ESP32 Series Datasheet

Espressif Systems

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Datasheet

ESP32 Series
Datasheet
Including:
ESP32-D0WD
ESP32-D0WDQ6
ESP32-D2WD
ESP32-S0WD
Version 3.0
Espressif Systems
Copyright © 2019
www.espressif.com
About This Guide
This document provides the specifications of ESP32 family of chips.
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For any changes to this document over time, please refer to the last page.
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are granted herein. The Wi-Fi Alliance Member logo is a trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance. The Bluetooth logo is a
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Copyright © 2019 Espressif Inc. All rights reserved.
Contents
1 Overview 1
1.1 Featured Solutions 1
1.1.1 Ultra-Low-Power Solution 1
1.1.2 Complete Integration Solution 1
1.2 Wi-Fi Key Features 1
1.3 BT Key Features 2
1.4 MCU and Advanced Features 2
1.4.1 CPU and Memory 2
1.4.2 Clocks and Timers 3
1.4.3 Advanced Peripheral Interfaces 3
1.4.4 Security 3
1.5 Applications (A Non-exhaustive List) 4
1.6 Block Diagram 5
2 Pin Definitions 6
2.1 Pin Layout 6
2.2 Pin Description 7
2.3 Power Scheme 9
2.4 Strapping Pins 10
3 Functional Description 13
3.1 CPU and Memory 13
3.1.1 CPU 13
3.1.2 Internal Memory 13
3.1.3 External Flash and SRAM 14
3.1.4 Memory Map 14
3.2 Timers and Watchdogs 16
3.2.1 64-bit Timers 16
3.2.2 Watchdog Timers 16
3.3 System Clocks 17
3.3.1 CPU Clock 17
3.3.2 RTC Clock 17
3.3.3 Audio PLL Clock 17
3.4 Radio 17
3.4.1 2.4 GHz Receiver 18
3.4.2 2.4 GHz Transmitter 18
3.4.3 Clock Generator 18
3.5 Wi-Fi 18
3.5.1 Wi-Fi Radio and Baseband 18
3.5.2 Wi-Fi MAC 19
3.6 Bluetooth 19
3.6.1 Bluetooth Radio and Baseband 19
3.6.2 Bluetooth Interface 20
3.6.3 Bluetooth Stack 20
3.6.4 Bluetooth Link Controller 20
3.7 RTC and Low-Power Management 21
4 Peripherals and Sensors 23
4.1 Descriptions of Peripherals and Sensors 23
4.1.1 General Purpose Input / Output Interface (GPIO) 23
4.1.2 Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) 23
4.1.3 Hall Sensor 24
4.1.4 Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) 24
4.1.5 Touch Sensor 24
4.1.6 Ultra-Low-Power Co-processor 24
4.1.7 Ethernet MAC Interface 24
4.1.8 SD/SDIO/MMC Host Controller 25
4.1.9 SDIO/SPI Slave Controller 25
4.1.10 Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (UART) 26
4.1.11 I²C Interface 26
4.1.12 I²S Interface 26
4.1.13 Infrared Remote Controller 26
4.1.14 Pulse Counter 26
4.1.15 Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) 26
4.1.16 LED PWM 27
4.1.17 Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) 27
4.1.18 Accelerator 27
4.2 Peripheral Pin Configurations 28
5 Electrical Characteristics 33
5.1 Absolute Maximum Ratings 33
5.2 Recommended Operating Conditions 33
5.3 DC Characteristics (3.3 V, 25 °C) 34
5.4 Reliability Qualifications 34
5.5 RF Power-Consumption Specifications 35
5.6 Wi-Fi Radio 35
5.7 Bluetooth Radio 36
5.7.1 Receiver – Basic Data Rate 36
5.7.2 Transmitter – Basic Data Rate 36
5.7.3 Receiver – Enhanced Data Rate 37
5.7.4 Transmitter – Enhanced Data Rate 37
5.8 Bluetooth LE Radio 38
5.8.1 Receiver 38
5.8.2 Transmitter 38
6 Package Information 39
7 Part Number and Ordering Information 40
8 Learning Resources 41
8.1 Must-Read Documents 41
8.2 Must-Have Resources 41
Appendix A – ESP32 Pin Lists 42
A.1. Notes on ESP32 Pin Lists 42
A.2. GPIO_Matrix 44
A.3. Ethernet_MAC 49
A.4. IO_MUX 49
Revision History 51
List of Tables
1 Pin Description 7
2 Description of ESP32 Power-up and Reset Timing Parameters 10
3 Strapping Pins 11
4 Parameter Descriptions of Setup and Hold Times for the Strapping Pin 12
5 Memory and Peripheral Mapping 15
6 Power Consumption by Power Modes 21
7 ADC Characteristics 23
8 ADC Calibration Results 23
9 Capacitive-Sensing GPIOs Available on ESP32 24
10 Peripheral Pin Configurations 28
11 Absolute Maximum Ratings 33
12 Recommended Operating Conditions 33
13 DC Characteristics (3.3 V, 25 °C) 34
14 Reliability Qualifications 34
15 RF Power-Consumption Specifications 35
16 Wi-Fi Radio Characteristics 35
17 Receiver Characteristics – Basic Data Rate 36
18 Transmitter Characteristics – Basic Data Rate 36
19 Receiver Characteristics – Enhanced Data Rate 37
20 Transmitter Characteristics – Enhanced Data Rate 37
21 Receiver Characteristics – BLE 38
22 Transmitter Characteristics – BLE 38
23 ESP32 Ordering Information 40
24 Notes on ESP32 Pin Lists 42
25 GPIO_Matrix 44
26 Ethernet_MAC 49
List of Figures
1 Functional Block Diagram 5
2 ESP32 Pin Layout (QFN 6*6, Top View) 6
3 ESP32 Pin Layout (QFN 5*5, Top View) 7
4 ESP32 Power Scheme 9
5 ESP32 Power-up and Reset Timing 9
6 Setup and Hold Times for the Strapping Pin 11
7 Address Mapping Structure 14
8 QFN48 (6x6 mm) Package 39
9 QFN48 (5x5 mm) Package 39
10 ESP32 Part Number 40
1. Overview
1. Overview
ESP32 is a single 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi-and-Bluetooth combo chip designed with the TSMC ultra-low-power 40 nm
technology. It is designed to achieve the best power and RF performance, showing robustness, versatility and
reliability in a wide variety of applications and power scenarios.
The ESP32 series of chips includes ESP32-D0WDQ6, ESP32-D0WD, ESP32-D2WD, and ESP32-S0WD. For
details on part numbers and ordering information, please refer to Part Number and Ordering Information.
1.1 Featured Solutions
1.1.1 Ultra-Low-Power Solution
ESP32 is designed for mobile, wearable electronics, and Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications. It features all the
state-of-the-art characteristics of low-power chips, including fine-grained clock gating, multiple power modes, and
dynamic power scaling. For instance, in a low-power IoT sensor hub application scenario, ESP32 is woken up
periodically and only when a specified condition is detected. Low-duty cycle is used to minimize the amount of
energy that the chip expends. The output of the power amplifier is also adjustable, thus contributing to an optimal
trade-off between communication range, data rate and power consumption.
Note:
For more information, refer to Section 3.7 RTC and Low-Power Management.
1.1.2 Complete Integration Solution
ESP32 is a highly-integrated solution for Wi-Fi-and-Bluetooth IoT applications, with around 20 external com-
ponents. ESP32 integrates an antenna switch, RF balun, power amplifier, low-noise receive amplifier, filters,
and power management modules. As such, the entire solution occupies minimal Printed Circuit Board (PCB)
area.
ESP32 uses CMOS for single-chip fully-integrated radio and baseband, while also integrating advanced calibration
circuitries that allow the solution to remove external circuit imperfections or adjust to changes in external condi-
tions. As such, the mass production of ESP32 solutions does not require expensive and specialized Wi-Fi testing
equipment.
1.2 Wi-Fi Key Features
802.11 b/g/n
802.11 n (2.4 GHz), up to 150 Mbps
• WMM
TX/RX A-MPDU, RX A-MSDU
Immediate Block ACK
• Defragmentation
Automatic Beacon monitoring (hardware TSF)
4 × virtual Wi-Fi interfaces
Espressif Systems 1 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0
1. Overview
Simultaneous support for Infrastructure Station, SoftAP, and Promiscuous modes
Note that when ESP32 is in Station mode, performing a scan, the SoftAP channel will be changed.
Antenna diversity
Note:
For more information, please refer to Section 3.5 Wi-Fi.
1.3 BT Key Features
Compliant with Bluetooth v4.2 BR/EDR and BLE specifications
Class-1, class-2 and class-3 transmitter without external power amplifier
Enhanced Power Control
+12 dBm transmitting power
NZIF receiver with –97 dBm BLE sensitivity
Adaptive Frequency Hopping (AFH)
Standard HCI based on SDIO/SPI/UART
High-speed UART HCI, up to 4 Mbps
Bluetooth 4.2 BR/EDR BLE dual mode controller
Synchronous Connection-Oriented/Extended (SCO/eSCO)
CVSD and SBC for audio codec
Bluetooth Piconet and Scatternet
Multi-connections in Classic BT and BLE
Simultaneous advertising and scanning
1.4 MCU and Advanced Features
1.4.1 CPU and Memory
• Xtensa®single-/dual-core 32-bit LX6 microprocessor(s), up to 600 MIPS (200 MIPS for ESP32-S0WD, 400
MIPS for ESP32-D2WD)
448 KB ROM
520 KB SRAM
16 KB SRAM in RTC
QSPI supports multiple flash/SRAM chips
Espressif Systems 2 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0
1. Overview
1.4.2 Clocks and Timers
Internal 8 MHz oscillator with calibration
Internal RC oscillator with calibration
External 2 MHz ~60 MHz crystal oscillator (40 MHz only for Wi-Fi/BT functionality)
External 32 kHz crystal oscillator for RTC with calibration
Two timer groups, including 2 × 64-bit timers and 1 × main watchdog in each group
One RTC timer
RTC watchdog
1.4.3 Advanced Peripheral Interfaces
34 × programmable GPIOs
12-bit SAR ADC up to 18 channels
2 × 8-bit DAC
10 × touch sensors
4 × SPI
2 × I²S
2 × I²C
3 × UART
1 host (SD/eMMC/SDIO)
1 slave (SDIO/SPI)
Ethernet MAC interface with dedicated DMA and IEEE 1588 support
CAN 2.0
IR (TX/RX)
Motor PWM
LED PWM up to 16 channels
Hall sensor
1.4.4 Security
Secure boot
Flash encryption
1024-bit OTP, up to 768-bit for customers
Cryptographic hardware acceleration:
AES
Hash (SHA-2)
RSA
ECC
Espressif Systems 3 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0
1. Overview
Random Number Generator (RNG)
1.5 Applications (A Non-exhaustive List)
Generic Low-power IoT Sensor Hub
Generic Low-power IoT Data Loggers
Cameras for Video Streaming
Over-the-top (OTT) Devices
Speech Recognition
Image Recognition
Mesh Network
Home Automation
Light control
Smart plugs
Smart door locks
Smart Building
Smart lighting
Energy monitoring
Industrial Automation
Industrial wireless control
Industrial robotics
Smart Agriculture
Smart greenhouses
Smart irrigation
Agriculture robotics
Audio Applications
Internet music players
Live streaming devices
Internet radio players
Audio headsets
Health Care Applications
Health monitoring
Baby monitors
Wi-Fi-enabled Toys
Remote control toys
Proximity sensing toys
Educational toys
Wearable Electronics
Smart watches
Smart bracelets
Retail & Catering Applications
POS machines
Service robots
Espressif Systems 4 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0
1. Overview
1.6 Block Diagram
Core and memory
ROM
Cryptographic hardware
acceleration
AES
SHA RSA
RTC
ULP
co-processor
Recovery
memory
PMU
Bluetooth
link
controller
Bluetooth
baseband
Wi-Fi MAC Wi-Fi
baseband
SPI
2 or 1 x Xtensa® 32-
bit LX6 Microprocessors
RF
receive
RF
transmit
Switch
Balun
I2C
I2S
SDIO
UART
CAN
ETH
IR
PWM
Touch sensor
DAC
ADC
Clock
generator
RNG
SRAM
Embedded Flash
Figure 1: Functional Block Diagram
Note:
Products in the ESP32 series differ from each other in terms of their support for embedded flash and the number of CPUs
they have. For details, please refer to Part Number and Ordering Information.
