................................................................................... 17-2
WISBONE Bus Interface ......................................................................................................................... 17-3
WISHBONE Write Cycle ......................................................................................................................... 17-4
WISHBONE Read Cycle ......................................................................................................................... 17-5
WISHBONE Reset Cycle ........................................................................................................................ 17-6
Hardened I2C IP Cores.................................................................................................................................... 17-7
I2C Registers .......................................................................................................................................... 17-7
I2C Framing ................................................................................................................................................... 17-15
I2C Functional Waveforms............................................................................................................................. 17-16
I2C Timing Diagram ....................................................................................................................................... 17-18
I2C Simulation Model ..................................................................................................................................... 17-18
Hardened SPI IP Core ................................................................................................................................... 17-21
SPI Registers ................................................................................................................................................. 17-21
SPI Framing ................................................................................................................................................... 17-30
SPI Functional Waveforms............................................................................................................................. 17-31
SPI Timing Diagrams ..................................................................................................................................... 17-32
SPI Simulation Model..................................................................................................................................... 17-34
Hardened Timer/Counter PWM...................................................................................................................... 17-36
Timer/Counter Registers ....................................................................................................................... 17-36
Timer Counter Simulation Model.................................................................................................................... 17-43
Flash Memory (UFM/Configuration) Access .................................................................................................. 17-44
Flash Memory (UFM/Configuration) Access Ports................................................................................ 17-45
Flash Memory (UFM/Configuration) Access through WISHBONE Slave Interface .............................. 17-46
WISHBONE Framing ..................................................................................................................................... 17-50
Command and Data Transfers to Flash Memory (UFM/Configuration) Space ..................................... 17-50
Command Summary by Application...................................................................................................... 17-51
Command Descriptions by Command Code......................................................................................... 17-53
Interface to Configuration Flash ..................................................................................................................... 17-64
Flash Memory Erase and Program Performance........................................................................................... 17-66
Erase/Program/Verify Time Calculation Example .......................................................................................... 17-66
UFM Write and Read Examples..................................................................................................................... 17-66
Technical Support Assistance........................................................................................................................ 17-70
Revision History ............................................................................................................................................. 17-70
MachXO2 Hardware Checklist
Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................... 18-1
Power Supply ................................................................................................................................................... 18-1
Power Estimation ............................................................................................................................................. 18-2
Configuration Considerations........................................................................................................................... 18-2
PROGRAMN Initial Power Considerations ...................................................................................................... 18-3
Pin-out Considerations..................................................................................................................................... 18-3
True-LVDS Output Pin Assignments................................................................................................................ 18-3
HSTL, SSTL and Referenced LVCMOS Pin Assignments .............................................................................. 18-3
PCI Clamp Pin Assignment.............................................................................................................................. 18-4
Checklist........................................................................................................................................................... 18-4
Technical Support Assistance.......................................................................................................................... 18-4
Revision History ............................................................................................................................................... 18-4
Section III. MachXO2 Family Handbook Revision History
Revision History
Revision History ............................................................................................................................................... 19-1
Section I. MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
DS1035 Version 02.0, January 2013
www.latticesemi.com 1-1 DS1035 Introduction_01.6
January 2013 Data Sheet DS1035
© 2013 Lattice Semiconductor Corp. All Lattice trademarks, registered trademarks, patents, and disclaimers are as listed at www.latticesemi.com/legal. All other brand
or product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders. The specifications and information herein are subject to change without notice.
Features
Flexible Logic Architecture
Six devices with 256 to 6864 LUT4s and
19 to 335 I/Os
Ultra Low Power Devices
Advanced 65 nm low power process
As low as 19 µW standby power
Programmable low swing differential I/Os
Stand-by mode and other power saving options
Embedded and Distributed Memory
Up to 240 Kbits sysMEM™ Embedded Block
RAM
Up to 54 Kbits Distributed RAM
Dedicated FIFO control logic
On-Chip User Flash Memory
Up to 256 Kbits of User Flash Memory
100,000 write cycles
Accessible through WISHBONE, SPI, I2C and
JTAG interfaces
Can be used as soft processor PROM or as
Flash memory
Pre-Engineered Source Synchronous I/O
DDR registers in I/O cells
Dedicated gearing logic
7:1 Gearing for Display I/Os
Generic DDR, DDRX2, DDRX4
Dedicated DDR/DDR2/LPDDR memory with
DQS support
High Performance, Flexible I/O Buffer
Programmable sysIO™ buffer supports wide
range of interfaces:
LVCMOS 3.3/2.5/1.8/1.5/1.2
– LVTTL
–PCI
LVDS, Bus-LVDS, MLVDS, RSDS, LVPECL
SSTL 25/18
HSTL 18
Schmitt trigger inputs, up to 0.5V hysteresis
I/Os support hot socketing
On-chip differential termination
Programmable pull-up or pull-down mode
Flexible On-Chip Clocking
Eight primary clocks
Up to two edge clocks for high-speed I/O
interfaces (top and bottom sides only)
Up to two analog PLLs per device with
fractional-n frequency synthesis
Wide input frequency range (10 MHz to
400 MHz)
Non-volatile, Infinitely Reconfigurable
Instant-on – powers up in microseconds
Single-chip, secure solution
Programmable through JTAG, SPI or I2C
Supports background programming of non-vola-
tile memory
Optional dual boot with external SPI memory
TransFR™ Reconfiguration
In-field logic update while system operates
Enhanced System Level Support
On-chip hardened functions: SPI, I2C, timer/
counter
On-chip oscillator with 5.5% accuracy
Unique TraceID for system tracking
One Time Programmable (OTP) mode
Single power supply with extended operating
range
IEEE Standard 1149.1 boundary scan
IEEE 1532 compliant in-system programming
Broad Range of Package Options
TQFP, WLCSP, ucBGA, csBGA, caBGA, ftBGA,
fpBGA, QFN package options
Small footprint package options
As small as 2.5x2.5mm
Density migration supported
Advanced halogen-free packaging
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
Introduction
1-2
Introduction
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
Table 1-1. MachXO2™ Family Selection Guide
Introduction
The MachXO2 family of ultra low power, instant-on, non-volatile PLDs has six devices with densities ranging from
256 to 6864 Look-Up Tables (LUTs). In addition to LUT-based, low-cost programmable logic these devices feature
Embedded Block RAM (EBR), Distributed RAM, User Flash Memory (UFM), Phase Locked Loops (PLLs), pre-
engineered source synchronous I/O support, advanced configuration support including dual-boot capability and
hardened versions of commonly used functions such as SPI controller, I2C controller and timer/counter. These fea-
tures allow these devices to be used in low cost, high volume consumer and system applications.
The MachXO2 devices are designed on a 65nm non-volatile low power process. The device architecture has sev-
eral features such as programmable low swing differential I/Os and the ability to turn off I/O banks, on-chip PLLs
XO2-256 XO2-640 XO2-640U1XO2-1200 XO2-1200U1XO2-2000 XO2-2000U1XO2-4000 XO2-7000
LUTs 256 640 640 12801280 2112 2112 4320 6864
Distributed RAM (Kbits) 255101016163454
EBR SRAM (Kbits) 01864 64 74 74 92 92 240
Number of EBR SRAM
Blocks (9 Kbits/block)
Device Options
027788 10 10 26
UFM (Kbits) 0

24 64 64 8080 96 96 256
Number of PLLs
Packages I/Os
0
HC2
HE3
ZE4
011 11 2 22
Hardened Functions:
I
2
C
SPI
Timer/Counter
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
25 WLCSP
5
(2.5 x 2.5mm, 0.4mm)
32 QFN
6
(5 x 5mm, 0.5mm)
18
64 ucBGA
(4 x 4mm, 0.4mm) 44
21
100 TQFP
(14 x 14mm)
132 csBGA
(8 x 8mm, 0.5mm)
144 TQFP
(20 x 20mm)
256 caBGA
(14 x 14mm, 0.8mm)
256 ftBGA
(17 x 17mm, 1.0mm)
332 caBGA
(17 x 17mm, 0.8mm)
484 fpBGA
(23 x 23mm, 1.0mm)
1. Ultra high I/O device.
2. High performance with regulator – V
CC
= 2.5V, 3.3V
3. High performance without regulator – V
CC
= 1.2V
4. Low power without regulator – V
CC
= 1.2V
5. WLCSP package only available for ZE devices.
6. QFN package only available for HC and ZE devices.
7. 184 csBGA package only available for HE devices.
278278334
274 278
206206 206 206
206 206 206
107 107 111 114 114
55 79 104 104 104
55 7879 79
184 csBGA
7
(8 x 8mm, 0.5mm) 150
1-3
Introduction
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
and oscillators dynamically. These features help manage static and dynamic power consumption resulting in low
static power for all members of the family.
The MachXO2 devices are available in two versions – ultra low power (ZE) and high performance (HC and HE)
devices. The ultra low power devices are offered in three speed grades -1, -2 and -3, with -3 being the fastest. Sim-
ilarly, the high-performance devices are offered in three speed grades: -4, -5 and -6, with -6 being the fastest. HC
devices have an internal linear voltage regulator which supports external VCC supply voltages of 3.3V or 2.5V. ZE
and HE devices only accept 1.2V as the external VCC supply voltage. With the exception of power supply voltage
all three types of devices (ZE, HC and HE) are functionally compatible and pin compatible with each other.
The MachXO2 PLDs are available in a broad range of advanced halogen-free packages ranging from the space
saving 2.5x2.5 mm WLCSP to the 23x23 mm fpBGA. MachXO2 devices support density migration within the same
package. Table 1-1 shows the LUT densities, package and I/O options, along with other key parameters.
The pre-engineered source synchronous logic implemented in the MachXO2 device family supports a broad range
of interface standards, including LPDDR, DDR, DDR2 and 7:1 gearing for display I/Os.
The MachXO2 devices offer enhanced I/O features such as drive strength control, slew rate control, PCI compati-
bility, bus-keeper latches, pull-up resistors, pull-down resistors, open drain outputs and hot socketing. Pull-up, pull-
down and bus-keeper features are controllable on a “per-pin” basis.
A user-programmable internal oscillator is included in MachXO2 devices. The clock output from this oscillator may
be divided by the timer/counter for use as clock input in functions such as LED control, key-board scanner and sim-
ilar state machines.
The MachXO2 devices also provide flexible, reliable and secure configuration from on-chip Flash memory. These
devices can also configure themselves from external SPI Flash or be configured by an external master through the
JTAG test access port or through the I2C port. Additionally, MachXO2 devices support dual-boot capability (using
external Flash memory) and remote field upgrade (TransFR) capability.
Lattice provides a variety of design tools that allow complex designs to be efficiently implemented using the
MachXO2 family of devices. Popular logic synthesis tools provide synthesis library support for MachXO2. Lattice
design tools use the synthesis tool output along with the user-specified preferences and constraints to place and
route the design in the MachXO2 device. These tools extract the timing from the routing and back-annotate it into
the design for timing verification.
Lattice provides many pre-engineered IP (Intellectual Property) LatticeCORE™ modules, including a number of
reference designs licensed free of charge, optimized for the MachXO2 PLD family. By using these configurable soft
core IP cores as standardized blocks, users are free to concentrate on the unique aspects of their design, increas-
ing their productivity.
www.latticesemi.com 2-1 DS1035 Architecture_01.5
January 2013 Data Sheet DS1035
© 2013 Lattice Semiconductor Corp. All Lattice trademarks, registered trademarks, patents, and disclaimers are as listed at www.latticesemi.com/legal. All other brand
or product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders. The specifications and information herein are subject to change without notice.
Architecture Overview
The MachXO2 family architecture contains an array of logic blocks surrounded by Programmable I/O (PIO). The
larger logic density devices in this family have sysCLOCK™ PLLs and blocks of sysMEM Embedded Block RAM
(EBRs). Figures 2-1 and 2-2 show the block diagrams of the various family members.
Figure 2-1. Top View of the MachXO2-1200 Device
Figure 2-2. Top View of the MachXO2-4000 Device
sysMEM Embedded
Block RAM (EBR)
sysCLOCK PLL
PIOs Arranged into
sysIO Banks
Programmable Function Units
with Distributed RAM (PFUs)
Embedded Function
Block (EFB)
User Flash Memory
(UFM)
On-chip Configuration
Flash Memory
Note: MachXO2-256, and MachXO2-640/U are similar to MachXO2-1200. MachXO2-256 has a lower LUT count and no PLL or EBR blocks.
MachXO2-640 has no PLL, a lower LUT count and two EBR blocks. MachXO2-640U has a lower LUT count, one PLL and seven EBR blocks.
sysMEM Embedded
Block RAM (EBR)
Programmable Function Units
with Distributed RAM (PFUs)
On-chip Configuration
Flash Memory
sysCLOCK PLL
PIOs Arranged into
sysIO Banks
Embedded
Function Block(EFB)
User Flash
Memory (UFM)
Note: MachXO2-1200U, MachXO2-2000/U and MachXO2-7000 are similar to MachXO2-4000. MachXO2-1200U and MachXO2-2000 have a lower LUT count,
one PLL, and eight EBR blocks. MachXO2-2000U has a lower LUT count, two PLLs, and 10 EBR blocks. MachXO2-7000 has a higher LUT count, two PLLs,
and 26 EBR blocks.
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
Architecture
2-2
Architecture
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
The logic blocks, Programmable Functional Unit (PFU) and sysMEM EBR blocks, are arranged in a two-dimen-
sional grid with rows and columns. Each row has either the logic blocks or the EBR blocks. The PIO cells are
located at the periphery of the device, arranged in banks. The PFU contains the building blocks for logic, arithmetic,
RAM, ROM, and register functions. The PIOs utilize a flexible I/O buffer referred to as a sysIO buffer that supports
operation with a variety of interface standards. The blocks are connected with many vertical and horizontal routing
channel resources. The place and route software tool automatically allocates these routing resources.
In the MachXO2 family, the number of sysIO banks varies by device. There are different types of I/O buffers on the
different banks. Refer to the details in later sections of this document. The sysMEM EBRs are large, dedicated fast
memory blocks; these blocks are found in MachXO2-640/U and larger devices. These blocks can be configured as
RAM, ROM or FIFO. FIFO support includes dedicated FIFO pointer and flag “hard” control logic to minimize LUT
usage.
The MachXO2 architecture also provides up to two sysCLOCK Phase Locked Loop (PLL) blocks on MachXO2-
640U, MachXO2-1200/U and larger devices. These blocks are located at the ends of the on-chip Flash block. The
PLLs have multiply, divide, and phase shifting capabilities that are used to manage the frequency and phase rela-
tionships of the clocks.
MachXO2 devices provide commonly used hardened functions such as SPI controller, I2C controller and timer/
counter. MachXO2-640/U and higher density devices also provide User Flash Memory (UFM). These hardened
functions and the UFM interface to the core logic and routing through a WISHBONE interface. The UFM can also
be accessed through the SPI, I2C and JTAG ports.
Every device in the family has a JTAG port that supports programming and configuration of the device as well as
access to the user logic. The MachXO2 devices are available for operation from 3.3V, 2.5V and 1.2V power sup-
plies, providing easy integration into the overall system.
PFU Blocks
The core of the MachXO2 device consists of PFU blocks, which can be programmed to perform logic, arithmetic,
distributed RAM and distributed ROM functions. Each PFU block consists of four interconnected slices numbered 0
to 3 as shown in Figure 2-3. Each slice contains two LUTs and two registers. There are 53 inputs and 25 outputs
associated with each PFU block.
Figure 2-3. PFU Block Diagram
Slice 0
LUT4 &
CARRY
LUT4 &
CARRY
FF/
Latch
FCIN FCO
D FF/
Latch
D
Slice 1
LUT4 &
CARRY
LUT4 &
CARRY
Slice 2
LUT4 &
CARRY
LUT4 &
CARRY
From
Routin g
To
Routin g
Slice 3
LUT4 &
CARRY
LUT4 &
CARRY
FF/
Latch
D FF/
Latch
D FF/
Latch
D FF/
Latch
D FF/
Latch
D FF/
Latch
D
2-3
Architecture
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
Slices
Slices 0-3 contain two LUT4s feeding two registers. Slices 0-2 can be configured as distributed memory. Table 2-1
shows the capability of the slices in PFU blocks along with the operation modes they enable. In addition, each PFU
contains logic that allows the LUTs to be combined to perform functions such as LUT5, LUT6, LUT7 and LUT8.
The control logic performs set/reset functions (programmable as synchronous/ asynchronous), clock select, chip-
select and wider RAM/ROM functions.
Table 2-1. Resources and Modes Available per Slice
Figure 2-4 shows an overview of the internal logic of the slice. The registers in the slice can be configured for posi-
tive/negative and edge triggered or level sensitive clocks. All slices have 15 inputs from routing and one from the
carry-chain (from the adjacent slice or PFU). There are seven outputs: six for routing and one to carry-chain (to the
adjacent PFU). Table 2-2 lists the signals associated with Slices 0-3.
Figure 2-4. Slice Diagram
Slice
PFU Block
Resources Modes
Slice 0 2 LUT4s and 2 Registers Logic, Ripple, RAM, ROM
Slice 1 2 LUT4s and 2 Registers Logic, Ripple, RAM, ROM
Slice 2 2 LUT4s and 2 Registers Logic, Ripple, RAM, ROM
Slice 3 2 LUT4s and 2 Registers Logic, Ripple, ROM
LUT4 &
Carry
Slice
Flip-flop/
Latch
OFX0
F0
Q0
CI
CO
LUT4 &
Carry
CI
CO
OFX1
F1
Q1
F/SUM
F/SUM D
D
FCI From
Different
Slice/PFU
Memory &
Control
Signals
FCO To Different Slice/PFU
LUT5
Mux
From
Routing
To
Routing
For Slices 0 and 1, memory control signals are generated from Slice 2 as follows:
• WCK is CLK
• WRE is from LSR
• DI[3:2] for Slice 1 and DI[1:0] for Slice 0 data from Slice 2
• WAD [A:D] is a 4-bit address from slice 2 LUT input
A0
C0
D0
A1
B1
C1
D1
CE
CLK
LSR
M1
M0
FXB
FXA
B0
Flip-flop/
Latch
2-4
Architecture
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
Table 2-2. Slice Signal Descriptions
Modes of Operation
Each slice has up to four potential modes of operation: Logic, Ripple, RAM and ROM.
Logic Mode
In this mode, the LUTs in each slice are configured as 4-input combinatorial lookup tables. A LUT4 can have 16
possible input combinations. Any four input logic functions can be generated by programming this lookup table.
Since there are two LUT4s per slice, a LUT5 can be constructed within one slice. Larger look-up tables such as
LUT6, LUT7 and LUT8 can be constructed by concatenating other slices. Note LUT8 requires more than four
slices.
Ripple Mode
Ripple mode supports the efficient implementation of small arithmetic functions. In Ripple mode, the following func-
tions can be implemented by each slice:
Addition 2-bit
Subtraction 2-bit
Add/subtract 2-bit using dynamic control
Up counter 2-bit
Down counter 2-bit
Up/down counter with asynchronous clear
Up/down counter with preload (sync)
Ripple mode multiplier building block
Multiplier support
Comparator functions of A and B inputs
A greater-than-or-equal-to B
A not-equal-to B
A less-than-or-equal-to B
Function Type Signal Names Description
Input Data signal A0, B0, C0, D0 Inputs to LUT4
Input Data signal A1, B1, C1, D1 Inputs to LUT4
Input Multi-purpose M0/M1 Multi-purpose input
Input Control signal CE Clock enable
Input Control signal LSR Local set/reset
Input Control signal CLK System clock
Input Inter-PFU signal FCIN Fast carry in1
Output Data signals F0, F1 LUT4 output register bypass signals
Output Data signals Q0, Q1 Register outputs
Output Data signals OFX0 Output of a LUT5 MUX
Output Data signals OFX1 Output of a LUT6, LUT7, LUT82 MUX depending on the slice
Output Inter-PFU signal FCO Fast carry out1
1. See Figure 2-3 for connection details.
2. Requires two PFUs.
2-5
Architecture
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
Ripple mode includes an optional configuration that performs arithmetic using fast carry chain methods. In this con-
figuration (also referred to as CCU2 mode) two additional signals, Carry Generate and Carry Propagate, are gener-
ated on a per-slice basis to allow fast arithmetic functions to be constructed by concatenating slices.
RAM Mode
In this mode, a 16x4-bit distributed single port RAM (SPR) can be constructed by using each LUT block in Slice 0
and Slice 1 as a 16x1-bit memory. Slice 2 is used to provide memory address and control signals. A 16x2-bit
Pseudo Dual Port RAM (PDPR) memory is created by using one slice as the read-write port and the other compan-
ion slice as the read-only port.
MachXO2 devices support distributed memory initialization.
The Lattice design tools support the creation of a variety of different size memories. Where appropriate, the soft-
ware will construct these using distributed memory primitives that represent the capabilities of the PFU. Table 2-3
shows the number of slices required to implement different distributed RAM primitives. For more information about
using RAM in MachXO2 devices, please see TN1201, Memory Usage Guide for MachXO2 Devices.
Table 2-3. Number of Slices Required For Implementing Distributed RAM
ROM Mode
ROM mode uses the LUT logic; hence, slices 0-3 can be used in ROM mode. Preloading is accomplished through
the programming interface during PFU configuration.
For more information on the RAM and ROM modes, please refer to TN1201, Memory Usage Guide for MachXO2
Devices.
Routing
There are many resources provided in the MachXO2 devices to route signals individually or as buses with related
control signals. The routing resources consist of switching circuitry, buffers and metal interconnect (routing) seg-
ments.
The inter-PFU connections are made with three different types of routing resources: x1 (spans two PFUs), x2
(spans three PFUs) and x6 (spans seven PFUs). The x1, x2, and x6 connections provide fast and efficient connec-
tions in the horizontal and vertical directions.
The design tools take the output of the synthesis tool and places and routes the design. Generally, the place and
route tool is completely automatic, although an interactive routing editor is available to optimize the design.
Clock/Control Distribution Network
Each MachXO2 device has eight clock inputs (PCLK [T, C] [Banknum]_[2..0]) – three pins on the left side, two pins
each on the bottom and top sides and one pin on the right side. These clock inputs drive the clock nets. These
eight inputs can be differential or single-ended and may be used as general purpose I/O if they are not used to
drive the clock nets. When using a single ended clock input, only the PCLKT input can drive the clock tree directly.
The MachXO2 architecture has three types of clocking resources: edge clocks, primary clocks and secondary high
fanout nets. MachXO2-640U, MachXO2-1200/U and higher density devices have two edge clocks each on the top
and bottom edges. Lower density devices have no edge clocks. Edge clocks are used to clock I/O registers and
have low injection time and skew. Edge clock inputs are from PLL outputs, primary clock pads, edge clock bridge
outputs and CIB sources.
SPR 16x4 PDPR 16x4
Number of slices 3 3
Note: SPR = Single Port RAM, PDPR = Pseudo Dual Port RAM
2-6
Architecture
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
The eight primary clock lines in the primary clock network drive throughout the entire device and can provide clocks
for all resources within the device including PFUs, EBRs and PICs. In addition to the primary clock signals,
MachXO2 devices also have eight secondary high fanout signals which can be used for global control signals, such
as clock enables, synchronous or asynchronous clears, presets, output enables, etc. Internal logic can drive the
global clock network for internally-generated global clocks and control signals.
The maximum frequency for the primary clock network is shown in the MachXO2 External Switching Characteris-
tics table.
The primary clock signals for the MachXO2-256 and MachXO2-640 are generated from eight 17:1 muxes The
available clock sources include eight I/O sources and 9 routing inputs. Primary clock signals for the MachXO2-
640U, MachXO2-1200/U and larger devices are generated from eight 27:1 muxes The available clock sources
include eight I/O sources, 11 routing inputs, eight clock divider inputs and up to eight sysCLOCK PLL outputs.
Figure 2-5. Primary Clocks for MachXO2 Devices
811
Clock Pads
Routing
Primary Clock 0
Primary Clock 1
Primary Clock 2
Primary Clock 3
Primary Clock 4
Primary Clock 5
Primary Clock 6
8
Edge Clock
Divider
Primary clocks for MachXO2-640U, MachXO2-1200/U and larger devices.
Note: MachXO2-640 and smaller devices do not have inputs from the Edge Clock Divider or PLL
and fewer routing inputs. These devices have 17:1 muxes instead of 27:1 muxes.
Primary Clock 7
Dynamic
Clock
Enable
Dynamic
Clock
Enable
Dynamic
Clock
Enable
Dynamic
Clock
Enable
Dynamic
Clock
Enable
27:1
27:1
27:1
27:1
27:1
27:1
27:1
27:1
27:1
27:1
Up to 8
PLL Outputs
Dynamic
Clock
Enable
Dynamic
Clock
Enable
Dynamic
Clock
Enable
Clock
Switch
Clock
Switch
2-7
Architecture
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
Eight secondary high fanout nets are generated from eight 8:1 muxes as shown in Figure 2-6. One of the eight
inputs to the secondary high fanout net input mux comes from dual function clock pins and the remaining seven
come from internal routing. The maximum frequency for the secondary clock network is shown in MachXO2 Exter-
nal Switching Characteristics table.
Figure 2-6. Secondary High Fanout Nets for MachXO2 Devices
sysCLOCK Phase Locked Loops (PLLs)
The sysCLOCK PLLs provide the ability to synthesize clock frequencies. The MachXO2-640U, MachXO2-1200/U
and larger devices have one or more sysCLOCK PLL. CLKI is the reference frequency input to the PLL and its
source can come from an external I/O pin or from internal routing. CLKFB is the feedback signal to the PLL which
can come from internal routing or an external I/O pin. The feedback divider is used to multiply the reference fre-
quency and thus synthesize a higher frequency clock output.
The MachXO2 sysCLOCK PLLs support high resolution (16-bit) fractional-N synthesis. Fractional-N frequency syn-
thesis allows the user to generate an output clock which is a non-integer multiple of the input frequency. For more
information about using the PLL with Fractional-N synthesis, please see TN1199, MachXO2 sysCLOCK PLL
Design and Usage Guide.