Espressif Systems 5 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0
2. Pin Definitions
2. Pin Definitions
2.1 Pin Layout
32K_XP 12
VDET_2 11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
VDET_1
CHIP_PU
SENSOR_VN
SENSOR_CAPN
SENSOR_CAPP
SENSOR_VP
VDD3P3
VDD3P3
LNA_IN
VDDA
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
GPIO16
VDD_SDIO
GPIO5
VDD3P3_CPU37
GPIO1938
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
GPIO22
U0RXD
U0TXD
GPIO21
XTAL_N
XTAL_P
VDDA
CAP2
CAP1
GPIO2
24
MTDO
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
MTCK
VDD3P3_RTC
MTDI
MTMS
GPIO27
GPIO26
GPIO25
32K_XN
SD_DATA_2
SD_DATA_3
SD_CMD
SD_CLK
SD_DATA_0
SD_DATA_1
GPIO4
GPIO0
GPIO23
GPIO18
VDDA
GPIO17
ESP32
49 GND
Figure 2: ESP32 Pin Layout (QFN 6*6, Top View)
Espressif Systems 6 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0
2. Pin Definitions
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
VDET_1
CHIP_PU
SENSOR_VN
SENSOR_CAPN
SENSOR_CAPP
SENSOR_VP
VDD3P3
VDD3P3
LNA_IN
VDDA
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
GPIO16
VDD_SDIO
GPIO5
VDD3P3_CPU
GPIO19
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
GPIO22
U0RXD
U0TXD
GPIO21
XTAL_N
XTAL_P
VDDA
CAP2
CAP1
GPIO2
24
MTDO
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
MTCK
VDD3P3_RTC
MTDI
MTMS
GPIO27
GPIO26
GPIO25
32K_XN
SD_DATA_2
SD_DATA_3
SD_CMD
SD_CLK
SD_DATA_0
SD_DATA_1
GPIO4
GPIO0
VDDA
GPIO1732K_XP
VDET_2
GPIO18
GPIO23
11
12
13
14
35
36
37
38
ESP32
49 GND
Figure 3: ESP32 Pin Layout (QFN 5*5, Top View)
Note:
For details on ESP32’s part numbers and the corresponding packaging, please refer to Part Number and Ordering Infor-
mation.
2.2 Pin Description
Table 1: Pin Description
Name No. Type Function
Analog
VDDA 1 P Analog power supply (2.3 V – 3.6 V)
LNA_IN 2 I/O RF input and output
VDD3P3 3 P Analog power supply (2.3 V – 3.6 V)
VDD3P3 4 P Analog power supply (2.3 V – 3.6 V)
VDD3P3_RTC
SENSOR_VP 5 I GPIO36, ADC1_CH0, RTC_GPIO0
SENSOR_CAPP 6 I GPIO37, ADC1_CH1, RTC_GPIO1
SENSOR_CAPN 7 I GPIO38, ADC1_CH2, RTC_GPIO2
SENSOR_VN 8 I GPIO39, ADC1_CH3, RTC_GPIO3
CHIP_PU 9 I
High: On; enables the chip
Low: Off; the chip powers off
Note: Do not leave the CHIP_PU pin floating.
Espressif Systems 7 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0
2. Pin Definitions
Name No. Type Function
VDET_1 10 I GPIO34, ADC1_CH6, RTC_GPIO4
VDET_2 11 I GPIO35, ADC1_CH7, RTC_GPIO5
32K_XP 12 I/O GPIO32, ADC1_CH4, RTC_GPIO9, TOUCH9, 32K_XP (32.768 kHz crystal oscillator input)
32K_XN 13 I/O GPIO33, ADC1_CH5, RTC_GPIO8, TOUCH8, 32K_XN (32.768 kHz crystal oscillator output)
GPIO25 14 I/O GPIO25, ADC2_CH8, RTC_GPIO6, DAC_1, EMAC_RXD0
GPIO26 15 I/O GPIO26, ADC2_CH9, RTC_GPIO7, DAC_2, EMAC_RXD1
GPIO27 16 I/O GPIO27, ADC2_CH7, RTC_GPIO17, TOUCH7, EMAC_RX_DV
MTMS 17 I/O GPIO14, ADC2_CH6, RTC_GPIO16, TOUCH6, EMAC_TXD2, HSPICLK, HS2_CLK, SD_CLK, MTMS
MTDI 18 I/O GPIO12, ADC2_CH5, RTC_GPIO15, TOUCH5, EMAC_TXD3, HSPIQ, HS2_DATA2, SD_DATA2, MTDI
VDD3P3_RTC 19 P Input power supply for RTC IO (2.3 V – 3.6 V)
MTCK 20 I/O GPIO13, ADC2_CH4, RTC_GPIO14, TOUCH4, EMAC_RX_ER, HSPID, HS2_DATA3, SD_DATA3, MTCK
MTDO 21 I/O GPIO15, ADC2_CH3, RTC_GPIO13, TOUCH3, EMAC_RXD3, HSPICS0, HS2_CMD, SD_CMD, MTDO
GPIO2 22 I/O GPIO2, ADC2_CH2, RTC_GPIO12, TOUCH2, HSPIWP, HS2_DATA0, SD_DATA0
GPIO0 23 I/O GPIO0, ADC2_CH1, RTC_GPIO11, TOUCH1, EMAC_TX_CLK, CLK_OUT1,
GPIO4 24 I/O GPIO4, ADC2_CH0, RTC_GPIO10, TOUCH0, EMAC_TX_ER, HSPIHD, HS2_DATA1, SD_DATA1
VDD_SDIO
GPIO16 25 I/O GPIO16, HS1_DATA4, U2RXD, EMAC_CLK_OUT
VDD_SDIO 26 P Output power supply: 1.8 V or the same voltage as VDD3P3_RTC
GPIO17 27 I/O GPIO17, HS1_DATA5, U2TXD, EMAC_CLK_OUT_180
SD_DATA_2 28 I/O GPIO9, HS1_DATA2, U1RXD, SD_DATA2, SPIHD
SD_DATA_3 29 I/O GPIO10, HS1_DATA3, U1TXD, SD_DATA3, SPIWP
SD_CMD 30 I/O GPIO11, HS1_CMD, U1RTS, SD_CMD, SPICS0
SD_CLK 31 I/O GPIO6, HS1_CLK, U1CTS, SD_CLK, SPICLK
SD_DATA_0 32 I/O GPIO7, HS1_DATA0, U2RTS, SD_DATA0, SPIQ
SD_DATA_1 33 I/O GPIO8, HS1_DATA1, U2CTS, SD_DATA1, SPID
VDD3P3_CPU
GPIO5 34 I/O GPIO5, HS1_DATA6, VSPICS0, EMAC_RX_CLK
GPIO18 35 I/O GPIO18, HS1_DATA7, VSPICLK
GPIO23 36 I/O GPIO23, HS1_STROBE, VSPID
VDD3P3_CPU 37 P Input power supply for CPU IO (1.8 V – 3.6 V)
GPIO19 38 I/O GPIO19, U0CTS, VSPIQ, EMAC_TXD0
GPIO22 39 I/O GPIO22, U0RTS, VSPIWP, EMAC_TXD1
U0RXD 40 I/O GPIO3, U0RXD, CLK_OUT2
U0TXD 41 I/O GPIO1, U0TXD, CLK_OUT3, EMAC_RXD2
GPIO21 42 I/O GPIO21, VSPIHD, EMAC_TX_EN
Analog
VDDA 43 P Analog power supply (2.3 V – 3.6 V)
XTAL_N 44 O External crystal output
XTAL_P 45 I External crystal input
VDDA 46 P Analog power supply (2.3 V – 3.6 V)
CAP2 47 I Connects to a 3 nF capacitor and 20 kresistor in parallel to CAP1
CAP1 48 I Connects to a 10 nF series capacitor to ground
GND 49 P Ground
Note:
ESP32-D2WD’s pins GPIO16, GPIO17, SD_CMD, SD_CLK, SD_DATA_0 and SD_DATA_1 are used for connecting
the embedded flash, and are not recommended for other uses.
For a quick reference guide to using the IO_MUX, Ethernet MAC, and GIPO Matrix pins of ESP32, please refer to
Appendix ESP32 Pin Lists.
In most cases, the data port connection between the ESP32 and external flash is as follows: SD_DATA0/SPIQ =
IO1/DO, SD_DATA1/SPID = IO0/DI, SD_DATA2/SPIHD = IO3/HOLD#, SD_DATA3/SPIWP = IO2/WP#.
Espressif Systems 8 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0
2. Pin Definitions
2.3 Power Scheme
ESP32’s digital pins are divided into three different power domains:
• VDD3P3_RTC
• VDD3P3_CPU
• VDD_SDIO
VDD3P3_RTC is also the input power supply for RTC and CPU.
VDD3P3_CPU is also the input power supply for CPU.
VDD_SDIO connects to the output of an internal LDO whose input is VDD3P3_RTC. When VDD_SDIO is connected
to the same PCB net together with VDD3P3_RTC, the internal LDO is disabled automatically. The power scheme
diagram is shown below:
SDIO
Domain
RTC
Domain
CPU
Domain
LDOLDO LDO1.8 V 1.1 V1.1 V
VDD3P3_RTC VDD3P3_CPU
VDD_SDIO
3.3 V/1.8 V
Figure 4: ESP32 Power Scheme
The internal LDO can be configured as having 1.8 V, or the same voltage as VDD3P3_RTC. It can be powered off
via software to minimize the current of flash/SRAM during the Deep-sleep mode.
Notes on CHIP_PU:
The illustration below shows the ESP32 power-up and reset timing. Details about the parameters are listed
in Table 2.
VDD
CHIP_PU
t0t1
VIL_nRST
Figure 5: ESP32 Power-up and Reset Timing
Espressif Systems 9 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0
2. Pin Definitions
Table 2: Description of ESP32 Power-up and Reset Timing Parameters
Parameters Description Min. Unit
t0
Time between the 3.3 V rails being brought up and CHIP_PU being
activated 50 µs
t1
Duration of CHIP_PU signal level < VIL_nRST (refer to its value in
Table 13 DC Characteristics) to reset the chip 50 µs
In scenarios where ESP32 is powered on and off repeatedly by switching the power rails, while there is a
large capacitor on the VDD33 rail and CHIP_PU and VDD33 are connected, simply switching off the CHIP_PU
power rail and immediately switching it back on may cause an incomplete power discharge cycle and failure
to reset the chip adequately.
An additional discharge circuit may be required to accelerate the discharge of the large capacitor on rail
VDD33, which will ensure proper power-on-reset when the ESP32 is powered up again. Please find the
discharge circuit in Figure ESP32-WROOM-32 Peripheral Schematics, in ESP32-WROOM-32 Datasheet.
When a battery is used as the power supply for the ESP32 series of chips and modules, a supply voltage
supervisor is recommended, so that a boot failure due to low voltage is avoided. Users are recommended
to pull CHIP_PU low if the power supply for ESP32 is below 2.3 V. For the reset circuit, please refer to Figure
ESP32-WROOM-32 Peripheral Schematics, in ESP32-WROOM-32 Datasheet.
Notes on power supply:
The operating voltage of ESP32 ranges from 2.3 V to 3.6 V. When using a single-power supply, the recom-
mended voltage of the power supply is 3.3 V, and its recommended output current is 500 mA or more.