Each output has its own output divider, thus allowing the PLL to generate different frequencies for each output. The
output dividers can have a value from 1 to 128. The CLKOS2 and CLKOS3 dividers may also be cascaded together
to generate low frequency clocks. The CLKOP, CLKOS, CLKOS2, and CLKOS3 outputs can all be used to drive the
MachXO2 clock distribution network directly or general purpose routing resources can be used.
17
8:1
8:1
8:1
8:1
8:1
8:1
8:1
8:1
Clock Pads Routing
Secondary High
Fanout Net 0
Secondary High
Fanout Net 1
Secondary High
Fanout Net 2
Secondary High
Fanout Net 3
Secondary High
Fanout Net 4
Secondary High
Fanout Net 5
Secondary High
Fanout Net 6
Secondary High
Fanout Net 7
2-8
Architecture
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
The LOCK signal is asserted when the PLL determines it has achieved lock and de-asserted if a loss of lock is
detected. A block diagram of the PLL is shown in Figure 2-7.
The setup and hold times of the device can be improved by programming a phase shift into the CLKOS, CLKOS2,
and CLKOS3 output clocks which will advance or delay the output clock with reference to the CLKOP output clock.
This phase shift can be either programmed during configuration or can be adjusted dynamically. In dynamic mode,
the PLL may lose lock after a phase adjustment on the output used as the feedback source and not relock until the
tLOCK parameter has been satisfied.
The MachXO2 also has a feature that allows the user to select between two different reference clock sources
dynamically. This feature is implemented using the PLLREFCS primitive. The timing parameters for the PLL are
shown in the table.
The MachXO2 PLL contains a WISHBONE port feature that allows the PLL settings, including divider values, to be
dynamically changed from the user logic. When using this feature the EFB block must also be instantiated in the
design to allow access to the WISHBONE ports. Similar to the dynamic phase adjustment, when PLL settings are
updated through the WISHBONE port the PLL may lose lock and not relock until the tLOCK parameter has been sat-
isfied. The timing parameters for the PLL are shown in the table.
For more details on the PLL and the WISHBONE interface, see TN1199, MachXO2 sysCLOCK PLL Design and
Usage Guide.
Figure 2-7. PLL Diagram
CLKOP, CLKOS, CLKOS2, CLKOS3
REFCLK
Internal Feedback
FBKSEL
CLKOP
CLKOS
4
CLKOS2
CLKOS3
REFCLK
Divider
M (1 - 40)
LOCK
ENCLKOP, ENCLKOS, ENCLKOS2, ENCLKOS3
RST, RESETM, RESETC, RESETD
CLKFB
CLKI
Dynamic
Phase
Adjust
PHASESEL[1:0]
PHASEDIR
PHASESTEP
FBKCLK
Divider
N (1 - 40)
Fractional-N
Synthesizer
Phase detector,
VCO, and
loop filter.
CLKOS3
Divider
(1 - 128)
CLKOS2
Divider
(1 - 128)
Phase
Adjust
Phase
Adjust
Phase
Adjust/
Edge Trim
CLKOS
Divider
(1 - 128)
CLKOP
Divider
(1 - 128)
Lock
Detect
ClkEn
Synch
ClkEn
Synch
ClkEn
Synch
ClkEn
Synch
PLLDATO[7:0] , PLLACK
PLLCLK, PLLRST, PLLSTB, PLLWE, PLLDATI[7:0], PLLADDR[4:0]
A0
B0
C0
D0 D1
Mux
A2
Mux
B2
Mux
C2
Mux
D2
Mux
DPHSRC
Phase
Adjust/
Edge Trim
STDBY
2-9
Architecture
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
Table 2-4 provides signal descriptions of the PLL block.
sysMEM Embedded Block RAM Memory
The MachXO2-640/U and larger devices contain sysMEM Embedded Block RAMs (EBRs). The EBR consists of a
9-Kbit RAM, with dedicated input and output registers. This memory can be used for a wide variety of purposes
including data buffering, PROM for the soft processor and FIFO.
sysMEM Memory Block
The sysMEM block can implement single port, dual port, pseudo dual port, or FIFO memories. Each block can be
used in a variety of depths and widths as shown in Table 2-5.
Table 2-4. PLL Signal Descriptions
Port Name I/O Description
CLKI I Input clock to PLL
CLKFB I Feedback clock
PHASESEL[1:0] I Select which output is affected by Dynamic Phase adjustment ports
PHASEDIR I Dynamic Phase adjustment direction
PHASESTEP I Dynamic Phase step – toggle shifts VCO phase adjust by one step.
CLKOP O Primary PLL output clock (with phase shift adjustment)
CLKOS O Secondary PLL output clock (with phase shift adjust)
CLKOS2 O Secondary PLL output clock2 (with phase shift adjust)
CLKOS3 O Secondary PLL output clock3 (with phase shift adjust)
LOCK O PLL LOCK, asynchronous signal. Active high indicates PLL is locked to input and feed-
back signals.
DPHSRC O Dynamic Phase source – ports or WISHBONE is active
STDBY I Standby signal to power down the PLL
RST I PLL reset without resetting the M-divider. Active high reset.
RESETM I PLL reset - includes resetting the M-divider. Active high reset.
RESETC I Reset for CLKOS2 output divider only. Active high reset.
RESETD I Reset for CLKOS3 output divider only. Active high reset.
ENCLKOP I Enable PLL output CLKOP
ENCLKOS I Enable PLL output CLKOS when port is active
ENCLKOS2 I Enable PLL output CLKOS2 when port is active
ENCLKOS3 I Enable PLL output CLKOS3 when port is active
PLLCLK I PLL data bus clock input signal
PLLRST I PLL data bus reset. This resets only the data bus not any register values.
PLLSTB I PLL data bus strobe signal
PLLWE I PLL data bus write enable signal
PLLADDR [4:0] I PLL data bus address
PLLDATI [7:0] I PLL data bus data input
PLLDATO [7:0] O PLL data bus data output
PLLACK O PLL data bus acknowledge signal
2-10
Architecture
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
Table 2-5. sysMEM Block Configurations
Bus Size Matching
All of the multi-port memory modes support different widths on each of the ports. The RAM bits are mapped LSB
word 0 to MSB word 0, LSB word 1 to MSB word 1, and so on. Although the word size and number of words for
each port varies, this mapping scheme applies to each port.
RAM Initialization and ROM Operation
If desired, the contents of the RAM can be pre-loaded during device configuration. EBR initialization data can be
loaded from the UFM. To maximize the number of UFM bits, initialize the EBRs used in your design to an all-zero
pattern. Initializing to an all-zero pattern does not use up UFM bits. MachXO2 devices have been designed such
that multiple EBRs share the same initialization memory space if they are initialized to the same pattern.
By preloading the RAM block during the chip configuration cycle and disabling the write controls, the sysMEM block
can also be utilized as a ROM.
Memory Cascading
Larger and deeper blocks of RAM can be created using EBR sysMEM Blocks. Typically, the Lattice design tools
cascade memory transparently, based on specific design inputs.
Single, Dual, Pseudo-Dual Port and FIFO Modes
Figure 2-8 shows the five basic memory configurations and their input/output names. In all the sysMEM RAM
modes, the input data and addresses for the ports are registered at the input of the memory array. The output data
of the memory is optionally registered at the memory array output.
Memory Mode Configurations
Single Port
8,192 x 1
4,096 x 2
2,048 x 4
1,024 x 9
True Dual Port
8,192 x 1
4,096 x 2
2,048 x 4
1,024 x 9
Pseudo Dual Port
8,192 x 1
4,096 x 2
2,048 x 4
1,024 x 9
512 x 18
FIFO
8,192 x 1
4,096 x 2
2,048 x 4
1,024 x 9
512 x 18
2-11
Architecture
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
Figure 2-8. sysMEM Memory Primitives
Table 2-6. EBR Signal Descriptions
Port Name Description Active State
CLK Clock Rising Clock Edge
CE Clock Enable Active High
OCE1Output Clock Enable Active High
RST Reset Active High
BE1Byte Enable Active High
WE Write Enable Active High
AD Address Bus
DI Data In
DO Data Out
CS Chip Select Active High
AFF FIFO RAM Almost Full Flag
FF FIFO RAM Full Flag
AEF FIFO RAM Almost Empty Flag
EF FIFO RAM Empty Flag
RPRST FIFO RAM Read Pointer Reset
1. Optional signals.
2. For dual port EBR primitives a trailing ‘A’ or ‘B’ in the signal name specifies the EBR port A or port B respectively.
3. For FIFO RAM mode primitive, a trailing ‘R’ or ‘W’ in the signal name specifies the FIFO read port or write port respec-
tively.
4. For FIFO RAM mode primitive FULLI has the same function as CSW(2) and EMPTYI has the same function as CSR(2).
5. In FIFO mode, CLKW is the write port clock, CSW is the write port chip select, CLKR is the read port clock, CSR is the
read port chip select, ORE is the output read enable.
DI[17:0]
CLKW
WE
FIFO RAM
DO[17:0]
RST
FULLI
AFF
FF
AEF
EF
CLKR
RE
CSR[1:0]
ORE
RPRST
CSW[1:0] EMPTYI
ROM
DO[17:0]
AD[12:0]
CLK
CE
RST
CS[2:0]
OCE
EBR EBR
AD[12:0]
DI[8:0]
DO[8:0]
CLK
CE
RST
WE
CS[2:0]
OCE
Single-Port RAM
ADA[12:0]
DIA[8:0]
CLKA
CEA
RSTA
WEA
CSA[2:0]
DOA[8:0]
OCEA
ADB[12:0]
DI[8:0]
CLKB
CEB
RSTB
WEB
CSB[2:0]
DOB[8:0]
OCEB
True Dual Port RAM
ADW[8:0]
DI[17:0]
CLKW
CEW
RST
CSW[2:0]
ADR[12:0]
CLKR
CER
DO[17:0]
CSR[2:0]
OCER
BE[1:0]
Pseudo Dual Port RAM
EBREBREBR
2-12
Architecture
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
The EBR memory supports three forms of write behavior for single or dual port operation:
1. Normal – Data on the output appears only during the read cycle. During a write cycle, the data (at the current
address) does not appear on the output. This mode is supported for all data widths.
2. Write Through – A copy of the input data appears at the output of the same port. This mode is supported for
all data widths.
3. Read-Before-Write – When new data is being written, the old contents of the address appears at the output.
FIFO Configuration
The FIFO has a write port with data-in, CEW, WE and CLKW signals. There is a separate read port with data-out,
RCE, RE and CLKR signals. The FIFO internally generates Almost Full, Full, Almost Empty and Empty Flags. The
Full and Almost Full flags are registered with CLKW. The Empty and Almost Empty flags are registered with CLKR.
Table 2-7 shows the range of programming values for these flags.
Table 2-7. Programmable FIFO Flag Ranges
The FIFO state machine supports two types of reset signals: RST and RPRST. The RST signal is a global reset
that clears the contents of the FIFO by resetting the read/write pointer and puts the FIFO flags in their initial reset
state. The RPRST signal is used to reset the read pointer. The purpose of this reset is to retransmit the data that is
in the FIFO. In these applications it is important to keep careful track of when a packet is written into or read from
the FIFO.
Memory Core Reset
The memory core contains data output latches for ports A and B. These are simple latches that can be reset syn-
chronously or asynchronously. RSTA and RSTB are local signals, which reset the output latches associated with
port A and port B respectively. The Global Reset (GSRN) signal resets both ports. The output data latches and
associated resets for both ports are as shown in Figure 2-9.
Figure 2-9. Memory Core Reset
Flag Name Programming Range
Full (FF) 1 to max (up to 2N-1)
Almost Full (AF) 1 to Full-1
Almost Empty (AE) 1 to Full-1
Empty (EF) 0
N = Address bit width.
Q
SET
D
Output Data
Latches
Memory Core
Port A[18:0]
Q
SET
DPort B[18:0]
RSTB
GSRN
Programmable Disable
RSTA
2-13
Architecture
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
For further information on the sysMEM EBR block, please refer to TN1201, Memory Usage Guide for MachXO2
Devices.
EBR Asynchronous Reset
EBR asynchronous reset or GSR (if used) can only be applied if all clock enables are low for a clock cycle before
the reset is applied and released a clock cycle after the reset is released, as shown in Figure 2-10. The GSR input
to the EBR is always asynchronous.
Figure 2-10. EBR Asynchronous Reset (Including GSR) Timing Diagram
If all clock enables remain enabled, the EBR asynchronous reset or GSR may only be applied and released after
the EBR read and write clock inputs are in a steady state condition for a minimum of 1/fMAX (EBR clock). The reset
release must adhere to the EBR synchronous reset setup time before the next active read or write clock edge.
If an EBR is pre-loaded during configuration, the GSR input must be disabled or the release of the GSR during
device wake up must occur before the release of the device I/Os becoming active.
These instructions apply to all EBR RAM, ROM and FIFO implementations. For the EBR FIFO mode, the GSR sig-
nal is always enabled and the WE and RE signals act like the clock enable signals in Figure 2-10. The reset timing
rules apply to the RPReset input versus the RE input and the RST input versus the WE and RE inputs. Both RST
and RPReset are always asynchronous EBR inputs. For more details refer to TN1201, Memory Usage Guide for
MachXO2 Devices.
Note that there are no reset restrictions if the EBR synchronous reset is used and the EBR GSR input is disabled.