When VDD_SDIO 1.8 V is used as the power supply for external flash/PSRAM, a 2-kohm grounding resistor
should be added to VDD_SDIO. For the circuit design, please refer to Figure ESP32-WROVER Schematics,
in ESP32-WROVER Datasheet.
When the three digital power supplies are used to drive peripherals, e.g., 3.3 V flash, they should comply
with the peripherals’ specifications.
2.4 Strapping Pins
ESP32 has five strapping pins:
• MTDI
• GPIO0
• GPIO2
• MTDO
• GPIO5
Software can read the values of these five bits from register ”GPIO_STRAPPING”.
During the chip’s system reset release (power-on-reset, RTC watchdog reset and brownout reset), the latches
of the strapping pins sample the voltage level as strapping bits of ”0” or ”1”, and hold these bits until the chip
is powered down or shut down. The strapping bits configure the device’s boot mode, the operating voltage of
VDD_SDIO and other initial system settings.
Each strapping pin is connected to its internal pull-up/pull-down during the chip reset. Consequently, if a strapping
pin is unconnected or the connected external circuit is high-impedance, the internal weak pull-up/pull-down will
determine the default input level of the strapping pins.
Espressif Systems 10 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0
2. Pin Definitions
To change the strapping bit values, users can apply the external pull-down/pull-up resistances, or use the host
MCU’s GPIOs to control the voltage level of these pins when powering on ESP32.
After reset release, the strapping pins work as normal-function pins.
Refer to Table 3for a detailed boot-mode configuration by strapping pins.
Table 3: Strapping Pins
Voltage of Internal LDO (VDD_SDIO)
Pin Default 3.3 V 1.8 V
MTDI Pull-down 0 1
Booting Mode
Pin Default SPI Boot Download Boot
GPIO0 Pull-up 1 0
GPIO2 Pull-down Don’t-care 0
Enabling/Disabling Debugging Log Print over U0TXD During Booting
Pin Default U0TXD Toggling U0TXD Silent
MTDO Pull-up 1 0
Timing of SDIO Slave
Pin Default Falling-edge Sampling
Falling-edge Output
Falling-edge Sampling
Rising-edge Output
Rising-edge Sampling
Falling-edge Output
Rising-edge Sampling
Rising-edge Output
MTDO Pull-up 0 0 1 1
GPIO5 Pull-up 0 1 0 1
Note:
Firmware can configure register bits to change the settings of ”Voltage of Internal LDO (VDD_SDIO)” and ”Timing
of SDIO Slave”, after booting.
For ESP32 chips that contain an embedded flash, users need to note the logic level of MTDI. For example, ESP32-
D2WD contains an embedded flash that operates at 1.8 V, therefore, the MTDI should be pulled high.
The illustration below shows the setup and hold times for the strapping pin before and after the CHIP_PU signal
goes high. Details about the parameters are listed in Table 4.
Figure 6: Setup and Hold Times for the Strapping Pin
Espressif Systems 11 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0
2. Pin Definitions
Table 4: Parameter Descriptions of Setup and Hold Times for the Strapping Pin
Parameters Description Min. Unit
t0Setup time before CHIP_PU goes from low to high 0 ms
t1Hold time after CHIP_PU goes high 1 ms
Espressif Systems 12 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0
3. Functional Description
3. Functional Description
This chapter describes the functions integrated in ESP32.
3.1 CPU and Memory
3.1.1 CPU
ESP32 contains one or two low-power Xtensa®32-bit LX6 microprocessor(s) with the following features:
7-stage pipeline to support the clock frequency of up to 240 MHz (160 MHz for ESP32-S0WD and ESP32-
D2WD)
16/24-bit Instruction Set provides high code-density
Support for Floating Point Unit
Support for DSP instructions, such as a 32-bit multiplier, a 32-bit divider, and a 40-bit MAC
Support for 32 interrupt vectors from about 70 interrupt sources
The single-/dual-CPU interfaces include:
Xtensa RAM/ROM Interface for instructions and data
Xtensa Local Memory Interface for fast peripheral register access
External and internal interrupt sources
JTAG for debugging
3.1.2 Internal Memory
ESP32’s internal memory includes:
448 KB of ROM for booting and core functions
520 KB of on-chip SRAM for data and instructions
8 KB of SRAM in RTC, which is called RTC FAST Memory and can be used for data storage; it is accessed
by the main CPU during RTC Boot from the Deep-sleep mode.
8 KB of SRAM in RTC, which is called RTC SLOW Memory and can be accessed by the co-processor during
the Deep-sleep mode.
1 Kbit of eFuse: 256 bits are used for the system (MAC address and chip configuration) and the remaining
768 bits are reserved for customer applications, including flash-encryption and chip-ID.
Embedded flash
Note:
Products in the ESP32 series differ from each other, in terms of their support for embedded flash and the size of it.
For details, please refer to Part Number and Ordering Information.
ESP32-D2WD has a 16-Mbit, 40-MHz embedded flash, connected via pins GPIO16, GPIO17, SD_CMD, SD_CLK,
SD_DATA_0 and SD_DATA_1.
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3. Functional Description
3.1.3 External Flash and SRAM
ESP32 supports multiple external QSPI flash and SRAM chips. More details can be found in Chapter SPI in
the ESP32 Technical Reference Manual. ESP32 also supports hardware encryption/decryption based on AES to
protect developers’ programs and data in flash.
ESP32 can access the external QSPI flash and SRAM through high-speed caches.
Up to 16 MB of external flash can be mapped into CPU instruction memory space and read-only memory
space simultaneously.
When external flash is mapped into CPU instruction memory space, up to 11 MB + 248 KB can be
mapped at a time. Note that if more than 3 MB + 248 KB are mapped, cache performance will be
reduced due to speculative reads by the CPU.
When external flash is mapped into read-only data memory space, up to 4 MB can be mapped at a
time. 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit reads are supported.
External SRAM can be mapped into CPU data memory space. SRAM up to 8 MB is supported and up to 4
MB can be mapped at a time. 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit reads and writes are supported.
Note:
After ESP32 is initialized, firmware can customize the mapping of external SRAM or flash into the CPU address space.
3.1.4 Memory Map
The structure of address mapping is shown in Figure 7. The memory and peripheral mapping of ESP32 is shown
in Table 5.
Figure 7: Address Mapping Structure
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3. Functional Description
Table 5: Memory and Peripheral Mapping
Category Target Start Address End Address Size
Embedded
Memory
Internal ROM 0 0x4000_0000 0x4005_FFFF 384 KB
Internal ROM 1 0x3FF9_0000 0x3FF9_FFFF 64 KB
Internal SRAM 0 0x4007_0000 0x4009_FFFF 192 KB
Internal SRAM 1 0x3FFE_0000 0x3FFF_FFFF 128 KB
0x400A_0000 0x400B_FFFF
Internal SRAM 2 0x3FFA_E000 0x3FFD_FFFF 200 KB
RTC FAST Memory 0x3FF8_0000 0x3FF8_1FFF 8 KB
0x400C_0000 0x400C_1FFF
RTC SLOW Memory 0x5000_0000 0x5000_1FFF 8 KB
External
Memory
External Flash 0x3F40_0000 0x3F7F_FFFF 4 MB
0x400C_2000 0x40BF_FFFF 11 MB+248 KB
External SRAM 0x3F80_0000 0x3FBF_FFFF 4 MB
Peripheral
DPort Register 0x3FF0_0000 0x3FF0_0FFF 4 KB
AES Accelerator 0x3FF0_1000 0x3FF0_1FFF 4 KB
RSA Accelerator 0x3FF0_2000 0x3FF0_2FFF 4 KB
SHA Accelerator 0x3FF0_3000 0x3FF0_3FFF 4 KB
Secure Boot 0x3FF0_4000 0x3FF0_4FFF 4 KB
Cache MMU Table 0x3FF1_0000 0x3FF1_3FFF 16 KB
PID Controller 0x3FF1_F000 0x3FF1_FFFF 4 KB
UART0 0x3FF4_0000 0x3FF4_0FFF 4 KB
SPI1 0x3FF4_2000 0x3FF4_2FFF 4 KB
SPI0 0x3FF4_3000 0x3FF4_3FFF 4 KB
GPIO 0x3FF4_4000 0x3FF4_4FFF 4 KB
RTC 0x3FF4_8000 0x3FF4_8FFF 4 KB
IO MUX 0x3FF4_9000 0x3FF4_9FFF 4 KB
SDIO Slave 0x3FF4_B000 0x3FF4_BFFF 4 KB
UDMA1 0x3FF4_C000 0x3FF4_CFFF 4 KB
I2S0 0x3FF4_F000 0x3FF4_FFFF 4 KB
UART1 0x3FF5_0000 0x3FF5_0FFF 4 KB
I2C0 0x3FF5_3000 0x3FF5_3FFF 4 KB
UDMA0 0x3FF5_4000 0x3FF5_4FFF 4 KB
SDIO Slave 0x3FF5_5000 0x3FF5_5FFF 4 KB
RMT 0x3FF5_6000 0x3FF5_6FFF 4 KB
PCNT 0x3FF5_7000 0x3FF5_7FFF 4 KB
SDIO Slave 0x3FF5_8000 0x3FF5_8FFF 4 KB
LED PWM 0x3FF5_9000 0x3FF5_9FFF 4 KB
Efuse Controller 0x3FF5_A000 0x3FF5_AFFF 4 KB
Flash Encryption 0x3FF5_B000 0x3FF5_BFFF 4 KB
PWM0 0x3FF5_E000 0x3FF5_EFFF 4 KB
TIMG0 0x3FF5_F000 0x3FF5_FFFF 4 KB
TIMG1 0x3FF6_0000 0x3FF6_0FFF 4 KB
Peripheral
SPI2 0x3FF6_4000 0x3FF6_4FFF 4 KB
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3. Functional Description
Category Target Start Address End Address Size
SPI3 0x3FF6_5000 0x3FF6_5FFF 4 KB
SYSCON 0x3FF6_6000 0x3FF6_6FFF 4 KB
I2C1 0x3FF6_7000 0x3FF6_7FFF 4 KB
SDMMC 0x3FF6_8000 0x3FF6_8FFF 4 KB
EMAC 0x3FF6_9000 0x3FF6_AFFF 8 KB
PWM1 0x3FF6_C000 0x3FF6_CFFF 4 KB
I2S1 0x3FF6_D000 0x3FF6_DFFF 4 KB
UART2 0x3FF6_E000 0x3FF6_EFFF 4 KB
PWM2 0x3FF6_F000 0x3FF6_FFFF 4 KB
PWM3 0x3FF7_0000 0x3FF7_0FFF 4 KB
RNG 0x3FF7_5000 0x3FF7_5FFF 4 KB
3.2 Timers and Watchdogs
3.2.1 64-bit Timers
There are four general-purpose timers embedded in the ESP32. They are all 64-bit generic timers which are based
on 16-bit prescalers and 64-bit auto-reload-capable up/down-timers.
The timers feature:
A 16-bit clock prescaler, from 2 to 65536
A 64-bit timer
Configurable up/down timer: incrementing or decrementing
Halt and resume of time-base counter
Auto-reload at alarming
Software-controlled instant reload
Level and edge interrupt generation
3.2.2 Watchdog Timers
The ESP32 has three watchdog timers: one in each of the two timer modules (called the Main Watchdog Timer,
or MWDT) and one in the RTC module (called the RTC Watchdog Timer, or RWDT). These watchdog timers are
intended to recover from an unforeseen fault causing the application program to abandon its normal sequence. A
watchdog timer has four stages. Each stage may trigger one of three or four possible actions upon the expiry of
its programmed time period, unless the watchdog is fed or disabled. The actions are: interrupt, CPU reset, core
reset, and system reset. Only the RWDT can trigger the system reset, and is able to reset the entire chip, including
the RTC itself. A timeout value can be set for each stage individually.
During flash boot the RWDT and the first MWDT start automatically in order to detect, and recover from, booting
problems.
The ESP32 watchdogs have the following features:
Four stages, each of which can be configured or disabled separately
A programmable time period for each stage
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3. Functional Description
One of three or four possible actions (interrupt, CPU reset, core reset, and system reset) upon the expiry of
each stage
32-bit expiry counter
Write protection that prevents the RWDT and MWDT configuration from being inadvertently altered
SPI flash boot protection
If the boot process from an SPI flash does not complete within a predetermined time period, the watchdog
will reboot the entire system.
3.3 System Clocks
3.3.1 CPU Clock
Upon reset, an external crystal clock source is selected as the default CPU clock. The external crystal clock source
also connects to a PLL to generate a high-frequency clock (typically 160 MHz).
In addition, ESP32 has an internal 8 MHz oscillator. The application can select the clock source from the external
crystal clock source, the PLL clock or the internal 8 MHz oscillator. The selected clock source drives the CPU
clock directly, or after division, depending on the application.
3.3.2 RTC Clock
The RTC clock has five possible sources:
external low-speed (32 kHz) crystal clock
external crystal clock divided by 4
internal RC oscillator (typically about 150 kHz, and adjustable)
internal 8 MHz oscillator
internal 31.25 kHz clock (derived from the internal 8 MHz oscillator divided by 256)
When the chip is in the normal power mode and needs faster CPU accessing, the application can choose the
external high-speed crystal clock divided by 4 or the internal 8 MHz oscillator. When the chip operates in the
low-power mode, the application chooses the external low-speed (32 kHz) crystal clock, the internal RC clock or
the internal 31.25 kHz clock.
3.3.3 Audio PLL Clock
The audio clock is generated by the ultra-low-noise fractional-N PLL. More details can be found in Chapter Reset
and Clock in the ESP32 Technical Reference Manual.
3.4 Radio
The ESP32 radio consists of the following blocks:
2.4 GHz receiver
2.4 GHz transmitter
bias and regulators
balun and transmit-receive switch
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3. Functional Description
clock generator
3.4.1 2.4 GHz Receiver
The 2.4 GHz receiver demodulates the 2.4 GHz RF signal to quadrature baseband signals and converts them
to the digital domain with two high-resolution, high-speed ADCs. To adapt to varying signal channel conditions,
RF filters, Automatic Gain Control (AGC), DC offset cancelation circuits and baseband filters are integrated with
ESP32.
3.4.2 2.4 GHz Transmitter
The 2.4 GHz transmitter modulates the quadrature baseband signals to the 2.4 GHz RF signal, and drives the an-
tenna with a high-powered Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) power amplifier. The use of digital
calibration further improves the linearity of the power amplifier, enabling state-of-the-art performance in delivering
up to +20.5 dBm of power for an 802.11b transmission and +18 dBm for an 802.11n transmission.
Additional calibrations are integrated to cancel any radio imperfections, such as:
Carrier leakage
I/Q phase matching
Baseband nonlinearities
RF nonlinearities
Antenna matching
These built-in calibration routines reduce the amount of time required for product testing, and render the testing
equipment unnecessary.
3.4.3 Clock Generator
The clock generator produces quadrature clock signals of 2.4 GHz for both the receiver and the transmitter. All
components of the clock generator are integrated into the chip, including all inductors, varactors, filters, regulators
and dividers.
The clock generator has built-in calibration and self-test circuits. Quadrature clock phases and phase noise are
optimized on-chip with patented calibration algorithms which ensure the best performance of the receiver and the
transmitter.
3.5 Wi-Fi
ESP32 implements a TCP/IP and full 802.11 b/g/n Wi-Fi MAC protocol. It supports the Basic Service Set (BSS)
STA and SoftAP operations under the Distributed Control Function (DCF). Power management is handled with
minimal host interaction to minimize the active-duty period.
3.5.1 Wi-Fi Radio and Baseband
The ESP32 Wi-Fi Radio and Baseband support the following features:
• 802.11b/g/n
802.11n MCS0-7 in both 20 MHz and 40 MHz bandwidth
802.11n MCS32 (RX)
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3. Functional Description
802.11n 0.4 µs guard-interval
up to 150 Mbps of data rate
Receiving STBC 2×1
Up to 20.5 dBm of transmitting power
Adjustable transmitting power
Antenna diversity
ESP32 supports antenna diversity with an external RF switch. One or more GPIOs control the RF switch and
selects the best antenna to minimize the effects of channel fading.
3.5.2 Wi-Fi MAC
The ESP32 Wi-Fi MAC applies low-level protocol functions automatically. They are as follows:
4 × virtual Wi-Fi interfaces
Simultaneous Infrastructure BSS Station mode/SoftAP mode/Promiscuous mode
RTS protection, CTS protection, Immediate Block ACK
• Defragmentation
TX/RX A-MPDU, RX A-MSDU
• TXOP
• WMM
CCMP (CBC-MAC, counter mode), TKIP (MIC, RC4), WAPI (SMS4), WEP (RC4) and CRC
Automatic beacon monitoring (hardware TSF)
3.6 Bluetooth
ESP32 integrates a Bluetooth link controller and Bluetooth baseband, which carry out the baseband protocols
and other low-level link routines, such as modulation/demodulation, packet processing, bit stream processing,
frequency hopping, etc.
3.6.1 Bluetooth Radio and Baseband
The ESP32 Bluetooth Radio and Baseband support the following features:
Class-1, class-2 and class-3 transmit output powers, and a dynamic control range of up to 24 dB
π/4 DQPSK and 8 DPSK modulation
High performance in NZIF receiver sensitivity with over 97 dB of dynamic range
Class-1 operation without external PA
Internal SRAM allows full-speed data-transfer, mixed voice and data, and full piconet operation
Logic for forward error correction, header error control, access code correlation, CRC, demodulation, en-
cryption bit stream generation, whitening and transmit pulse shaping
ACL, SCO, eSCO and AFH
A-law, µ-law and CVSD digital audio CODEC in PCM interface
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3. Functional Description
SBC audio CODEC
Power management for low-power applications
SMP with 128-bit AES
3.6.2 Bluetooth Interface
Provides UART HCI interface, up to 4 Mbps
Provides SDIO / SPI HCI interface
Provides PCM / I²S audio interface
3.6.3 Bluetooth Stack
The Bluetooth stack of ESP32 is compliant with the Bluetooth v4.2 BR / EDR and BLE specifications.
3.6.4 Bluetooth Link Controller
The link controller operates in three major states: standby, connection and sniff. It enables multiple connections,
and other operations, such as inquiry, page, and secure simple-pairing, and therefore enables Piconet and Scat-
ternet. Below are the features:
Classic Bluetooth
Device Discovery (inquiry, and inquiry scan)
Connection establishment (page, and page scan)
Multi-connections
Asynchronous data reception and transmission
Synchronous links (SCO/eSCO)
Master/Slave Switch
Adaptive Frequency Hopping and Channel assessment
Broadcast encryption
Authentication and encryption
Secure Simple-Pairing
Multi-point and scatternet management
Sniff mode
Connectionless Slave Broadcast (transmitter and receiver)
Enhanced power control
Ping
Bluetooth Low Energy
Advertising
Scanning
Simultaneous advertising and scanning
Multiple connections
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3. Functional Description
Asynchronous data reception and transmission
Adaptive Frequency Hopping and Channel assessment
Connection parameter update
Data Length Extension
Link Layer Encryption
LE Ping
3.7 RTC and Low-Power Management
With the use of advanced power-management technologies, ESP32 can switch between different power modes.
Power modes
Active mode: The chip radio is powered on. The chip can receive, transmit, or listen.
Modem-sleep mode: The CPU is operational and the clock is configurable. The Wi-Fi/Bluetooth base-
band and radio are disabled.
Light-sleep mode: The CPU is paused. The RTC memory and RTC peripherals, as well as the ULP
co-processor are running. Any wake-up events (MAC, host, RTC timer, or external interrupts) will wake
up the chip.
Deep-sleep mode: Only the RTC memory and RTC peripherals are powered on. Wi-Fi and Bluetooth
connection data are stored in the RTC memory. The ULP co-processor is functional.
Hibernation mode: The internal 8-MHz oscillator and ULP co-processor are disabled. The RTC recovery
memory is powered down. Only one RTC timer on the slow clock and certain RTC GPIOs are active.
The RTC timer or the RTC GPIOs can wake up the chip from the Hibernation mode.
Table 6: Power Consumption by Power Modes
Power mode Description Power consumption
Active (RF working)
Wi-Fi Tx packet Please refer to
Table 15 for details.
Wi-Fi/BT Tx packet
Wi-Fi/BT Rx and listening
Modem-sleep The CPU is
powered on.
240 MHz * Dual-core chip(s) 30 mA ~68 mA
Single-core chip(s) N/A
160 MHz * Dual-core chip(s) 27 mA ~44 mA
Single-core chip(s) 27 mA ~34 mA
Normal speed: 80 MHz Dual-core chip(s) 20 mA ~31 mA
Single-core chip(s) 20 mA ~25 mA
Light-sleep - 0.8 mA
Deep-sleep
The ULP co-processor is powered on. 150 µA
ULP sensor-monitored pattern 100 µA @1% duty
RTC timer + RTC memory 10 µA
Hibernation RTC timer only 5 µA
Power off CHIP_PU is set to low level, the chip is powered off. 0.1 µA
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3. Functional Description
Note:
* Among the ESP32 series of SoCs, ESP32-D0WDQ6 and ESP32-D0WD have a maximum CPU frequency of 240
MHz, ESP32-D2WD and ESP32-S0WD have a maximum CPU frequency of 160 MHz.
When Wi-Fi is enabled, the chip switches between Active and Modem-sleep modes. Therefore, power consumption
changes accordingly.
In Modem-sleep mode, the CPU frequency changes automatically. The frequency depends on the CPU load and
the peripherals used.
During Deep-sleep, when the ULP co-processor is powered on, peripherals such as GPIO and I²C are able to
operate.
When the system works in the ULP sensor-monitored pattern, the ULP co-processor works with the ULP sensor
periodically and the ADC works with a duty cycle of 1%, so the power consumption is 100 µA.
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4. Peripherals and Sensors
4. Peripherals and Sensors
4.1 Descriptions of Peripherals and Sensors
4.1.1 General Purpose Input / Output Interface (GPIO)
ESP32 has 34 GPIO pins which can be assigned various functions by programming the appropriate registers.
There are several kinds of GPIOs: digital-only, analog-enabled, capacitive-touch-enabled, etc. Analog-enabled
GPIOs and Capacitive-touch-enabled GPIOs can be configured as digital GPIOs.
Most of the digital GPIOs can be configured as internal pull-up or pull-down, or set to high impedance. When
configured as an input, the input value can be read through the register. The input can also be set to edge-trigger
or level-trigger to generate CPU interrupts. Most of the digital IO pins are bi-directional, non-inverting and tristate,
including input and output buffers with tristate control. These pins can be multiplexed with other functions, such as
the SDIO, UART, SPI, etc. (More details can be found in the Appendix, Table IO_MUX.) For low-power operations,
the GPIOs can be set to hold their states.
4.1.2 Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC)
ESP32 integrates 12-bit SAR ADCs and supports measurements on 18 channels (analog-enabled pins). The ULP-
coprocessor in ESP32 is also designed to measure voltage, while operating in the sleep mode, which enables
low-power consumption. The CPU can be woken up by a threshold setting and/or via other triggers.
With appropriate settings, the ADCs can be configured to measure voltage on 18 pins maximum.
Table 7describes the ADC characteristics. Table 7: ADC Characteristics
Parameter Description Min Max Unit
DNL (Differential nonlinearity) RTC controller; ADC connected to an external 100 nF capacitor;
DC signal input; ambient temperature at 25 °C; Wi-Fi&BT off
–7 7 LSB
INL (Integral nonlinearity) –12 12 LSB
Sampling rate RTC controller - 200 ksps
DIG controller - 2 Msps
Notes:
When atten=3 and the measurement result is above 3,000 (voltage at approx. 2,450 mV), the ADC accuracy
will be worse than described in the table above.