Programmable I/O Cells (PIC)
The programmable logic associated with an I/O is called a PIO. The individual PIO are connected to their respec-
tive sysIO buffers and pads. On the MachXO2 devices, the PIO cells are assembled into groups of four PIO cells
called a Programmable I/O Cell or PIC. The PICs are placed on all four sides of the device.
On all the MachXO2 devices, two adjacent PIOs can be combined to provide a complementary output driver pair.
The MachXO2-640U, MachXO2-1200/U and higher density devices contain enhanced I/O capability. All PIO pairs
on these larger devices can implement differential receivers. Half of the PIO pairs on the top edge of these devices
can be configured as true LVDS transmit pairs. The PIO pairs on the bottom edge of these higher density devices
have on-chip differential termination and also provide PCI support.
Reset
Clock
Clock
Enable
2-14
Architecture
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
Figure 2-11. Group of Four Programmable I/O Cells
2-15
Architecture
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
PIO
The PIO contains three blocks: an input register block, output register block and tri-state register block. These
blocks contain registers for operating in a variety of modes along with the necessary clock and selection logic.
Table 2-8. PIO Signal List
Input Register Block
The input register blocks for the PIOs on all edges contain delay elements and registers that can be used to condi-
tion high-speed interface signals before they are passed to the device core. In addition to this functionality, the input
register blocks for the PIOs on the right edge include built-in logic to interface to DDR memory.
Figure 2-12 shows the input register block for the PIOs located on the left, top and bottom edges. Figure 2-13
shows the input register block for the PIOs on the right edge.
Left, Top, Bottom Edges
Input signals are fed from the sysIO buffer to the input register block (as signal D). If desired, the input signal can
bypass the register and delay elements and be used directly as a combinatorial signal (INDD), and a clock (INCK).
If an input delay is desired, users can select a fixed delay. I/Os on the bottom edge also have a dynamic delay,
DEL[4:0]. The delay, if selected, reduces input register hold time requirements when using a global clock. The input
block allows two modes of operation. In single data rate (SDR) the data is registered with the system clock (SCLK)
by one of the registers in the single data rate sync register block. In Generic DDR mode, two registers are used to
sample the data on the positive and negative edges of the system clock (SCLK) signal, creating two data streams.
Pin Name I/O Type Description
CE Input Clock Enable
D Input Pin input from sysIO buffer.
INDD Output Register bypassed input.
INCK Output Clock input
Q0 Output DDR positive edge input
Q1 Output Registered input/DDR negative edge input
D0 Input Output signal from the core (SDR and DDR)
D1 Input Output signal from the core (DDR)
TD Input Tri-state signal from the core
Q Output Data output signals to sysIO Buffer
TQ Output Tri-state output signals to sysIO Buffer
DQSR901 Input DQS shift 90-degree read clock
DQSW901 Input DQS shift 90-degree write clock
DDRCLKPOL1 Input DDR input register polarity control signal from DQS
SCLK Input System clock for input and output/tri-state blocks.
RST Input Local set reset signal
1. Available in PIO on right edge only.
2-16
Architecture
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
Figure 2-12. MachXO2 Input Register Block Diagram (PIO on Left, Top and Bottom Edges)
Right Edge
The input register block on the right edge is a superset of the same block on the top, bottom, and left edges. In
addition to the modes described above, the input register block on the right edge also supports DDR memory
mode.
In DDR memory mode, two registers are used to sample the data on the positive and negative edges of the modi-
fied DQS (DQSR90) in the DDR Memory mode creating two data streams. Before entering the core, these two data
streams are synchronized to the system clock to generate two data streams.
The signal DDRCLKPOL controls the polarity of the clock used in the synchronization registers. It ensures ade-
quate timing when data is transferred to the system clock domain from the DQS domain. The DQSR90 and
DDRCLKPOL signals are generated in the DQS read-write block.
Figure 2-13. MachXO2 Input Register Block Diagram (PIO on Right Edge)
Output Register Block
The output register block registers signals from the core of the device before they are passed to the sysIO buffers.
Left, Top, Bottom Edges
In SDR mode, D0 feeds one of the flip-flops that then feeds the output. The flip-flop can be configured as a D-type
register or latch.
SCLK
INCK
Q1
Q0
INDD
D
Q0
Q1
D Q
Programmable
Delay Cell D/L Q
D Q
D Q
Q1
Q0
INDD
D
DQSR90
Q0
Q1
SCLK
S0
S1
DDRCLKPOL
Programmable
Delay Cell D/L Q
INCK
D Q
D Q
D Q
D Q D Q
D Q
D Q
2-17
Architecture
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
In DDR generic mode, D0 and D1 inputs are fed into registers on the positive edge of the clock. At the next falling
edge the registered D1 input is registered into the register Q1. A multiplexer running off the same clock is used to
switch the mux between the outputs of registers Q0 and Q1 that will then feed the output.
Figure 2-14 shows the output register block on the left, top and bottom edges.
Figure 2-14. MachXO2 Output Register Block Diagram (PIO on the Left, Top and Bottom Edges)
Right Edge
The output register block on the right edge is a superset of the output register on left, top and bottom edges of the
device. In addition to supporting SDR and Generic DDR modes, the output register blocks for PIOs on the right
edge include additional logic to support DDR-memory interfaces. Operation of this block is similar to that of the out-
put register block on other edges.
In DDR memory mode, D0 and D1 inputs are fed into registers on the positive edge of the clock. At the next falling
edge the registered D1 input is registered into the register Q1. A multiplexer running off the DQSW90 signal is used
to switch the mux between the outputs of registers Q0 and Q1 that will then feed the output.
Figure 2-15 shows the output register block on the right edge.
Output path
TQ
D/L Q
TD
Tri-state path
Q
D1 D Q D Q Q1
D/L Q
Q0
D0
SCLK
2-18
Architecture
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
Figure 2-15. MachXO2 Output Register Block Diagram (PIO on the Right Edges)
Tri-state Register Block
The tri-state register block registers tri-state control signals from the core of the device before they are passed to
the sysIO buffers. The block contains a register for SDR operation. In SDR, TD input feeds one of the flip-flops that
then feeds the output.
The tri-state register blocks on the right edge contain an additional register for DDR memory operation. In DDR
memory mode, the register TS input is fed into another register that is clocked using the DQSW90 signal. The out-
put of this register is used as a tri-state control.
Input Gearbox
Each PIC on the bottom edge has a built-in 1:8 input gearbox. Each of these input gearboxes may be programmed
as a 1:7 de-serializer or as one IDDRX4 (1:8) gearbox or as two IDDRX2 (1:4) gearboxes. Table 2-9 shows the
gearbox signals.
Table 2-9. Input Gearbox Signal List
Name I/O Type Description
D Input High-speed data input after programmable delay in PIO A
input register block
ALIGNWD Input Data alignment signal from device core
SCLK Input Slow-speed system clock
ECLK[1:0] Input High-speed edge clock
RST Input Reset
Q[7:0] Output Low-speed data to device core:
Video RX(1:7): Q[6:0]
GDDRX4(1:8): Q[7:0]
GDDRX2(1:4)(IOL-A): Q4, Q5, Q6, Q7
GDDRX2(1:4)(IOL-C): Q0, Q1, Q2, Q3
D Q
D1 D Q Q1
D/L QQ0
D0
DQSW90
Q
SCLK
D Q TQ
D/L Q
T0
TD
Output Register Block
Tristate Register Block
2-19
Architecture
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
These gearboxes have three stage pipeline registers. The first stage registers sample the high-speed input data by
the high-speed edge clock on its rising and falling edges. The second stage registers perform data alignment
based on the control signals UPDATE and SEL0 from the control block. The third stage pipeline registers pass the
data to the device core synchronized to the low-speed system clock. Figure 2-16 shows a block diagram of the
input gearbox.
Figure 2-16. Input Gearbox
D Q
D
ECLK0/1 SCLK
Q21
Q0_
S2
S0 D Q
D Q T2
T0 Q0
Q2
D Q
D Q
CE
D Q
CE
D Q
Q65
Q43
S6
S4 D Q
D Q T6
T4
D Q
cdn
D Q
CE
D Q
cdn
CE
D Q
Q54
Q_6
S3
S5 D
DT3
T5
Q6
D Q
D Q
CE
D Q
CE
D Q
Q10
Q32
S1 DT1
D Q
D Q
CE
Q65
Q65
Q43
Q43
Q21
Q10
Q21
Q32
Q54
Q_6
Q54
Q32
SEL0
Q4
Q5
Q1
Q3
S7 D Q
T7
D Q
CE
Q7
UPDATE
Q_6
2-20
Architecture
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
More information on the input gearbox is available in TN1203, Implementing High-Speed Interfaces with MachXO2
Devices.
Output Gearbox
Each PIC on the top edge has a built-in 8:1 output gearbox. Each of these output gearboxes may be programmed
as a 7:1 serializer or as one ODDRX4 (8:1) gearbox or as two ODDRX2 (4:1) gearboxes. Table 2-10 shows the
gearbox signals.
Table 2-10. Output Gearbox Signal List
The gearboxes have three stage pipeline registers. The first stage registers sample the low-speed input data on the
low-speed system clock. The second stage registers transfer data from the low-speed clock registers to the high-
speed clock registers. The third stage pipeline registers controlled by high-speed edge clock shift and mux the
high-speed data out to the sysIO buffer. Figure 2-17 shows the output gearbox block diagram.
Name I/O Type Description
Q Output High-speed data output
D[7:0] Input Low-speed data from device core
Video TX(7:1): D[6:0]
GDDRX4(8:1): D[7:0]
GDDRX2(4:1)(IOL-A): D[3:0]
GDDRX2(4:1)(IOL-C): D[7:4]
SCLK Input Slow-speed system clock
ECLK [1:0] Input High-speed edge clock
RST Input Reset
2-21
Architecture
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
Figure 2-17. Output Gearbox
More information on the output gearbox is available in TN1203, Implementing High-Speed Interfaces with
MachXO2 Devices.
DDR Memory Support
Certain PICs on the right edge of MachXO2-640U, MachXO2-1200/U and larger devices, have additional circuitry
to allow the implementation of DDR memory interfaces. There are two groups of 14 or 12 PIOs each on the right
edge with additional circuitry to implement DDR memory interfaces. This capability allows the implementation of up
to 16-bit wide memory interfaces. One PIO from each group contains a control element, the DQS Read/Write
D4
D0
D3
D1 S1
T1
S0
QC
ODDRx2_A
ODDRx2_C
ODDRx2_C
ECLK0/1
Q45
Q67
S4
S6
D Q
D Q T4
T6
D6 D Q
D Q
CE
D Q
CE
0
1
0
1
Q01
Q23
S0
S2
T0
T2
Q32
Q10
S5
S3
D
QT5
T3
CE
0
1
D Q Q76
Q54
S7
D QT7
D Q
D Q
D Q
CE
0
1
S2
S4
GND
S7
S6
S5
S3
D2
D7
D5
SCLK
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
Q34
Q56
Q67
GND
Q45
S1
Q12
SEL /0
UPDATE
Q23
Q/QA
D Q
D Q
D Q
D Q
D QD Q
D Q
D Q
D Q
D Q
D Q
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
CE
CE
D Q
CE
D Q
CE
0
1
0
1
CDN
2-22
Architecture
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
Block, to facilitate the generation of clock and control signals (DQSR90, DQSW90, DDRCLKPOL and DATAVALID).
These clock and control signals are distributed to the other PIO in the group through dedicated low skew routing.
DQS Read Write Block
Source synchronous interfaces generally require the input clock to be adjusted in order to correctly capture data at
the input register. For most interfaces a PLL is used for this adjustment. However, in DDR memories the clock
(referred to as DQS) is not free-running so this approach cannot be used. The DQS Read Write block provides the
required clock alignment for DDR memory interfaces. DQSR90 and DQSW90 signals are generated by the DQS
Read Write block from the DQS input.
In a typical DDR memory interface design, the phase relationship between the incoming delayed DQS strobe and
the internal system clock (during the read cycle) is unknown. The MachXO2 family contains dedicated circuits to
transfer data between these domains. To prevent set-up and hold violations, at the domain transfer between DQS
(delayed) and the system clock, a clock polarity selector is used. This circuit changes the edge on which the data is
registered in the synchronizing registers in the input register block. This requires evaluation at the start of each
read cycle for the correct clock polarity. Prior to the read operation in DDR memories, DQS is in tri-state (pulled by
termination). The DDR memory device drives DQS low at the start of the preamble state. A dedicated circuit in the
DQS Read Write block detects the first DQS rising edge after the preamble state and generates the DDRCLKPOL
signal. This signal is used to control the polarity of the clock to the synchronizing registers.
The temperature, voltage and process variations of the DQS delay block are compensated by a set of calibration
signals (6-bit bus) from a DLL on the right edge of the device. The DLL loop is compensated for temperature, volt-
age and process variations by the system clock and feedback loop.
sysIO Buffer
Each I/O is associated with a flexible buffer referred to as a sysIO buffer. These buffers are arranged around the
periphery of the device in groups referred to as banks. The sysIO buffers allow users to implement a wide variety of
standards that are found in today’s systems including LVCMOS, TTL, PCI, SSTL, HSTL, LVDS, BLVDS, MLVDS
and LVPECL.