To get better DNL results, users can take multiple sampling tests with a filter, or calculate the average value.
By default, there are ±6% differences in measured results between chips. ESP-IDF provides couple of calibration
methods for ADC1. Results after calibration using eFuse Vref value are shown in Table 8. For higher accuracy,
users may apply other calibration methods provided in ESP-IDF, or implement their own.
Table 8: ADC Calibration Results
Parameter Description Min Max Unit
Total error
Atten=0, effective measurement range of 100–950 mV –23 23 mV
Atten=1, effective measurement range of 100–1,250 mV –30 30 mV
Atten=2, effective measurement range of 150–1,750 mV –40 40 mV
Atten=3, effective measurement range of 150–2,450 mV –60 60 mV
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4. Peripherals and Sensors
4.1.3 Hall Sensor
ESP32 integrates a Hall sensor based on an N-carrier resistor. When the chip is in the magnetic field, the Hall
sensor develops a small voltage laterally on the resistor, which can be directly measured by the ADC.
4.1.4 Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC)
Two 8-bit DAC channels can be used to convert two digital signals into two analog voltage signal outputs. The
design structure is composed of integrated resistor strings and a buffer. This dual DAC supports power supply as
input voltage reference. The two DAC channels can also support independent conversions.
4.1.5 Touch Sensor
ESP32 has 10 capacitive-sensing GPIOs, which detect variations induced by touching or approaching the GPIOs
with a finger or other objects. The low-noise nature of the design and the high sensitivity of the circuit allow relatively
small pads to be used. Arrays of pads can also be used, so that a larger area or more points can be detected.
The 10 capacitive-sensing GPIOs are listed in Table 9.
Table 9: Capacitive-Sensing GPIOs Available on ESP32
Capacitive-sensing signal name Pin name
T0 GPIO4
T1 GPIO0
T2 GPIO2
T3 MTDO
T4 MTCK
T5 MTDI
T6 MTMS
T7 GPIO27
T8 32K_XN
T9 32K_XP
4.1.6 Ultra-Low-Power Co-processor
The ULP processor and RTC memory remain powered on during the Deep-sleep mode. Hence, the developer can
store a program for the ULP processor in the RTC slow memory to access the peripheral devices, internal timers
and internal sensors during the Deep-sleep mode. This is useful for designing applications where the CPU needs
to be woken up by an external event, or a timer, or a combination of the two, while maintaining minimal power
consumption.
4.1.7 Ethernet MAC Interface
An IEEE-802.3-2008-compliant Media Access Controller (MAC) is provided for Ethernet LAN communications.
ESP32 requires an external physical interface device (PHY) to connect to the physical LAN bus (twisted-pair, fiber,
etc.). The PHY is connected to ESP32 through 17 signals of MII or nine signals of RMII. The following features are
supported on the Ethernet MAC (EMAC) interface:
10 Mbps and 100 Mbps rates
Dedicated DMA controller allowing high-speed transfer between the dedicated SRAM and Ethernet MAC
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4. Peripherals and Sensors
Tagged MAC frame (VLAN support)
Half-duplex (CSMA/CD) and full-duplex operation
MAC control sublayer (control frames)
32-bit CRC generation and removal
Several address-filtering modes for physical and multicast address (multicast and group addresses)
32-bit status code for each transmitted or received frame
Internal FIFOs to buffer transmit and receive frames. The transmit FIFO and the receive FIFO are both 512
words (32-bit)
Hardware PTP (Precision Time Protocol) in accordance with IEEE 1588 2008 (PTP V2)
25 MHz/50 MHz clock output
4.1.8 SD/SDIO/MMC Host Controller
An SD/SDIO/MMC host controller is available on ESP32, which supports the following features:
Secure Digital memory (SD mem Version 3.0 and Version 3.01)
Secure Digital I/O (SDIO Version 3.0)
Consumer Electronics Advanced Transport Architecture (CE-ATA Version 1.1)
Multimedia Cards (MMC Version 4.41, eMMC Version 4.5 and Version 4.51)
The controller allows up to 80 MHz of clock output in three different data-bus modes: 1-bit, 4-bit and 8-bit. It
supports two SD/SDIO/MMC4.41 cards in a 4-bit data-bus mode. It also supports one SD card operating at
1.8V.
4.1.9 SDIO/SPI Slave Controller
ESP32 integrates an SD device interface that conforms to the industry-standard SDIO Card Specification Version
2.0, and allows a host controller to access the SoC, using the SDIO bus interface and protocol. ESP32 acts as the
slave on the SDIO bus. The host can access the SDIO-interface registers directly and can access shared memory
via a DMA engine, thus maximizing performance without engaging the processor cores.
The SDIO/SPI slave controller supports the following features:
SPI, 1-bit SDIO, and 4-bit SDIO transfer modes over the full clock range from 0 to 50 MHz
Configurable sampling and driving clock edge
Special registers for direct access by host
Interrupts to host for initiating data transfer
Automatic loading of SDIO bus data and automatic discarding of padding data
Block size of up to 512 bytes
Interrupt vectors between the host and the slave, allowing both to interrupt each other
Supports DMA for data transfer
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4. Peripherals and Sensors
4.1.10 Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (UART)
ESP32 has three UART interfaces, i.e., UART0, UART1 and UART2, which provide asynchronous communication
(RS232 and RS485) and IrDA support, communicating at a speed of up to 5 Mbps. UART provides hardware
management of the CTS and RTS signals and software flow control (XON and XOFF). All of the interfaces can be
accessed by the DMA controller or directly by the CPU.
4.1.11 I²C Interface
ESP32 has two I²C bus interfaces which can serve as I²C master or slave, depending on the user’s configuration.
The I²C interfaces support:
Standard mode (100 Kbit/s)
Fast mode (400 Kbit/s)
Up to 5 MHz, yet constrained by SDA pull-up strength
7-bit/10-bit addressing mode
Dual addressing mode
Users can program command registers to control I²C interfaces, so that they have more flexibility.
4.1.12 I²S Interface
Two standard I²S interfaces are available in ESP32. They can be operated in master or slave mode, in full duplex
and half-duplex communication modes, and can be configured to operate with an 8-/16-/32-/48-/64-bit resolution
as input or output channels. BCK clock frequency, from 10 kHz up to 40 MHz, is supported. When one or
both of the I²S interfaces are configured in the master mode, the master clock can be output to the external
DAC/CODEC.
Both of the I²S interfaces have dedicated DMA controllers. PDM and BT PCM interfaces are supported.
4.1.13 Infrared Remote Controller
The infrared remote controller supports eight channels of infrared remote transmission and receiving. By program-
ming the pulse waveform, it supports various infrared protocols. Eight channels share a 512 x 32-bit block of
memory to store the transmitting or receiving waveform.
4.1.14 Pulse Counter
The pulse counter captures pulse and counts pulse edges through seven modes. It has eight channels, each of
which captures four signals at a time. The four input signals include two pulse signals and two control signals.
When the counter reaches a defined threshold, an interrupt is generated.
4.1.15 Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
The Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) controller can be used for driving digital motors and smart lights. The controller
consists of PWM timers, the PWM operator and a dedicated capture sub-module. Each timer provides timing in
synchronous or independent form, and each PWM operator generates a waveform for one PWM channel. The
dedicated capture sub-module can accurately capture events with external timing.
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4. Peripherals and Sensors
4.1.16 LED PWM
The LED PWM controller can generate 16 independent channels of digital waveforms with configurable periods
and duties.
The 16 channels of digital waveforms operate with an APB clock of 80 MHz. Eight of these channels have the
option of using the 8 MHz oscillator clock. Each channel can select a 20-bit timer with configurable counting range,
while its accuracy of duty can be up to 16 bits within a 1 ms period.
The software can change the duty immediately. Moreover, each channel automatically supports step-by-step duty
increase or decrease, which is useful for the LED RGB color-gradient generator.
4.1.17 Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)
ESP32 features three SPIs (SPI, HSPI and VSPI) in slave and master modes in 1-line full-duplex and 1/2/4-line
half-duplex communication modes. These SPIs also support the following general-purpose SPI features:
Four modes of SPI transfer format, which depend on the polarity (CPOL) and the phase (CPHA) of the SPI
clock
Up to 80 MHz (The actual speed it can reach depends on the selected pads, PCB tracing, peripheral char-
acteristics, etc.)
up to 64-byte FIFO
All SPIs can also be connected to the external flash/SRAM and LCD. Each SPI can be served by DMA con-
trollers.
4.1.18 Accelerator
ESP32 is equipped with hardware accelerators of general algorithms, such as AES (FIPS PUB 197), SHA (FIPS
PUB 180-4), RSA, and ECC, which support independent arithmetic, such as Big Integer Multiplication and Big
Integer Modular Multiplication. The maximum operation length for RSA, ECC, Big Integer Multiply and Big Integer
Modular Multiplication is 4,096 bits.
The hardware accelerators greatly improve operation speed and reduce software complexity. They also support
code encryption and dynamic decryption, which ensures that code in the flash will not be hacked.
Espressif Systems 27 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0
4. Peripherals and Sensors
4.2 Peripheral Pin Configurations
Table 10: Peripheral Pin Configurations
Interface Signal Pin Function
ADC
ADC1_CH0 SENSOR_VP
Two 12-bit SAR ADCs
ADC1_CH1 SENSOR_CAPP
ADC1_CH2 SENSOR_CAPN
ADC1_CH3 SENSOR_VN
ADC1_CH4 32K_XP
ADC1_CH5 32K_XN
ADC1_CH6 VDET_1
ADC1_CH7 VDET_2
ADC2_CH0 GPIO4
ADC2_CH1 GPIO0
ADC2_CH2 GPIO2
ADC2_CH3 MTDO
ADC2_CH4 MTCK
ADC2_CH5 MTDI
ADC2_CH6 MTMS
ADC2_CH7 GPIO27
ADC2_CH8 GPIO25
ADC2_CH9 GPIO26
DAC DAC_1 GPIO25 Two 8-bit DACs
DAC_2 GPIO26
Touch Sensor
TOUCH0 GPIO4
Capacitive touch sensors
TOUCH1 GPIO0
TOUCH2 GPIO2
TOUCH3 MTDO
TOUCH4 MTCK
TOUCH5 MTDI
TOUCH6 MTMS
TOUCH7 GPIO27
TOUCH8 32K_XN
TOUCH9 32K_XP
JTAG
MTDI MTDI
JTAG for software debugging
MTCK MTCK
MTMS MTMS
MTDO MTDO
Espressif Systems 28 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0
4. Peripherals and Sensors
Interface Signal Pin Function
SD/SDIO/MMC Host
Controller
HS2_CLK MTMS
Supports SD memory card V3.01 standard
HS2_CMD MTDO
HS2_DATA0 GPIO2
HS2_DATA1 GPIO4
HS2_DATA2 MTDI
HS2_DATA3 MTCK
Motor PWM
PWM0_OUT0~2
Any GPIO Pins
Three channels of 16-bit timers generate
PWM waveforms. Each channel has a pair
of output signals, three fault detection
signals, three event-capture signals, and
three sync signals.