Each bank is capable of supporting multiple I/O standards. In the MachXO2 devices, single-ended output buffers,
ratioed input buffers (LVTTL, LVCMOS and PCI), differential (LVDS) and referenced input buffers (SSTL and HSTL)
are powered using I/O supply voltage (VCCIO). Each sysIO bank has its own VCCIO. In addition, each bank has a
voltage reference, VREF
, which allows the use of referenced input buffers independent of the bank VCCIO.
MachXO2-256 and MachXO2-640 devices contain single-ended ratioed input buffers and single-ended output buf-
fers with complementary outputs on all the I/O banks. Note that the single-ended input buffers on these devices do
not contain PCI clamps. In addition to the single-ended I/O buffers these two devices also have differential and ref-
erenced input buffers on all I/Os. The I/Os are arranged in pairs, the two pads in the pair are described as “T” and
“C”, where the true pad is associated with the positive side of the differential input buffer and the comp (comple-
mentary) pad is associated with the negative side of the differential input buffer.
MachXO2-640U, MachXO2-1200/U, MachXO2-2000/U, MachXO2-4000 and MachXO2-7000 devices contain three
types of sysIO buffer pairs.
1. Left and Right sysIO Buffer Pairs
The sysIO buffer pairs in the left and right banks of the device consist of two single-ended output drivers and
two single-ended input buffers (for ratioed inputs such as LVCMOS and LVTTL). The I/O pairs on the left and
right of the devices also have differential and referenced input buffers.
2. Bottom sysIO Buffer Pairs
The sysIO buffer pairs in the bottom bank of the device consist of two single-ended output drivers and two sin-
gle-ended input buffers (for ratioed inputs such as LVCMOS and LVTTL). The I/O pairs on the bottom also have
differential and referenced input buffers. Only the I/Os on the bottom banks have programmable PCI clamps
2-23
Architecture
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
and differential input termination. The PCI clamp is enabled after VCC and VCCIO are at valid operating levels
and the device has been configured.
3. Top sysIO Buffer Pairs
The sysIO buffer pairs in the top bank of the device consist of two single-ended output drivers and two single-
ended input buffers (for ratioed inputs such as LVCMOS and LVTTL). The I/O pairs on the top also have differ-
ential and referenced I/O buffers. Half of the sysIO buffer pairs on the top edge have true differential outputs.
The sysIO buffer pair comprising of the A and B PIOs in every PIC on the top edge have a differential output
driver. The referenced input buffer can also be configured as a differential input buffer.
Typical I/O Behavior During Power-up
The internal power-on-reset (POR) signal is deactivated when VCC and VCCIO0 have reached VPORUP level defined
in the Power-On-Reset Voltage table in the DC and Switching Characteristics section of this data sheet. After the
POR signal is deactivated, the FPGA core logic becomes active. It is the user’s responsibility to ensure that all
VCCIO banks are active with valid input logic levels to properly control the output logic states of all the I/O banks that
are critical to the application. The default configuration of the I/O pins in a blank device is tri-state with a weak pull-
down to GND (some pins such as PROGRAMN and the JTAG pins have weak pull-up to VCCIO as the default func-
tionality). The I/O pins will maintain the blank configuration until VCC and VCCIO (for I/O banks containing configura-
tion I/Os) have reached VPORUP levels at which time the I/Os will take on the user-configured settings only after a
proper download/configuration.
There are various ways a user can ensure that there are no spurious signals on critical outputs as the device pow-
ers up. These are discussed in more detail in TN1202, MachXO2 sysIO Usage Guide.
Supported Standards
The MachXO2 sysIO buffer supports both single-ended and differential standards. Single-ended standards can be
further subdivided into LVCMOS, LVTTL, and PCI. The buffer supports the LVTTL, PCI, LVCMOS 1.2, 1.5, 1.8, 2.5,
and 3.3V standards. In the LVCMOS and LVTTL modes, the buffer has individually configurable options for drive
strength, bus maintenance (weak pull-up, weak pull-down, bus-keeper latch or none) and open drain. BLVDS,
MLVDS and LVPECL output emulation is supported on all devices. The MachXO2-640U, MachXO2-1200/U and
higher devices support on-chip LVDS output buffers on approximately 50% of the I/Os on the top bank. Differential
receivers for LVDS, BLVDS, MLVDS and LVPECL are supported on all banks of MachXO2 devices. PCI support is
provided in the bottom bank of theMachXO2-640U, MachXO2-1200/U and higher density devices. Table 2-11 sum-
marizes the I/O characteristics of the MachXO2 PLDs.
Tables 2-11 and 2-12 show the I/O standards (together with their supply and reference voltages) supported by the
MachXO2 devices. For further information on utilizing the sysIO buffer to support a variety of standards please see
TN1202, MachXO2 sysIO Usage Guide.
Table 2-11. I/O Support Device by Device
MachXO2-256,
MachXO2-640
MachXO2-640U,
MachXO2-1200
MachXO2-1200U
MachXO2-2000/U,
MachXO2-4000,
MachXO2-7000
Number of I/O Banks 4 4 6
Type of Input Buffers
Single-ended (all I/O banks)
Differential Receivers (all I/O
banks)
Single-ended (all I/O banks)
Differential Receivers (all I/O
banks)
Differential input termination
(bottom side)
Single-ended (all I/O banks)
Differential Receivers (all I/O
banks)
Differential input termination
(bottom side)
2-24
Architecture
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
Table 2-12. Supported Input Standards
Types of Output Buffers
Single-ended buffers with
complementary outputs (all I/O
banks)
Single-ended buffers with
complementary outputs (all I/O
banks)
Differential buffers with true
LVDS outputs (50% on top
side)
Single-ended buffers with
complementary outputs (all I/O
banks)
Differential buffers with true
LVDS outputs (50% on top
side)
Differential Output Emulation
Capability All I/O banks All I/O banks All I/O banks
PCI Clamp Support No Clamp on bottom side only Clamp on bottom side only
VCCIO (Typ.)
Input Standard 3.3V 2.5V 1.8V 1.5 1.2V
Single-Ended Interfaces
LVT TL 
222
LVC MOS 33 
222
LVC MOS 25 2
22
LVC MOS 18 22
2
LVC MOS 15 222
2
LVC MOS 12 2222
PCI1
SSTL18 (Class I, Class II)
SSTL25 (Class I, Class II)
HSTL18 (Class I, Class II)
Differential Interfaces
LVD S 
BLVDS, MVDS, LVPECL, RSDS 
Differential SSTL18 Class I, II
Differential SSTL25 Class I, II
Differential HSTL18 Class I, II
1. Bottom banks of MachXO2-640U, MachXO2-1200/U and higher density devices only.
2. Reduced functionality. Refer to TN1202, MachXO2 sysIO Usage Guide for more detail.
MachXO2-256,
MachXO2-640
MachXO2-640U,
MachXO2-1200
MachXO2-1200U
MachXO2-2000/U,
MachXO2-4000,
MachXO2-7000
2-25
Architecture
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
Table 2-13. Supported Output Standards
sysIO Buffer Banks
The numbers of banks vary between the devices of this family. MachXO2-1200U, MachXO2-2000/U and higher
density devices have six I/O banks (one bank on the top, right and bottom side and three banks on the left side).
The MachXO2-1200 and lower density devices have four banks (one bank per side). Figures 2-18 and 2-19 show
the sysIO banks and their associated supplies for all devices.
Output Standard VCCIO (Typ.)
Single-Ended Interfaces
LVTTL 3. 3
LVCMOS33 3.3
LVCMOS25 2.5
LVCMOS18 1.8
LVCMOS15 1.5
LVCMOS12 1.2
LVCMOS33, Open Drain
LVCMOS25, Open Drain
LVCMOS18, Open Drain
LVCMOS15, Open Drain
LVCMOS12, Open Drain
PCI33 3.3
SSTL25 (Class I) 2.5
SSTL18 (Class I) 1.8
HSTL18(Class I) 1.8
Differential Interfaces
LVD S1, 2 2.5, 3.3
BLVDS, MLVDS, RSDS 22.5
LVPECL23.3
Differential SSTL18 1.8
Differential SSTL25 2.5
Differential HSTL18 1.8
1. MachXO2-640U, MachXO2-1200/U and larger devices have dedicated LVDS buffers.
2. These interfaces can be emulated with external resistors in all devices.
2-26
Architecture
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
Figure 2-18. MachXO2-1200U, MachXO2-2000/U, MachXO2-4000 and MachXO2-7000 Banks
Figure 2-19. MachXO2-256, MachXO2-640/U and MachXO2-1200 Banks
Bank 0
Bank 1
Bank 2
Bank 3 Bank 4 Bank 5
VCCIO0
VCCIO2GND
GND
VCCIO1
GND
GND
GND
GND
VCCIO5
VCCIO4
VCCIO3
Bank 0
Bank 1
Bank 2
Bank 3
VCCIO0
VCCIO2GND
GND
VCCIO1
GND
VCCIO3
GND
2-27
Architecture
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
Hot Socketing
The MachXO2 devices have been carefully designed to ensure predictable behavior during power-up and power-
down. Leakage into I/O pins is controlled to within specified limits. This allows for easy integration with the rest of
the system. These capabilities make the MachXO2 ideal for many multiple power supply and hot-swap applica-
tions.
On-chip Oscillator
Every MachXO2 device has an internal CMOS oscillator. The oscillator output can be routed as a clock to the clock
tree or as a reference clock to the sysCLOCK PLL using general routing resources. The oscillator frequency can be
divided by internal logic. There is a dedicated programming bit and a user input to enable/disable the oscillator. The
oscillator frequency ranges from 2.08 MHz to 133 MHz. The software default value of the Master Clock (MCLK) is
nominally 2.08 MHz. When a different MCLK is selected during the design process, the following sequence takes
place:
1. Device powers up with a nominal MCLK frequency of 2.08 MHz.
2. During configuration, users select a different master clock frequency.
3. The MCLK frequency changes to the selected frequency once the clock configuration bits are received.
4. If the user does not select a master clock frequency, then the configuration bitstream defaults to the MCLK fre-
quency of 2.08 MHz.
Table 2-14 lists all the available MCLK frequencies.
Table 2-14. Available MCLK Frequencies
Embedded Hardened IP Functions and User Flash Memory
All MachXO2 devices provide embedded hardened functions such as SPI, I2C and Timer/Counter. MachXO2-640/U
and higher density devices also provide User Flash Memory (UFM). These embedded blocks interface through the
WISHBONE interface with routing as shown in Figure 2-20.
MCLK (MHz, Nominal) MCLK (MHz, Nominal) MCLK (MHz, Nominal)
2.08 (default) 9.17 33.25
2.46 10.23 38
3.17 13.3 44.33
4.29 14.78 53.2
5.54 20.46 66.5
7 26.6 88.67
8.31 29.56 133
2-28
Architecture
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
Figure 2-20. Embedded Function Block Interface
Hardened I2C IP Core
Every MachXO2 device contains two I2C IP cores. These are the primary and secondary I2C IP cores. Either of the
two cores can be configured either as an I2C master or as an I2C slave. The only difference between the two IP
cores is that the primary core has pre-assigned I/O pins whereas users can assign I/O pins for the secondary core.
When the IP core is configured as a master it will be able to control other devices on the I2C bus through the inter-
face. When the core is configured as the slave, the device will be able to provide I/O expansion to an I2C Master.
The I2C cores support the following functionality:
Master and Slave operation
7-bit and 10-bit addressing
Multi-master arbitration support
Clock stretching
Up to 400 KHz data transfer speed
General call support
Interface to custom logic through 8-bit WISHBONE interface
Embedded Function Block (EFB)
Core
Logic/
Routing EFB
WISHBONE
Interface
I
2
C (Primary)
I
2
C (Secondary)
SPI
Timer/Counter
PLL0 PLL1
Configuration
Logic
UFM
I/Os for I
2
C
(Primary)
I/Os for SPI
I/Os for I
2
C
(Secondary)
Indicates connection
through core logic/routing.
Power
Control
2-29
Architecture
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
Figure 2-21. I2C Core Block Diagram
Table 2-15 describes the signals interfacing with the I2C cores.
Table 2-15. I2C Core Signal Description
Hardened SPI IP Core
Every MachXO2 device has a hard SPI IP core that can be configured as a SPI master or slave. When the IP core
is configured as a master it will be able to control other SPI enabled chips connected to the SPI bus. When the core
is configured as the slave, the device will be able to interface to an external SPI master. The SPI IP core on
MachXO2 devices supports the following functions:
Configurable Master and Slave modes
Full-Duplex data transfer
Mode fault error flag with CPU interrupt capability
Double-buffered data register
Serial clock with programmable polarity and phase
LSB First or MSB First Data Transfer
Interface to custom logic through 8-bit WISHBONE interface
Signal Name I/O Description
i2c_scl Bi-directional
Bi-directional clock line of the I2C core. The signal is an output if the I2C core is in master
mode. The signal is an input if the I2C core is in slave mode. MUST be routed directly to the
pre-assigned I/O of the chip. Refer to the Pinout Information section of this document for
detailed pad and pin locations of I2C ports in each MachXO2 device.
i2c_sda Bi-directional
Bi-directional data line of the I2C core. The signal is an output when data is transmitted from
the I2C core. The signal is an input when data is received into the I2C core. MUST be routed
directly to the pre-assigned I/O of the chip. Refer to the Pinout Information section of this
document for detailed pad and pin locations of I2C ports in each MachXO2 device.
i2c_irqo Output
Interrupt request output signal of the I2C core. The intended usage of this signal is for it to be
connected to the WISHBONE master controller (i.e. a microcontroller or state machine) and
request an interrupt when a specific condition is met. These conditions are described with
the I2C register definitions.
cfg_wake Output
Wake-up signal – To be connected only to the power module of the MachXO2 device. The
signal is enabled only if the “Wakeup Enable” feature has been set within the EFB GUI, I2C
Tab.
cfg_stdby Output
Stand-by signal – To be connected only to the power module of the MachXO2 device. The
signal is enabled only if the “Wakeup Enable” feature has been set within the EFB GUI, I2C
Tab.
EFB
SCL
SDA
Configuration
Logic
Core
Logic/
Routing
Power
Control
I
2
C
Registers
EFB
WISHBONE
Interface
Control
Logic
I
2
C Function
2-30
Architecture
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
There are some limitations on the use of the hardened user SPI. These are defined in the following technical notes:
TN1087, Minimizing System Interruption During Configuration Using TransFR Technology (Appendix B)
TN1205, Using User Flash Memory and Hardened Control Functions in MachXO2 Devices
Figure 2-22. SPI Core Block Diagram
Table 2-16 describes the signals interfacing with the SPI cores.
Table 2-16. SPI Core Signal Description
Hardened Timer/Counter
MachXO2 devices provide a hard Timer/Counter IP core. This Timer/Counter is a general purpose, bi-directional,
16-bit timer/counter module with independent output compare units and PWM support. The Timer/Counter sup-
ports the following functions:
Signal Name I/O Master/Slave Description
spi_csn[0] O Master SPI master chip-select output
spi_csn[1..7] O Master Additional SPI chip-select outputs (total up to eight slaves)
spi_scsn I Slave SPI slave chip-select input
spi_irq O Master/Slave Interrupt request
spi_clk I/O Master/Slave SPI clock. Output in master mode. Input in slave mode.
spi_miso I/O Master/Slave SPI data. Input in master mode. Output in slave mode.
spi_mosi I/O Master/Slave SPI data. Output in master mode. Input in slave mode.
ufm_sn I Slave Configuration Slave Chip Select (active low), dedicated for selecting the
User Flash Memory (UFM).
cfg_stdby O Master/Slave
Stand-by signal – To be connected only to the power module of the MachXO2
device. The signal is enabled only if the “Wakeup Enable” feature has been
set within the EFB GUI, SPI Tab.
cfg_wake O Master/Slave
Wake-up signal – To be connected only to the power module of the MachXO2
device. The signal is enabled only if the “Wakeup Enable” feature has been
set within the EFB GUI, SPI Tab.
EFB
SPI Function
Core
Logic/
Routing EFB
WISHBONE
Interface
SPI
Registers
Control
Logic
Configuration
Logic
MISO
MOSI
SCK
MCSN
SCSN
2-31
Architecture
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
Supports the following modes of operation:
Watchdog timer
Clear timer on compare match
–Fast PWM
Phase and Frequency Correct PWM
Programmable clock input source
Programmable input clock prescaler
One static interrupt output to routing
One wake-up interrupt to on-chip standby mode controller.
Three independent interrupt sources: overflow, output compare match, and input capture
Auto reload
Time-stamping support on the input capture unit
Waveform generation on the output
Glitch-free PWM waveform generation with variable PWM period
Internal WISHBONE bus access to the control and status registers
Stand-alone mode with preloaded control registers and direct reset input
Figure 2-23. Timer/Counter Block Diagram
Table 2-17. Timer/Counter Signal Description
For more details on these embedded functions, please refer to TN1205, Using User Flash Memory and Hardened
Control Functions in MachXO2 Devices.
Port I/O Description
tc_clki I Timer/Counter input clock signal
tc_rstn I Register tc_rstn_ena is preloaded by configuration to always keep this pin enabled
tc_ic I Input capture trigger event, applicable for non-pwm modes with WISHBONE interface. If
enabled, a rising edge of this signal will be detected and synchronized to capture tc_cnt value
into tc_icr for time-stamping.
tc_int O Without WISHBONE – Can be used as overflow flag
With WISHBONE – Controlled by three IRQ registers
tc_oc O Timer counter output signal
EFB Timer/Counter
Core
Logic
Routing PWM
EFB
WISHBONE
Interface
Timer/
Counter
Registers
Control
Logic
2-32
Architecture
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
User Flash Memory (UFM)
MachXO2-640/U and higher density devices provide a User Flash Memory block, which can be used for a variety of
applications including storing a portion of the configuration image, initializing EBRs, to store PROM data or, as a
general purpose user Flash memory. The UFM block connects to the device core through the embedded function
block WISHBONE interface. Users can also access the UFM block through the JTAG, I2C and SPI interfaces of the
device. The UFM block offers the following features:
Non-volatile storage up to 256Kbits
100K write cycles
Write access is performed page-wise; each page has 128 bits (16 bytes)
Auto-increment addressing
WISHBONE interface
For more information on the UFM, please refer to TN1205, Using User Flash Memory and Hardened Control Func-
tions in MachXO2 Devices.
Standby Mode and Power Saving Options
MachXO2 devices are available in three options for maximum flexibility: ZE, HC and HE devices. The ZE devices
have ultra low static and dynamic power consumption. These devices use a 1.2V core voltage that further reduces
power consumption. The HC and HE devices are designed to provide high performance. The HC devices have a
built-in voltage regulator to allow for 2.5V VCC and 3.3V VCC while the HE devices operate at 1.2V VCC.
MachXO2 devices have been designed with features that allow users to meet the static and dynamic power
requirements of their applications by controlling various device subsystems such as the bandgap, power-on-reset
circuitry, I/O bank controllers, power guard, on-chip oscillator, PLLs, etc. In order to maximize power savings,
MachXO2 devices support an ultra low power Stand-by mode. While most of these features are available in all
three device types, these features are mainly intended for use with MachXO2 ZE devices to manage power con-
sumption.
In the stand-by mode the MachXO2 devices are powered on and configured. Internal logic, I/Os and memories are
switched on and remain operational, as the user logic waits for an external input. The device enters this mode
when the standby input of the standby controller is toggled or when an appropriate I2C or JTAG instruction is issued
by an external master. Various subsystems in the device such as the band gap, power-on-reset circuitry etc can be
configured such that they are automatically turned “off” or go into a low power consumption state to save power
when the device enters this state.
2-33
Architecture
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
Table 2-18. MachXO2 Power Saving Features Description
For more details on the standby mode refer to TN1198, Power Estimation and Management for MachXO2 Devices.
Power On Reset
MachXO2 devices have power-on reset circuitry to monitor VCCINT and VCCIO voltage levels during power-up and
operation. At power-up, the POR circuitry monitors VCCINT and VCCIO0 (controls configuration) voltage levels. It
then triggers download from the on-chip configuration Flash memory after reaching the VPORUP level specified in
the Power-On-Reset Voltage table in the DC and Switching Characteristics section of this data sheet. For devices
without voltage regulators (ZE and HE devices), VCCINT is the same as the VCC supply voltage. For devices with
voltage regulators (HC devices), VCCINT is regulated from the VCC supply voltage. From this voltage reference, the
time taken for configuration and entry into user mode is specified as Flash Download Time (tREFRESH) in the DC
and Switching Characteristics section of this data sheet. Before and during configuration, the I/Os are held in tri-
state. I/Os are released to user functionality once the device has finished configuration. Note that for HC devices, a
separate POR circuit monitors external VCC voltage in addition to the POR circuit that monitors the internal post-
regulated power supply voltage level.
Once the device enters into user mode, the POR circuitry can optionally continue to monitor VCCINT levels. If
VCCINT drops below VPORDNBG level (with the bandgap circuitry switched on) or below VPORDNSRAM level (with the
bandgap circuitry switched off to conserve power) device functionality cannot be guaranteed. In such a situation
the POR issues a reset and begins monitoring the VCCINT and VCCIO voltage levels. VPORDNBG and VPORDNSRAM
are both specified in the Power-On-Reset Voltage table in the DC and Switching Characteristics section of this data
sheet.
Note that once a ZE or HE device enters user mode, users can switch off the bandgap to conserve power. When
the bandgap circuitry is switched off, the POR circuitry also shuts down. The device is designed such that a mini-
mal, low power POR circuit is still operational (this corresponds to the VPORDNSRAM reset point described in the
paragraph above). However this circuit is not as accurate as the one that operates when the bandgap is switched
on. The low power POR circuit emulates an SRAM cell and is biased to trip before the vast majority of SRAM cells
flip. If users are concerned about the VCC supply dropping below VCC (min) they should not shut down the bandgap
or POR circuit.
Device Subsystem Feature Description
Bandgap
The bandgap can be turned off in standby mode. When the Bandgap is turned off, ana-
log circuitry such as the POR, PLLs, on-chip oscillator, and referenced and differential
I/O buffers are also turned off. Bandgap can only be turned off for 1.2V devices.
Power-On-Reset (POR)
The POR can be turned off in standby mode. This monitors VCC levels. In the event of
unsafe VCC drops, this circuit reconfigures the device. When the POR circuitry is turned
off, limited power detector circuitry is still active. This option is only recommended for ap-
plications in which the power supply rails are reliable.
On-Chip Oscillator The on-chip oscillator has two power saving features. It may be switched off if it is not
needed in your design. It can also be turned off in Standby mode.
PLL
Similar to the on-chip oscillator, the PLL also has two power saving features. It can be
statically switched off if it is not needed in a design. It can also be turned off in Standby
mode. The PLL will wait until all output clocks from the PLL are driven low before power-
ing off.
I/O Bank Controller
Referenced and differential I/O buffers (used to implement standards such as HSTL,
SSTL and LVDS) consume more than ratioed single-ended I/Os such as LVCMOS and
LVTTL. The I/O bank controller allows the user to turn these I/Os off dynamically on a
per bank selection.
Dynamic Clock Enable for Primary
Clock Nets Each primary clock net can be dynamically disabled to save power.
Power Guard
Power Guard is a feature implemented in input buffers. This feature allows users to
switch off the input buffer when it is not needed. This feature can be used in both clock
and data paths. Its biggest impact is that in the standby mode it can be used to switch off
clock inputs that are distributed using general routing resources.
2-34
Architecture
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
Configuration and Testing
This section describes the configuration and testing features of the MachXO2 family.
IEEE 1149.1-Compliant Boundary Scan Testability
All MachXO2 devices have boundary scan cells that are accessed through an IEEE 1149.1 compliant test access
port (TAP). This allows functional testing of the circuit board, on which the device is mounted, through a serial scan
path that can access all critical logic nodes. Internal registers are linked internally, allowing test data to be shifted in
and loaded directly onto test nodes, or test data to be captured and shifted out for verification. The test access port
consists of dedicated I/Os: TDI, TDO, TCK and TMS. The test access port shares its power supply with VCCIO
Bank 0 and can operate with LVCMOS3.3, 2.5, 1.8, 1.5, and 1.2 standards.
For more details on boundary scan test, see AN8066, Boundary Scan Testability with Lattice sysIO Capability and
TN1087, Minimizing System Interruption During Configuration Using TransFR Technology.
Device Configuration
All MachXO2 devices contain two ports that can be used for device configuration. The Test Access Port (TAP),
which supports bit-wide configuration and the sysCONFIG port which supports serial configuration through I2C or
SPI. The TAP supports both the IEEE Standard 1149.1 Boundary Scan specification and the IEEE Standard 1532
In-System Configuration specification. There are various ways to configure a MachXO2 device:
1. Internal Flash Download
2. JTAG
3. Standard Serial Peripheral Interface (Master SPI mode) – interface to boot PROM memory
4. System microprocessor to drive a serial slave SPI port (SSPI mode)
5. Standard I2C Interface to system microprocessor
Upon power-up, the configuration SRAM is ready to be configured using the selected sysCONFIG port. Once a
configuration port is selected, it will remain active throughout that configuration cycle. The IEEE 1149.1 port can be
activated any time after power-up by sending the appropriate command through the TAP port. Optionally the de-
vice can run a CRC check upon entering the user mode. This will ensure that the device was configured correctly.
The sysCONFIG port has 10 dual-function pins which can be used as general purpose I/Os if they are not required
for configuration. See TN1204, MachXO2 Programming and Configuration Usage Guide for more information
about using the dual-use pins as general purpose I/Os.
Lattice design software uses proprietary compression technology to compress bit-streams for use in MachXO2
devices. Use of this technology allows Lattice to provide a lower cost solution. In the unlikely event that this technol-
ogy is unable to compress bitstreams to fit into the amount of on-chip Flash memory, there are a variety of tech-
niques that can be utilized to allow the bitstream to fit in the on-chip Flash memory. For more details, refer to
TN1204, MachXO2 Programming and Configuration Usage Guide.
The Test Access Port (TAP) has five dual purpose pins (TDI, TDO, TMS and TCK). These pins are dual function
pins - TDI, TDO, TMS and TCK can be used as general purpose I/O if desired. For more details, refer to TN1204,
MachXO2 Programming and Configuration Usage Guide.