PWM1_OUT_IN0~2
PWM0_FLT_IN0~2
PWM1_FLT_IN0~2
PWM0_CAP_IN0~2
PWM1_CAP_IN0~2
PWM0_SYNC_IN0~2
PWM1_SYNC_IN0~2
SDIO/SPI Slave
Controller
SD_CLK MTMS
SDIO interface that conforms to the
industry standard SDIO 2.0 card
specification
SD_CMD MTDO
SD_DATA0 GPIO2
SD_DATA1 GPIO4
SD_DATA2 MTDI
SD_DATA3 MTCK
UART
U0RXD_in
Any GPIO Pins Two UART devices with hardware
flow-control and DMA
U0CTS_in
U0DSR_in
U0TXD_out
U0RTS_out
U0DTR_out
U1RXD_in
U1CTS_in
U1TXD_out
U1RTS_out
U2RXD_in
U2CTS_in
U2TXD_out
U2RTS_out
I²C
I2CEXT0_SCL_in
Any GPIO Pins Two I²C devices in slave or master mode
I2CEXT0_SDA_in
I2CEXT1_SCL_in
I2CEXT1_SDA_in
I2CEXT0_SCL_out
I2CEXT0_SDA_out
I2CEXT1_SCL_out
I2CEXT1_SDA_out
Espressif Systems 29 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0
4. Peripherals and Sensors
Interface Signal Pin Function
LED PWM ledc_hs_sig_out0~7Any GPIO Pins 16 independent channels @80 MHz
clock/RTC CLK. Duty accuracy: 16 bits.
ledc_ls_sig_out0~7
I2S
I2S0I_DATA_in0~15
Any GPIO Pins
Stereo input and output from/to the audio
codec; parallel LCD data output; parallel
camera data input
I2S0O_BCK_in
I2S0O_WS_in
I2S0I_BCK_in
I2S0I_WS_in
I2S0I_H_SYNC
I2S0I_V_SYNC
I2S0I_H_ENABLE
I2S0O_BCK_out
I2S0O_WS_out
I2S0I_BCK_out
I2S0I_WS_out
I2S0O_DATA_out0~23
I2S1I_DATA_in0~15
I2S1O_BCK_in
I2S1O_WS_in
I2S1I_BCK_in
I2S1I_WS_in
I2S1I_H_SYNC
I2S1I_V_SYNC
I2S1I_H_ENABLE
I2S1O_BCK_out
I2S1O_WS_out
I2S1I_BCK_out
I2S1I_WS_out
I2S1O_DATA_out0~23
Infrared Remote
Controller
RMT_SIG_IN0~7Any GPIO Pins Eight channels for an IR transmitter and
receiver of various waveforms
RMT_SIG_OUT0~7
General Purpose
SPI
HSPIQ_in/_out
Any GPIO Pins
Standard SPI consists of clock,
chip-select, MOSI and MISO. These SPIs
can be connected to LCD and other
external devices. They support the
following features:
Both master and slave modes;
Four sub-modes of the SPI transfer
format;
Configurable SPI frequency;
Up to 64 bytes of FIFO and DMA.
HSPID_in/_out
HSPICLK_in/_out
HSPI_CS0_in/_out
HSPI_CS1_out
HSPI_CS2_out
VSPIQ_in/_out
VSPID_in/_out
VSPICLK_in/_out
VSPI_CS0_in/_out
VSPI_CS1_out
VSPI_CS2_out
Espressif Systems 30 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0
4. Peripherals and Sensors
Interface Signal Pin Function
Parallel QSPI
SPIHD SD_DATA_2
Supports Standard SPI, Dual SPI, and
Quad SPI that can be connected to the
external flash and SRAM
SPIWP SD_DATA_3
SPICS0 SD_CMD
SPICLK SD_CLK
SPIQ SD_DATA_0
SPID SD_DATA_1
HSPICLK MTMS
HSPICS0 MTDO
HSPIQ MTDI
HSPID MTCK
HSPIHD GPIO4
HSPIWP GPIO2
VSPICLK GPIO18
VSPICS0 GPIO5
VSPIQ GPIO19
VSPID GPIO23
VSPIHD GPIO21
VSPIWP GPIO22
EMAC
EMAC_TX_CLK GPIO0
Ethernet MAC with MII/RMII interface
EMAC_RX_CLK GPIO5
EMAC_TX_EN GPIO21
EMAC_TXD0 GPIO19
EMAC_TXD1 GPIO22
EMAC_TXD2 MTMS
EMAC_TXD3 MTDI
EMAC_RX_ER MTCK
EMAC_RX_DV GPIO27
EMAC_RXD0 GPIO25
EMAC_RXD1 GPIO26
EMAC_RXD2 U0TXD
EMAC_RXD3 MTDO
EMAC_CLK_OUT GPIO16
EMAC_CLK_OUT_180 GPIO17
EMAC_TX_ER GPIO4
EMAC_MDC_out Any GPIO Pins
EMAC_MDI_in Any GPIO Pins
EMAC_MDO_out Any GPIO Pins
EMAC_CRS_out Any GPIO Pins
EMAC_COL_out Any GPIO Pins
Espressif Systems 31 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0
4. Peripherals and Sensors
Interface Signal Pin Function
Pulse Counter
pcnt_sig_ch0_in0
Any GPIO Pins
Operating in seven different modes, the
pulse counter captures pulse and counts
pulse edges.
pcnt_sig_ch1_in0
pcnt_ctrl_ch0_in0
pcnt_ctrl_ch1_in0
pcnt_sig_ch0_in1
pcnt_sig_ch1_in1
pcnt_ctrl_ch0_in1
pcnt_ctrl_ch1_in1
pcnt_sig_ch0_in2
pcnt_sig_ch1_in2
pcnt_ctrl_ch0_in2
pcnt_ctrl_ch1_in2
pcnt_sig_ch0_in3
pcnt_sig_ch1_in3
pcnt_ctrl_ch0_in3
pcnt_ctrl_ch1_in3
pcnt_sig_ch0_in4
pcnt_sig_ch1_in4
pcnt_ctrl_ch0_in4
pcnt_ctrl_ch1_in4
pcnt_sig_ch0_in5
pcnt_sig_ch1_in5
pcnt_ctrl_ch0_in5
pcnt_ctrl_ch1_in5
pcnt_sig_ch0_in6
pcnt_sig_ch1_in6
pcnt_ctrl_ch0_in6
pcnt_ctrl_ch1_in6
pcnt_sig_ch0_in7
pcnt_sig_ch1_in7
pcnt_ctrl_ch0_in7
pcnt_ctrl_ch1_in7
Espressif Systems 32 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0
5. Electrical Characteristics
5. Electrical Characteristics
5.1 Absolute Maximum Ratings
Stresses beyond the absolute maximum ratings listed in the table below may cause permanent damage to the
device. These are stress ratings only, and do not refer to the functional operation of the device that should follow
the recommended operating conditions.
Table 11: Absolute Maximum Ratings
Symbol Parameter Min Max Unit
VDDA, VDD3P3, VDD3P3_RTC,
VDD3P3_CPU, VDD_SDIO
Voltage applied to power supply pins per
power domain –0.3 3.6 V
Ioutput * Cumulative IO output current - 1,200 mA
Tstore Storage temperature –40 150 °C
* The chip worked properly after a 24-hour test in ambient temperature at 25 °C, and the IOs in three domains (VDD3P3_RTC,
VDD3P3_CPU, VDD_SDIO) output high logic level to ground.
5.2 Recommended Operating Conditions
Table 12: Recommended Operating Conditions
Symbol Parameter Min Typical Max Unit
VDDA, VDD3P3_RTC 1
VDD3P3, VDD_SDIO (3.3 V mode) 2
Voltage applied to power supply pins per
power domain 2.3 3.3 3.6 V
VDD3P3_CPU Voltage applied to power supply pin 1.8 3.3 3.6 V
IV DD Current delivered by external power supply 0.5 - - A
T3Operating temperature –40 - 125 °C
1. When writing eFuse, VDD3P3_RTC should be at least 3.3 V.
2. VDD_SDIO works as the power supply for the related IO, and also for an external device. Please refer to the Appendix
IO_MUX of this datasheet for more details.
VDD_SDIO can be sourced internally by the ESP32 from the VDD3P3_RTC power domain:
When VDD_SDIO operates at 3.3 V, it is driven directly by VDD3P3_RTC through a 6 resistor, therefore, there
will be some voltage drop from VDD3P3_RTC.
When VDD_SDIO operates at 1.8 V, it can be generated from ESP32’s internal LDO. The maximum current this
LDO can offer is 40 mA, and the output voltage range is 1.65 V ~2.0 V.
VDD_SDIO can also be driven by an external power supply.
Please refer to Power Scheme, section 2.3, for more information.
3. The operating temperature of ESP32-D2WD ranges from –40 °C ~105 °C, due to the flash embedded in it. The other
chips in this series have no ebedded flash, so their range of operating temperatures is –40 °C ~125 °C.
Espressif Systems 33 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0
5. Electrical Characteristics
5.3 DC Characteristics (3.3 V, 25 °C)
Table 13: DC Characteristics (3.3 V, 25 °C)
Symbol Parameter Min Typ Max Unit
CIN Pin capacitance - 2 - pF
VIH High-level input voltage 0.75×VDD1- VDD1+0.3 V
VIL Low-level input voltage –0.3 - 0.25×VDD1V
IIH High-level input current - - 50 nA
IIL Low-level input current - - 50 nA
VOH High-level output voltage 0.8×VDD1- - V
VOL Low-level output voltage - - 0.1×VDD1V
IOH
High-level source current VDD3P3_CPU power domain 1,2- 40 - mA
(VDD1= 3.3 V, VOH >= 2.64 V, VDD3P3_RTC power domain 1,2- 40 - mA
output drive strength set to the
maximum) VDD_SDIO power domain 1,3- 20 - mA
IOL
Low-level sink current
(VDD1= 3.3 V, VOL = 0.495 V,
output drive strength set to the maximum)
- 28 - mA
RP U Pull-up resistor - 45 - k
RP D Pull-down resistor - 45 - k
VIL_nRST Low-level input voltage of CHIP_PU to power off the chip - - 0.6 V
Notes:
1. Please see Table IO_MUX for IO’s power domain. VDD is the I/O voltage for a particular power domain of pins.
2. For VDD3P3_CPU and VDD3P3_RTC power domain, per-pin current sourced in the same domain is gradually reduced
from around 40 mA to around 29 mA, VOH >=2.64 V, as the number of current-source pins increases.
3. For VDD_SDIO power domain, per-pin current sourced in the same domain is gradually reduced from around 30 mA to
around 10 mA, VOH >=2.64 V, as the number of current-source pins increases.
5.4 Reliability Qualifications
Table 14: Reliability Qualifications
Reliability tests Standards Test conditions Result
Electro-Static Discharge Sensitivity
(ESD), Charge Device Mode (CDM) 1JEDEC EIA/JESD22-C101 ±500 V, all pins Pass
Electro-Static Discharge Sensitivity
(ESD), Human Body Mode (HBM) 2JEDEC EIA/JESD22-A114 ±1500 V, all pins Pass
Latch-up (Over-current test) JEDEC STANDARD NO.78 ±50 mA ~±200 mA, room
temperature, test for IO Pass
Latch-up (Over-voltage test) JEDEC STANDARD NO.78 1.5 × Vmax, room tempera-
ture, test for Vsupply
Pass
Moisture Sensitivity Level (MSL) J-STD-020, MSL 3 30 °C, 60% RH, 192 hours, IR
× 3 @260 °C Pass
1. JEDEC document JEP157 states that 250 V CDM allows safe manufacturing with a standard ESD control process.
2. JEDEC document JEP155 states that 500 V HBM allows safe manufacturing with a standard ESD control process.
Espressif Systems 34 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0
5. Electrical Characteristics
5.5 RF Power-Consumption Specifications
The power consumption measurements are taken with a 3.3 V supply at 25 °C of ambient temperature at the RF
port. All transmitters’ measurements are based on a 50% duty cycle.
Table 15: RF Power-Consumption Specifications
Mode Min Typ Max Unit
Transmit 802.11b, DSSS 1 Mbps, POUT = +19.5 dBm - 240 - mA
Transmit 802.11b, OFDM 54 Mbps, POUT = +16 dBm - 190 - mA
Transmit 802.11g, OFDM MCS7, POUT = +14 dBm - 180 - mA
Receive 802.11b/g/n - 95 ~100 - mA
Transmit BT/BLE, POUT = 0 dBm - 130 - mA
Receive BT/BLE - 95 ~100 - mA
5.6 Wi-Fi Radio
Table 16: Wi-Fi Radio Characteristics
Description Min Typical Max Unit
Input frequency 2412 - 2484 MHz
Output impedance* - * -
Tx power
Output power of PA for 72.2 Mbps 13 14 15 dBm
Output power of PA for 11b mode 19.5 20 20.5 dBm
Sensitivity
DSSS, 1 Mbps - –98 - dBm
CCK, 11 Mbps - –91 - dBm
OFDM, 6 Mbps - –93 - dBm
OFDM, 54 Mbps - –75 - dBm
HT20, MCS0 - –93 - dBm
HT20, MCS7 - –73 - dBm
HT40, MCS0 - –90 - dBm
HT40, MCS7 - –70 - dBm
MCS32 - –89 - dBm
Adjacent channel rejection
OFDM, 6 Mbps - 37 - dB
OFDM, 54 Mbps - 21 - dB
HT20, MCS0 - 37 - dB
HT20, MCS7 - 20 - dB
*The typical value of ESP32’s Wi-Fi radio output impedance is different in chips of different QFN packages. For ESP32 chips
with a QFN 6x6 package (ESP32-D0WDQ6), the value is 30+j10 . For ESP32 chips with a QFN 5x5 package (ESP32-D0WD,
ESP32-D2WD, ESP32-S0WD), the value is 35+j10 .
Espressif Systems 35 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0
5. Electrical Characteristics
5.7 Bluetooth Radio
5.7.1 Receiver – Basic Data Rate
Table 17: Receiver Characteristics – Basic Data Rate
Parameter Conditions Min Typ Max Unit
Sensitivity @0.1% BER - - –94 - dBm
Maximum received signal @0.1% BER - 0 - - dBm
Co-channel C/I - - +7 - dB
Adjacent channel selectivity C/I
F = F0 + 1 MHz - - –6 dB
F = F0 – 1 MHz - - –6 dB
F = F0 + 2 MHz - - –25 dB
F = F0 – 2 MHz - - –33 dB
F = F0 + 3 MHz - - –25 dB
F = F0 – 3 MHz - - –45 dB
Out-of-band blocking performance
30 MHz ~2000 MHz –10 - - dBm
2000 MHz ~2400 MHz –27 - - dBm
2500 MHz ~3000 MHz –27 - - dBm
3000 MHz ~12.5 GHz –10 - - dBm
Intermodulation - –36 - - dBm
5.7.2 Transmitter – Basic Data Rate
Table 18: Transmitter Characteristics – Basic Data Rate
Parameter Conditions Min Typ Max Unit
RF transmit power - - 0 - dBm
Gain control step - - 3 - dBm
RF power control range - –12 - +9 dBm
+20 dB bandwidth - - 0.9 - MHz
Adjacent channel transmit power
F = F0 ± 2 MHz - –47 - dBm
F = F0 ± 3 MHz - –55 - dBm
F = F0 ± > 3 MHz - –60 - dBm
f1avg - - - 155 kHz
f2max - 133.7 - - kHz
f2avg/f1avg - - 0.92 - -
ICFT - - –7 - kHz
Drift rate - - 0.7 - kHz/50 µs
Drift (DH1) - - 6 - kHz
Drift (DH5) - - 6 - kHz
Espressif Systems 36 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0
5. Electrical Characteristics
5.7.3 Receiver – Enhanced Data Rate
Table 19: Receiver Characteristics – Enhanced Data Rate
Parameter Conditions Min Typ Max Unit
π/4 DQPSK
Sensitivity @0.01% BER - - –90 - dBm
Maximum received signal @0.01% BER - - 0 - dBm
Co-channel C/I - - 11 - dB
Adjacent channel selectivity C/I
F = F0 + 1 MHz - –7 - dB
F = F0 – 1 MHz - –7 - dB
F = F0 + 2 MHz - –25 - dB
F = F0 – 2 MHz - –35 - dB
F = F0 + 3 MHz - –25 - dB
F = F0 – 3 MHz - –45 - dB
8DPSK
Sensitivity @0.01% BER - - –84 - dBm
Maximum received signal @0.01% BER - - –5 - dBm
C/I c-channel - - 18 - dB
Adjacent channel selectivity C/I
F = F0 + 1 MHz - 2 - dB
F = F0 – 1 MHz - 2 - dB
F = F0 + 2 MHz - –25 - dB
F = F0 – 2 MHz - –25 - dB
F = F0 + 3 MHz - –25 - dB
F = F0 – 3 MHz - –38 - dB
5.7.4 Transmitter – Enhanced Data Rate
Table 20: Transmitter Characteristics – Enhanced Data Rate
Parameter Conditions Min Typ Max Unit
RF transmit power - - 0 - dBm
Gain control step - - 3 - dBm
RF power control range - –12 - +9 dBm
π/4 DQPSK max w0 - - –0.72 - kHz
π/4 DQPSK max wi - - –6 - kHz
π/4 DQPSK max |wi + w0| - - –7.42 - kHz
8DPSK max w0 - - 0.7 - kHz
8DPSK max wi - - –9.6 - kHz
8DPSK max |wi + w0| - - –10 - kHz
π/4 DQPSK modulation accuracy
RMS DEVM - 4.28 - %
99% DEVM - 100 - %
Peak DEVM - 13.3 - %
8 DPSK modulation accuracy
RMS DEVM - 5.8 - %
99% DEVM - 100 - %
Peak DEVM - 14 - %
In-band spurious emissions F = F0 ± 1 MHz - –46 - dBm
Espressif Systems 37 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0
5. Electrical Characteristics
Parameter Conditions Min Typ Max Unit
F = F0 ± 2 MHz - –40 - dBm
F = F0 ± 3 MHz - –46 - dBm
F = F0 +/– > 3 MHz - - –53 dBm
EDR differential phase coding - - 100 - %
5.8 Bluetooth LE Radio
5.8.1 Receiver
Table 21: Receiver Characteristics – BLE
Parameter Conditions Min Typ Max Unit
Sensitivity @30.8% PER - - –97 - dBm
Maximum received signal @30.8% PER - 0 - - dBm
Co-channel C/I - - +10 - dB
Adjacent channel selectivity C/I
F = F0 + 1 MHz - –5 - dB
F = F0 – 1 MHz - –5 - dB
F = F0 + 2 MHz - –25 - dB
F = F0 – 2 MHz - –35 - dB
F = F0 + 3 MHz - –25 - dB
F = F0 – 3 MHz - –45 - dB
Out-of-band blocking performance
30 MHz ~2000 MHz –10 - - dBm
2000 MHz ~2400 MHz –27 - - dBm
2500 MHz ~3000 MHz –27 - - dBm
3000 MHz ~12.5 GHz –10 - - dBm
Intermodulation - –36 - - dBm
5.8.2 Transmitter
Table 22: Transmitter Characteristics – BLE
Parameter Conditions Min Typ Max Unit
RF transmit power - - 0 - dBm
Gain control step - - 3 - dBm
RF power control range - –12 - +9 dBm
Adjacent channel transmit power
F = F0 ± 2 MHz - –52 - dBm
F = F0 ± 3 MHz - –58 - dBm
F = F0 ± > 3 MHz - –60 - dBm
f1avg - - - 265 kHz
f2max - 247 - - kHz
f2avg/f1avg - - –0.92 - -
ICFT - - –10 - kHz
Drift rate - - 0.7 - kHz/50 µs
Drift - - 2 - kHz
Espressif Systems 38 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0
6. Package Information
6. Package Information
Pin 1
Pin 2
Pin 3
Pin 1
Pin 2
Pin 3
Figure 8: QFN48 (6x6 mm) Package
Pin 1 Pin 2 Pin 3
3 2 1
Figure 9: QFN48 (5x5 mm) Package
Note:
The pins of the chip are numbered in an anti-clockwise direction from Pin 1 in the top view.
Espressif Systems 39 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0
7. Part Number and Ordering Information
7. Part Number and Ordering Information
ESP32 - D 0 WD Q6
Package
Q6=QFN 6*6
N/A=QFN 5*5
Connection
WD=Wi-Fi b/g/n + BT/BLE Dual Mode
AD=Wi-Fi a/b/g/n + BT/BLE Dual Mode
CD=Wi-Fi ac/c/b/n/g + BT/BLE Dual Mode
Embedded Flash
0=No Embedded Flash
2=16 Mbit
Core
D=Dual Core
S=Single Core
Figure 10: ESP32 Part Number
The table below provides the ordering information of the ESP32 series of chips.
Table 23: ESP32 Ordering Information
Ordering code Core Embedded flash Connection Package
ESP32-D0WDQ6 Dual core No embedded flash Wi-Fi b/g/n + BT/BLE Dual Mode QFN 6*6
ESP32-D0WD Dual core No embedded flash Wi-Fi b/g/n + BT/BLE Dual Mode QFN 5*5
ESP32-D2WD Dual core 16-Mbit embedded flash
(40 MHz) Wi-Fi b/g/n + BT/BLE Dual Mode QFN 5*5
ESP32-S0WD Single core No embedded flash Wi-Fi b/g/n + BT/BLE Dual Mode QFN 5*5
Espressif Systems 40 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0
8. Learning Resources
8. Learning Resources
8.1 Must-Read Documents
Click on the following links to access documents related to ESP32.
ESP-IDF Programming Guide
It hosts extensive documentation for ESP-IDF, ranging from hardware guides to API reference.
ESP32 Technical Reference Manual
The manual provides detailed information on how to use the ESP32 memory and peripherals.
ESP32 Hardware Resources
The zip files include schematics, PCB layout, Gerber and BOM list.
ESP32 Hardware Design Guidelines
The guidelines provide recommended design practices when developing standalone or add-on systems
based on the ESP32 series of products, including the ESP32 chip, the ESP32 modules and development
boards.
ESP32 AT Instruction Set and Examples
This document introduces the ESP32 AT commands, explains how to use them, and provides examples of
several common AT commands.
Espressif Products Ordering Information
8.2 Must-Have Resources
Here are the ESP32-related must-have resources.
ESP32 BBS
This is an Engineer-to-Engineer (E2E) Community for ESP32, where you can post questions, share knowl-
edge, explore ideas, and solve problems together with fellow engineers.
ESP32 GitHub
ESP32 development projects are freely distributed under Espressif’s MIT license on GitHub. This channel
of communication has been established to help developers get started with ESP32 and encourage them to
share their knowledge of ESP32-related hardware and software.
ESP32 Tools
This is a webpage where users can download ESP32 Flash Download Tools and the zip file ”ESP32 Certifi-
cation and Test”.
ESP-IDF
This webpage links users to the official IoT development framework for ESP32.
ESP32 Resources
This webpage provides the links to all available ESP32 documents, SDK and tools.
Espressif Systems 41 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0
Appendix A
Appendix A – ESP32 Pin Lists
A.1. Notes on ESP32 Pin Lists
Table 24: Notes on ESP32 Pin Lists
No. Description
1In Table IO_MUX, the boxes highlighted in yellow indicate the GPIO pins that are input-only.
Please see the following note for further details.
2
GPIO pins 34-39 are input-only. These pins do not feature an output driver or internal pull-
up/pull-down circuitry. The pin names are: SENSOR_VP (GPIO36), SENSOR_CAPP (GPIO37),
SENSOR_CAPN (GPIO38), SENSOR_VN (GPIO39), VDET_1 (GPIO34), VDET_2 (GPIO35).
3
The pins are grouped into four power domains: VDDA (analog power supply), VDD3P3_RTC
(RTC power supply), VDD3P3_CPU (power supply of digital IOs and CPU cores), VDD_SDIO
(power supply of SDIO IOs). VDD_SDIO is the output of the internal SDIO-LDO. The voltage of
SDIO-LDO can be configured at 1.8 V or be the same as that of VDD3P3_RTC. The strapping
pin and eFuse bits determine the default voltage of the SDIO-LDO. Software can change the
voltage of the SDIO-LDO by configuring register bits. For details, please see the column “Power
Domain” in Table IO_MUX.
4
The functional pins in the VDD3P3_RTC domain are those with analog functions, including the
32 kHz crystal oscillator, ADC, DAC, and the capacitive touch sensor. Please see columns
“Analog Function 1~3” in Table IO_MUX.