TransFR (Transparent Field Reconfiguration)
TransFR is a unique Lattice technology that allows users to update their logic in the field without interrupting sys-
tem operation using a simple push-button solution. For more details refer to TN1087, Minimizing System Interrup-
tion During Configuration Using TransFR Technology for details.
Security and One-Time Programmable Mode (OTP)
2-35
Architecture
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
For applications where security is important, the lack of an external bitstream provides a solution that is inherently
more secure than SRAM-based FPGAs. This is further enhanced by device locking. MachXO2 devices contain
security bits that, when set, prevent the readback of the SRAM configuration and non-volatile Flash memory
spaces. The device can be in one of two modes:
1. Unlocked – Readback of the SRAM configuration and non-volatile Flash memory spaces is allowed.
2. Permanently Locked – The device is permanently locked.
Once set, the only way to clear the security bits is to erase the device. To further complement the security of the
device, a One Time Programmable (OTP) mode is available. Once the device is set in this mode it is not possible to
erase or re-program the Flash and SRAM OTP portions of the device. For more details, refer to TN1204, MachXO2
Programming and Configuration Usage Guide.
Dual Boot
MachXO2 devices can optionally boot from two patterns, a primary bitstream and a golden bitstream. If the primary
bitstream is found to be corrupt while being downloaded into the SRAM, the device shall then automatically re-boot
from the golden bitstream. Note that the primary bitstream must reside in the on-chip Flash. The golden image
MUST reside in an external SPI Flash. For more details, refer to TN1204, MachXO2 Programming and Configura-
tion Usage Guide.
Soft Error Detection
The SED feature is a CRC check of the SRAM cells after the device is configured. This check ensures that the
SRAM cells were configured successfully. This feature is enabled by a configuration bit option. The Soft Error
Detection can also be initiated in user mode via an input to the fabric. The clock for the Soft Error Detection circuit
is generated using a dedicated divider. The undivided clock from the on-chip oscillator is the input to this divider.
For low power applications users can switch off the Soft Error Detection circuit. For more details, refer to TN1206,
MachXO2 Soft Error Detection Usage Guide.
TraceID
Each MachXO2 device contains a unique (per device), TraceID that can be used for tracking purposes or for IP
security applications. The TraceID is 64 bits long. Eight out of 64 bits are user-programmable, the remaining 56 bits
are factory-programmed. The TraceID is accessible through the EFB WISHBONE interface and can also be
accessed through the SPI, I2C, or JTAG interfaces.
Density Shifting
The MachXO2 family has been designed to enable density migration within the same package. Furthermore, the
architecture ensures a high success rate when performing design migration from lower density devices to higher
density devices. In many cases, it is also possible to shift a lower utilization design targeted for a high-density
device to a lower density device. However, the exact details of the final resource utilization will impact the likely suc-
cess in each case. For more details refer to the MachXO2 migration files.
www.latticesemi.com 3-1 DS1035 DC and Switching_01.8
January 2013 Data Sheet DS1035
© 2013 Lattice Semiconductor Corp. All Lattice trademarks, registered trademarks, patents, and disclaimers are as listed at www.latticesemi.com/legal. All other brand
or product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders. The specifications and information herein are subject to change without notice.
Absolute Maximum Ratings1, 2, 3, 4
MachXO2 ZE/HE (1.2V) MachXO2 HC (2.5V/3.3V)
Supply Voltage VCC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -0.5 to 1.32V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -0.5 to 3.75V
Output Supply Voltage VCCIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -0.5 to 3.75V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -0.5 to 3.75V
I/O Tri-state Voltage Applied5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -0.5 to 3.75V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -0.5 to 3.75V
Dedicated Input Voltage Applied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -0.5 to 3.75V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -0.5 to 3.75V
Storage Temperature (Ambient). . . . . . . . . . . . . . -55°C to 125°C . . . . . . . . . . . . . -55°C to 125°C
Junction Temperature (TJ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -40°C to 125°C . . . . . . . . . . . . . -40°C to 125°C
1. Stress above those listed under the “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. Functional operation of the
device at these or any other conditions above those indicated in the operational sections of this specification is not implied.
2. Compliance with the Lattice Thermal Management document is required.
3. All voltages referenced to GND.
4. Overshoot and undershoot of -2V to (VIHMAX + 2) volts is permitted for a duration of <20ns.
5. The dual function I2C pins SCL and SDA are limited to -0.25V to 3.75V or to -0.3V with a duration of <20ns.
Recommended Operating Conditions1
Power Supply Ramp Rates1
Symbol Parameter Min. Max. Units
VCC1Core Supply Voltage for 1.2V Devices 1.14 1.26 V
Core Supply Voltage for 2.5V/3.3V Devices 2.375 3.465 V
VCCIO1, 2, 3 I/O Driver Supply Voltage 1.14 3.465 V
tJCOM Junction Temperature Commercial Operation 0 85 °C
tJIND Junction Temperature Industrial Operation -40 100 °C
1. Like power supplies must be tied together. For example, if VCCIO and VCC are both the same voltage, they must also be the same
supply.
2. See recommended voltages by I/O standard in subsequent table.
3. VCCIO pins of unused I/O banks should be connected to the VCC power supply on boards.
Symbol Parameter Min. Typ. Max. Units
tRAMP Power supply ramp rates for all power supplies. 0.01 100 V/ms
1. Assumes monotonic ramp rates.
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
DC and Switching Characteristics
3-2
DC and Switching Characteristics
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
Power-On-Reset Voltage Levels1, 2, 3, 4
Programming/Erase Specifications
Hot Socketing Specifications1, 2, 3
ESD Performance
Please refer to the MachXO2 Product Family Qualification Summary for complete qualification data, including ESD
performance.
Symbol Parameter Min. Typ. Max. Units
VPORUP Power-On-Reset ramp up trip point (band gap based circuit
monitoring VCCINT and VCCIO)0.9 — 1.06 V
VPORUPEXT Power-On-Reset ramp up trip point (band gap based circuit
monitoring external VCC power supply) 1.5 — 2.1 V
VPORDNBG Power-On-Reset ramp down trip point (band gap based circuit
monitoring VCCINT) — 0.93 V
VPORDNSRAM Power-On-Reset ramp down trip point (SRAM based circuit
monitoring VCCINT)—0.6— V
1. These POR trip points are only provided for guidance. Device operation is only characterized for power supply voltages specified under rec-
ommended operating conditions.
2. For devices without voltage regulators VCCINT is the same as the VCC supply voltage. For devices with voltage regulators, VCCINT is regu-
lated from the VCC supply voltage.
3. Note that VPORUP (min.) and VPORDNBG (max.) are in different process corners. For any given process corner VPORDNBG (max.) is always
12.0mV below VPORUP (min.).
4. VPORUPEXT is for HC devices only. In these devices a separate POR circuit monitors the external VCC power supply.
Symbol Parameter Min. Max.1Units
NPROGCYC
Flash Programming cycles per tRETENTION 10,000 Cycles
Flash functional programming cycles 100,000
tRETENTION
Data retention at 100°C junction temperature 10 Years
Data retention at 85°C junction temperature 20
1. Maximum Flash memory reads are limited to 7.5E13 cycles over the lifetime of the product.
Symbol Parameter Condition Max. Units
IDK Input or I/O leakage Current 0 < VIN < VIH (MAX) +/-1000 µA
1. Insensitive to sequence of VCC and VCCIO. However, assumes monotonic rise/fall rates for VCC and VCCIO.
2. 0 < VCC < VCC (MAX), 0 < VCCIO < VCCIO (MAX).
3. IDK is additive to IPU, IPD or IBH.
3-3
DC and Switching Characteristics
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
DC Electrical Characteristics
Over Recommended Operating Conditions
Symbol Parameter Condition Min. Typ. Max. Units
IIL, IIH1, 4 Input or I/O Leakage
Clamp OFF and VCCIO < VIN < VIH (MAX) +175 µA
Clamp OFF and VIN = VCCIO -10 — 10 µA
Clamp OFF and VCCIO - 0.97V < VIN <
VCCIO -175 ——
µA
Clamp OFF and 0V < VIN < VCCIO - 0.97V 10 µA
Clamp OFF and VIN = GND 10 µA
Clamp ON and 0V < VIN < VCCIO ——10µA
IPU I/O Active Pull-up Current 0 < VIN < 0.7 VCCIO -30 -309 µA
IPD I/O Active Pull-down
Current VIL (MAX) < VIN < VCCIO 30 305 µA
IBHLS Bus Hold Low sustaining
current VIN = VIL (MAX) 30 ——
µA
IBHHS Bus Hold High sustaining
current VIN = 0.7VCCIO -30 — µA
IBHLO Bus Hold Low Overdrive
current 0 VIN VCCIO 305 µA
IBHHO Bus Hold High Overdrive
current 0 VIN VCCIO -309 µA
VBHT3Bus Hold Trip Points VIL
(MAX) VIH
(MIN) V
C1 I/O Capacitance2VCCIO = 3.3V, 2.5V, 1.8V, 1.5V, 1.2V,
VCC = Typ., VIO = 0 to VIH (MAX) 359pf
C2 Dedicated Input
Capacitance2
VCCIO = 3.3V, 2.5V, 1.8V, 1.5V, 1.2V,
VCC = Typ., VIO = 0 to VIH (MAX) 35.57 pf
VHYST Hysteresis for Schmitt
Trigger Inputs5
VCCIO = 3.3V, Hysteresis = Large 450 mV
VCCIO = 2.5V, Hysteresis = Large 250 mV
VCCIO = 1.8V, Hysteresis = Large 125 mV
VCCIO = 1.5V, Hysteresis = Large 100 mV
VCCIO = 3.3V, Hysteresis = Small 250 mV
VCCIO = 2.5V, Hysteresis = Small 150 mV
VCCIO = 1.8V, Hysteresis = Small 60 mV
VCCIO = 1.5V, Hysteresis = Small 40 mV
1. Input or I/O leakage current is measured with the pin configured as an input or as an I/O with the output driver tri-stated. It is not measured
with the output driver active. Bus maintenance circuits are disabled.
2. TA 25°C, f = 1.0MHz.
3. Please refer to VIL and VIH in the sysIO Single-Ended DC Electrical Characteristics table of this document.
4. When VIH is higher than VCCIO, a transient current typically of 30ns in duration or less with a peak current of 6mA can occur on the high-to-
low transition. For true LVDS output pins in MachXO2-640U, MachXO2-1200/U and larger devices, VIH must be less than or equal to VCCIO.
5. With bus keeper circuit turned on. For more details, refer to TN1202, MachXO2 sysIO Usage Guide.
3-4
DC and Switching Characteristics
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
Static Supply Current – ZE Devices1, 2, 3, 6
Static Power Consumption Contribution of Different Components –
ZE Devices
The table below can be used for approximating static power consumption. For a more accurate power analysis for
your design please use the Power Calculator tool.
Symbol Parameter Device Typ.4Units
ICC Core Power Supply
LCMXO2-256ZE 18 µA
LCMXO2-640ZE 28 µA
LCMXO2-1200ZE 56 µA
LCMXO2-2000ZE 80 µA
LCMXO2-4000ZE 124 µA
LCMXO2-7000ZE 189 µA
ICCIO Bank Power Supply5
VCCIO = 2.5V All devices 0 mA
1. For further information on supply current, please refer to TN1198, Power Estimation and Management for MachXO2 Devices.
2. Assumes blank pattern with the following characteristics: all outputs are tri-stated, all inputs are configured as LVCMOS and held at VCCIO
or GND, on-chip oscillator is off, on-chip PLL is off. To estimate the impact of turning each of these items on, please refer to the following
table or for more detail with your specific design use the Power Calculator tool.
3. Frequency = 0 MHz.
4. TJ = 25°C, power supplies at nominal voltage.
5. Does not include pull-up/pull-down.
6. To determine the MachXO2 peak start-up current data, use the Power Calculator tool.
Symbol Parameter Typ. Units
IDCBG Bandgap DC power contribution 101 µA
IDCPOR POR DC power contribution 38 µA
IDCIOBANKCONTROLLER DC power contribution per I/O bank controller 143 µA
3-5
DC and Switching Characteristics
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
Static Supply Current – HC/HE Devices1, 2, 3, 6
Programming and Erase Flash Supply Current – ZE Devices1, 2, 3, 4
Symbol Parameter Device Typ.4Units
ICC Core Power Supply
LCMXO2-256HC 1.15 mA
LCMXO2-640HC 1.84 mA
LCMXO2-640UHC 3.48 mA
LCMXO2-1200HC 3.49 mA
LCMXO2-1200UHC 4.80 mA
LCMXO2-2000HC 4.80 mA
LCMXO2-2000UHC 8.44 mA
LCMXO2-4000HC 8.45 mA
LCMXO2-7000HC 12.87 mA
LCMXO2-2000HE 1.39 mA
LCMXO2-4000HE 2.55 mA
LCMXO2-7000HE 4.06 mA
ICCIO Bank Power Supply5
VCCIO = 2.5V All devices 0 mA
1. For further information on supply current, please refer to TN1198, Power Estimation and Management for MachXO2 Devices.
2. Assumes blank pattern with the following characteristics: all outputs are tri-stated, all inputs are configured as LVCMOS and held at VCCIO or
GND, on-chip oscillator is off, on-chip PLL is off.
3. Frequency = 0 MHz.
4. TJ = 25°C, power supplies at nominal voltage.
5. Does not include pull-up/pull-down.
6. To determine the MachXO2 peak start-up current data, use the Power Calculator tool.
Symbol Parameter Device Typ.5Units
ICC Core Power Supply
LCMXO2-256ZE 13 mA
LCMXO2-640ZE 14 mA
LCMXO2-1200ZE 15 mA
LCMXO2-2000ZE 17 mA
LCMXO2-4000ZE 18 mA
LCMXO2-7000ZE 20 mA
ICCIO Bank Power Supply6All devices 0 mA
1. For further information on supply current, please refer to TN1198, Power Estimation and Management for MachXO2 Devices.
2. Assumes all inputs are held at VCCIO or GND and all outputs are tri-stated.
3. Typical user pattern.
4. JTAG programming is at 25 MHz.
5. TJ = 25°C, power supplies at nominal voltage.
6. Per bank. VCCIO = 2.5V. Does not include pull-up/pull-down.
3-6
DC and Switching Characteristics
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
Programming and Erase Flash Supply Current – HC/HE Devices1, 2, 3, 4
Symbol Parameter Device Typ.5Units
ICC Core Power Supply
LCMXO2-256HC 14.6 mA
LCMXO2-640HC 16.1 mA
LCMXO2-640UHC 18.8 mA
LCMXO2-1200HC 18.8 mA
LCMXO2-1200UHC 22.1 mA
LCMXO2-2000HC 22.1 mA
LCMXO2-2000UHC 26.8 mA
LCMXO2-4000HC 26.8 mA
LCMXO2-7000HC 33.2 mA
LCMXO2-2000HE 18.3 mA
LCMXO2-2000UHE 20.4 mA
LCMXO2-4000HE 20.4 mA
LCMXO2-7000HE 23.9 mA
ICCIO Bank Power Supply6All devices 0 mA
1. For further information on supply current, please refer to TN1198, Power Estimation and Management for MachXO2 Devices.
2. Assumes all inputs are held at VCCIO or GND and all outputs are tri-stated.
3. Typical user pattern.
4. JTAG programming is at 25 MHz.
5. TJ = 25°C, power supplies at nominal voltage.
6. Per bank. VCCIO = 2.5V. Does not include pull-up/pull-down.
3-7
DC and Switching Characteristics
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
sysIO Recommended Operating Conditions
Standard
VCCIO (V) VREF (V)
Min. Typ. Max. Min. Typ. Max.
LVCMOS 3.3 3.135 3.3 3.465
LVCMOS 2.5 2.375 2.5 2.625
LVCMOS 1.8 1.71 1.8 1.89
LVCMOS 1.5 1.425 1.5 1.575
LVCMOS 1.2 1.14 1.2 1.26
LVTTL 3.135 3.3 3.465 — — —
PCI33.135 3.3 3.465 — — —
SSTL25 2.375 2.5 2.625 1.15 1.25 1.35
SSTL18 1.71 1.8 1.89 0.833 0.9 0.969
HSTL18 1.71 1.8 1.89 0.816 0.9 1.08
LVD S25 1, 2 2.375 2.5 2.625 — — —
LVD S33 1, 2 3.135 3.3 3.465 — — —
LVPECL13.135 3.3 3.465 — — —
BLVDS12.375 2.5 2.625 — — —
RSDS12.375 2.5 2.625 — — —
SSTL18D 1.71 1.8 1.89 — — —
SSTL25D 2.375 2.5 2.625 — — —
HSTL18D 1.71 1.8 1.89 — — —
1. Inputs on-chip. Outputs are implemented with the addition of external resistors.
2. MachXO2-640U, MachXO2-1200/U and larger devices have dedicated LVDS buffers
3. Input on the bottom bank of the MachXO2-640U, MachXO2-1200/U and larger devices only.
3-8
DC and Switching Characteristics
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
sysIO Single-Ended DC Electrical Characteristics1, 2
Input/Output
Standard
VIL VIH VOL Max.
(V)
VOH Min.
(V)
IOL Max.4
(mA)
IOH Max.4
(mA)Min. (V)3Max. (V) Min. (V) Max. (V)
LVC MOS 3.3
LVTTL -0.3 0.8 2.0 3.6 0.4 VCCIO - 0.4
4-4
8-8
12 -12
16 -16
24 -24
0.2 VCCIO - 0.2 0.1 -0.1
LVCMOS 2.5 -0.3 0.7 1.7 3.6 0.4 VCCIO - 0.4
4-4
8-8
12 -12
16 -16
0.2 VCCIO - 0.2 0.1 -0.1
LVCMOS 1.8 -0.3 0.35VCCIO 0.65VCCIO 3.6 0.4 VCCIO - 0.4
4-4
8-8
12 -12
0.2 VCCIO - 0.2 0.1 -0.1
LVCMOS 1.5 -0.3 0.35VCCIO 0.65VCCIO 3.6 0.4 VCCIO - 0.4 4-4
8-8
0.2 VCCIO - 0.2 0.1 -0.1
LVCMOS 1.2 -0.3 0.35VCCIO 0.65VCCIO 3.6 0.4 VCCIO - 0.4 4-2
8-6
0.2 VCCIO - 0.2 0.1 -0.1
PCI -0.3 0.3VCCIO 0.5VCCIO 3.6 0.1VCCIO 0.9VCCIO 1.5 -0.5
SSTL25 Class I -0.3 VREF - 0.18 VREF + 0.18 3.6 0.54 VCCIO - 0.62 8 8
SSTL25 Class II -0.3 VREF - 0.18 VREF +0.18 3.6 NA NA NA NA
SSTL18 Class I -0.3 VREF - 0.125 VREF +0.125 3.6 0.40 VCCIO - 0.40 8 8
SSTL18 Class II -0.3 VREF - 0.125 VREF +0.125 3.6 NA NA NA NA
HSTL18 Class I -0.3 VREF - 0.1 VREF +0.1 3.6 0.40 VCCIO - 0.40 8 8
HSTL18 Class II -0.3 VREF - 0.1 VREF +0.1 3.6 NA NA NA NA
1. MachXO2 devices allow LVCMOS inputs to be placed in I/O banks where VCCIO is different from what is specified in the applicable JEDEC
specification. This is referred to as a ratioed input buffer. In a majority of cases this operation follows or exceeds the applicable JEDEC spec-
ification. The cases where MachXO2 devices do not meet the relevant JEDEC specification are documented in the table below.
2. MachXO2 devices allow for LVCMOS referenced I/Os which follow applicable JEDEC specifications. For more details about mixed mode
operation please refer to please refer to TN1202, MachXO2 sysIO Usage Guide.
3. The dual function I2C pins SCL and SDA are limited to a VIL min of -0.25V or to -0.3V with a duration of <10ns.
4. The average DC current drawn by I/Os between GND connections, or between the last GND in an I/O bank and the end of an I/O bank, as
shown in the logic signal connections table shall not exceed n * 8mA. Where n is the number of I/Os between bank GND connections or
between the last GND in a bank and the end of a bank.
Input Standard VCCIO (V) VIL Max. (V)
LVCMOS 33 1.5 0.685
LVCMOS 25 1.5 1.687
LVCMOS 18 1.5 1.164
3-9
DC and Switching Characteristics
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
sysIO Differential Electrical Characteristics
The LVDS differential output buffers are available on the top side of MachXO2-640U, MachXO2-1200/U and higher
density devices in the MachXO2 PLD family.
LVD S
Over Recommended Operating Conditions
Parameter
Symbol Parameter Description Test Conditions Min. Typ. Max. Units
VINP
, VINM
Input Voltage VCCIO = 3.3 0 2.605 V
VCCIO = 2.5 0 2.05 V
VTHD Differential Input Threshold ±100 mV
VCM Input Common Mode Voltage VCCIO = 3.3V 0.05 2.6 V
VCCIO = 2.5V 0.05 2.0 V
IIN Input current Power on ±10 µA
VOH Output high voltage for VOP or VOM RT = 100 Ohm 1.375 V
VOL Output low voltage for VOP or VOM RT = 100 Ohm 0.90 1.025 V
VOD Output voltage differential (VOP - VOM), RT = 100 Ohm 250 350 450 mV
VOD Change in VOD between high and low 50 mV
VOS Output voltage offset (VOP - VOM)/2, RT = 100 Ohm 1.125 1.20 1.395 V
VOS Change in VOS between H and L 50 mV
IOSD Output short circuit current VOD = 0V driver outputs shorted 24 mA
3-10
DC and Switching Characteristics
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
LVDS Emulation
MachXO2 devices can support LVDS outputs via emulation (LVDS25E). The output is emulated using complemen-
tary LVCMOS outputs in conjunction with resistors across the driver outputs on all devices. The scheme shown in
Figure 3-1 is one possible solution for LVDS standard implementation. Resistor values in Figure 3-1 are industry
standard values for 1% resistors.
Figure 3-1. LVDS Using External Resistors (LVDS25E)
Table 3-1. LVDS25E DC Conditions
Over Recommended Operating Conditions
Parameter Description Typ. Units
ZOUT Output impedance 20 Ohms
RSDriver series resistor 158 Ohms
RPDriver parallel resistor 140 Ohms
RTReceiver termination 100 Ohms
VOH Output high voltage 1.43 V
VOL Output low voltage 1.07 V
VOD Output differential voltage 0.35 V
VCM Output common mode voltage 1.25 V
ZBACK Back impedance 100.5 Ohms
IDC DC output current 6.03 mA
158
158
Zo = 100
140 100
On-chip On-chipOff-chip Off-chip
VCCIO = 2.5
8mA
8mA
Note: All resistors are ±1%.
VCCIO = 2.5
+
-
Emulated
LVDS
Buffer
3-11
DC and Switching Characteristics
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
BLVDS
The MachXO2 family supports the BLVDS standard through emulation. The output is emulated using complemen-
tary LVCMOS outputs in conjunction with resistors across the driver outputs. The input standard is supported by
the LVDS differential input buffer. BLVDS is intended for use when multi-drop and bi-directional multi-point differen-
tial signaling is required. The scheme shown in Figure 3-2 is one possible solution for bi-directional multi-point dif-
ferential signals.
Figure 3-2. BLVDS Multi-point Output Example
Table 3-2. BLVDS DC Conditions1
Over Recommended Operating Conditions
Symbol Description
Nominal
UnitsZo = 45 Zo = 90
ZOUT Output impedance 10 10 Ohms
RSDriver series resistance 80 80 Ohms
RTLEFT Left end termination 45 90 Ohms
RTRIGHT Right end termination 45 90 Ohms
VOH Output high voltage 1.376 1.480 V
VOL Output low voltage 1.124 1.020 V
VOD Output differential voltage 0.253 0.459 V
VCM Output common mode voltage 1.250 1.250 V
IDC DC output current 11.236 10.204 mA
1. For input buffer, see LVDS table.
Heavily loaded backplane, effective Zo ~ 45 to 90 ohms differential
2.5V
80
80
80808080
45-90 ohms 45-90 ohms
80
2.5V
2.5V
2.5V 2.5V 2.5V 2.5V
2.5V
+
-
. . .
+
-
. . .
+
-
+
-
16mA
16mA 16mA 16mA 16mA
16mA
16mA
16mA
3-12
DC and Switching Characteristics
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
LVPECL
The MachXO2 family supports the differential LVPECL standard through emulation. This output standard is emu-
lated using complementary LVCMOS outputs in conjunction with resistors across the driver outputs on all the
devices. The LVPECL input standard is supported by the LVDS differential input buffer. The scheme shown in Dif-
ferential LVPECL is one possible solution for point-to-point signals.
Figure 3-3. Differential LVPECL
Table 3-3. LVPECL DC Conditions1
Over Recommended Operating Conditions
For further information on LVPECL, BLVDS and other differential interfaces please see details of additional techni-
cal documentation at the end of the data sheet.
Symbol Description Nominal Units
ZOUT Output impedance 10 Ohms
RSDriver series resistor 93 Ohms
RPDriver parallel resistor 196 Ohms
RTReceiver termination 100 Ohms
VOH Output high voltage 2.05 V
VOL Output low voltage 1.25 V
VOD Output differential voltage 0.80 V
VCM Output common mode voltage 1.65 V
ZBACK Back impedance 100.5 Ohms
IDC DC output current 12.11 mA
1. For input buffer, see LVDS table.
Transmission line, Zo = 100 ohm differential
100 ohms
93 ohms
16mA
16mA
93 ohms
Off-chip On-chip
VCCIO = 3.3V
VCCIO = 3.3V +
-
196 ohms
On-chip Off-chip
3-13
DC and Switching Characteristics
MachXO2 Family Data Sheet
RSDS
The MachXO2 family supports the differential RSDS standard. The output standard is emulated using complemen-
tary LVCMOS outputs in conjunction with resistors across the driver outputs on all the devices. The RSDS input
standard is supported by the LVDS differential input buffer. The scheme shown in Figure 3-4 is one possible solu-
tion for RSDS standard implementation. Use LVDS25E mode with suggested resistors for RSDS operation. Resis-
tor values in Figure 3-4 are industry standard values for 1% resistors.
Figure 3-4. RSDS (Reduced Swing Differential Standard)
Table 3-4. RSDS DC Conditions
Parameter Description