5These VDD3P3_RTC pins support the RTC function, and can work during Deep-sleep. For
example, an RTC-GPIO can be used for waking up the chip from Deep-sleep.
6
The GPIO pins support up to six digital functions, as shown in columns “Function 1~6” In Table
IO_MUX. The function selection registers will be set as “N-1”, where Nis the function number.
Below are some definitions:
SD_* is for signals of the SDIO slave.
HS1_* is for Port 1 signals of the SDIO host.
HS2_* is for Port 2 signals of the SDIO host.
MT* is for signals of the JTAG.
U0* is for signals of the UART0 module.
U1* is for signals of the UART1 module.
U2* is for signals of the UART2 module.
SPI* is for signals of the SPI01 module.
HSPI* is for signals of the SPI2 module.
VSPI* is for signals of the SPI3 module.
Espressif Systems 42 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0
Appendix A
No. Description
7
Each column about digital “Function” is accompanied by a column about “Type”. Please see
the following explanations for the meanings of “type” with respect to each “function” they are
associated with. For each “Function-N”, “type” signifies:
• I: input only. If a function other than “Function-N” is assigned, the input signal of
“Function-N” is still from this pin.
I1: input only. If a function other than “Function-N” is assigned, the input signal of
“Function-N” is always “1”.
I0: input only. If a function other than “Function-N” is assigned, the input signal of
“Function-N” is always “0”.
O: output only.
T: high-impedance.
I/O/T: combinations of input, output, and high-impedance according to the function sig-
nal.
I1/O/T: combinations of input, output, and high-impedance, according to the function
signal. If a function is not selected, the input signal of the function is “1”.
For example, pin 30 can function as HS1_CMD or SD_CMD, where HS1_CMD is of an “I1/O/T”
type. If pin 30 is selected as HS1_CMD, this pin’s input and output are controlled by the SDIO
host. If pin 30 is not selected as HS1_CMD, the input signal of the SDIO host is always “1”.
8
Each digital output pin is associated with its configurable drive strength. Column “Drive
Strength” in Table IO_MUX lists the default values. The drive strength of the digital output
pins can be configured into one of the following four options:
0: ~5 mA
1: ~10 mA
2: ~20 mA
3: ~40 mA
The default value is 2.
The drive strength of the internal pull-up (wpu) and pull-down (wpd) is ~75 µA.
9
Column “At Reset” in Table IO_MUX lists the status of each pin during reset, including input-
enable (ie=1), internal pull-up (wpu) and internal pull-down (wpd). During reset, all pins are
output-disabled.
10
Column “After Reset” in Table IO_MUX lists the status of each pin immediately after reset,
including input-enable (ie=1), internal pull-up (wpu) and internal pull-down (wpd). After reset,
each pin is set to “Function 1”. The output-enable is controlled by digital Function 1.
11
Table Ethernet_MAC is about the signal mapping inside Ethernet MAC. The Ethernet MAC
supports MII and RMII interfaces, and supports both the internal PLL clock and the external
clock source. For the MII interface, the Ethernet MAC is with/without the TX_ERR signal. MDC,
MDIO, CRS and COL are slow signals, and can be mapped onto any GPIO pin through the
GPIO-Matrix.
12
Table GPIO Matrix is for the GPIO-Matrix. The signals of the on-chip functional modules can
be mapped onto any GPIO pin. Some signals can be mapped onto a pin by both IO-MUX
and GPIO-Matrix, as shown in the column tagged as “Same input signal from IO_MUX core”
in Table GPIO Matrix.
Espressif Systems 43 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0
Appendix A
No. Description
13
*In Table GPIO_Matrix�the column “Default Value if unassigned” records the default value of
the an input signal if no GPIO is assigned to it. The actual value is determined by register
GPIO_FUNCm_IN_INV_SEL and GPIO_FUNCm_IN_SEL. (The value of mranges from 1 to
255.)
A.2. GPIO_Matrix
Table 25: GPIO_Matrix
Same input
Signal Default value signal from Output enable
No. Input signals if unassigned* IO_MUX
core
Output signals of output signals
0 SPICLK_in 0 yes SPICLK_out SPICLK_oe
1 SPIQ_in 0 yes SPIQ_out SPIQ_oe
2 SPID_in 0 yes SPID_out SPID_oe
3 SPIHD_in 0 yes SPIHD_out SPIHD_oe
4 SPIWP_in 0 yes SPIWP_out SPIWP_oe
5 SPICS0_in 0 yes SPICS0_out SPICS0_oe
6 SPICS1_in 0 no SPICS1_out SPICS1_oe
7 SPICS2_in 0 no SPICS2_out SPICS2_oe
8 HSPICLK_in 0 yes HSPICLK_out HSPICLK_oe
9 HSPIQ_in 0 yes HSPIQ_out HSPIQ_oe
10 HSPID_in 0 yes HSPID_out HSPID_oe
11 HSPICS0_in 0 yes HSPICS0_out HSPICS0_oe
12 HSPIHD_in 0 yes HSPIHD_out HSPIHD_oe
13 HSPIWP_in 0 yes HSPIWP_out HSPIWP_oe
14 U0RXD_in 0 yes U0TXD_out 1’d1
15 U0CTS_in 0 yes U0RTS_out 1’d1
16 U0DSR_in 0 no U0DTR_out 1’d1
17 U1RXD_in 0 yes U1TXD_out 1’d1
18 U1CTS_in 0 yes U1RTS_out 1’d1
23 I2S0O_BCK_in 0 no I2S0O_BCK_out 1’d1
24 I2S1O_BCK_in 0 no I2S1O_BCK_out 1’d1
25 I2S0O_WS_in 0 no I2S0O_WS_out 1’d1
26 I2S1O_WS_in 0 no I2S1O_WS_out 1’d1
27 I2S0I_BCK_in 0 no I2S0I_BCK_out 1’d1
28 I2S0I_WS_in 0 no I2S0I_WS_out 1’d1
29 I2CEXT0_SCL_in 1 no I2CEXT0_SCL_out 1’d1
30 I2CEXT0_SDA_in 1 no I2CEXT0_SDA_out 1’d1
31 pwm0_sync0_in 0 no sdio_tohost_int_out 1’d1
32 pwm0_sync1_in 0 no pwm0_out0a 1’d1
33 pwm0_sync2_in 0 no pwm0_out0b 1’d1
34 pwm0_f0_in 0 no pwm0_out1a 1’d1
35 pwm0_f1_in 0 no pwm0_out1b 1’d1
Espressif Systems 44 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0
Appendix A
Same input
Signal Default value signal from Output enable
No. Input signals if unassigned IO_MUX
core
Output signals of output signals
36 pwm0_f2_in 0 no pwm0_out2a 1’d1
37 - 0 no pwm0_out2b 1’d1
39 pcnt_sig_ch0_in0 0 no - 1’d1
40 pcnt_sig_ch1_in0 0 no - 1’d1
41 pcnt_ctrl_ch0_in0 0 no - 1’d1
42 pcnt_ctrl_ch1_in0 0 no - 1’d1
43 pcnt_sig_ch0_in1 0 no - 1’d1
44 pcnt_sig_ch1_in1 0 no - 1’d1
45 pcnt_ctrl_ch0_in1 0 no - 1’d1
46 pcnt_ctrl_ch1_in1 0 no - 1’d1
47 pcnt_sig_ch0_in2 0 no - 1’d1
48 pcnt_sig_ch1_in2 0 no - 1’d1
49 pcnt_ctrl_ch0_in2 0 no - 1’d1
50 pcnt_ctrl_ch1_in2 0 no - 1’d1
51 pcnt_sig_ch0_in3 0 no - 1’d1
52 pcnt_sig_ch1_in3 0 no - 1’d1
53 pcnt_ctrl_ch0_in3 0 no - 1’d1
54 pcnt_ctrl_ch1_in3 0 no - 1’d1
55 pcnt_sig_ch0_in4 0 no - 1’d1
56 pcnt_sig_ch1_in4 0 no - 1’d1
57 pcnt_ctrl_ch0_in4 0 no - 1’d1
58 pcnt_ctrl_ch1_in4 0 no - 1’d1
61 HSPICS1_in 0 no HSPICS1_out HSPICS1_oe
62 HSPICS2_in 0 no HSPICS2_out HSPICS2_oe
63 VSPICLK_in 0 yes VSPICLK_out_mux VSPICLK_oe
64 VSPIQ_in 0 yes VSPIQ_out VSPIQ_oe
65 VSPID_in 0 yes VSPID_out VSPID_oe
66 VSPIHD_in 0 yes VSPIHD_out VSPIHD_oe
67 VSPIWP_in 0 yes VSPIWP_out VSPIWP_oe
68 VSPICS0_in 0 yes VSPICS0_out VSPICS0_oe
69 VSPICS1_in 0 no VSPICS1_out VSPICS1_oe
70 VSPICS2_in 0 no VSPICS2_out VSPICS2_oe
71 pcnt_sig_ch0_in5 0 no ledc_hs_sig_out0 1’d1
72 pcnt_sig_ch1_in5 0 no ledc_hs_sig_out1 1’d1
73 pcnt_ctrl_ch0_in5 0 no ledc_hs_sig_out2 1’d1
74 pcnt_ctrl_ch1_in5 0 no ledc_hs_sig_out3 1’d1
75 pcnt_sig_ch0_in6 0 no ledc_hs_sig_out4 1’d1
76 pcnt_sig_ch1_in6 0 no ledc_hs_sig_out5 1’d1
77 pcnt_ctrl_ch0_in6 0 no ledc_hs_sig_out6 1’d1
78 pcnt_ctrl_ch1_in6 0 no ledc_hs_sig_out7 1’d1
79 pcnt_sig_ch0_in7 0 no ledc_ls_sig_out0 1’d1
Espressif Systems 45 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0
Appendix A
Same input
Signal Default value signal from Output enable
No. Input signals if unassigned IO_MUX
core
Output signals of output signals
80 pcnt_sig_ch1_in7 0 no ledc_ls_sig_out1 1’d1
81 pcnt_ctrl_ch0_in7 0 no ledc_ls_sig_out2 1’d1
82 pcnt_ctrl_ch1_in7 0 no ledc_ls_sig_out3 1’d1
83 rmt_sig_in0 0 no ledc_ls_sig_out4 1’d1
84 rmt_sig_in1 0 no ledc_ls_sig_out5 1’d1
85 rmt_sig_in2 0 no ledc_ls_sig_out6 1’d1
86 rmt_sig_in3 0 no ledc_ls_sig_out7 1’d1
87 rmt_sig_in4 0 no rmt_sig_out0 1’d1
88 rmt_sig_in5 0 no rmt_sig_out1 1’d1
89 rmt_sig_in6 0 no rmt_sig_out2 1’d1
90 rmt_sig_in7 0 no rmt_sig_out3 1’d1
91 - - - rmt_sig_out4 1’d1
92 - - - rmt_sig_out6 1’d1
94 - - - rmt_sig_out7 1’d1
95 I2CEXT1_SCL_in 1 no I2CEXT1_SCL_out 1’d1
96 I2CEXT1_SDA_in 1 no I2CEXT1_SDA_out 1’d1
97 host_card_detect_n_1 0 no host_ccmd_od_pullup_en_n 1’d1
98 host_card_detect_n_2 0 no host_rst_n_1 1’d1
99 host_card_write_prt_1 0 no host_rst_n_2 1’d1
100 host_card_write_prt_2 0 no gpio_sd0_out 1’d1
101 host_card_int_n_1 0 no gpio_sd1_out 1’d1
102 host_card_int_n_2 0 no gpio_sd2_out 1’d1
103 pwm1_sync0_in 0 no gpio_sd3_out 1’d1
104 pwm1_sync1_in 0 no gpio_sd4_out 1’d1
105 pwm1_sync2_in 0 no gpio_sd5_out 1’d1
106 pwm1_f0_in 0 no gpio_sd6_out 1’d1
107 pwm1_f1_in 0 no gpio_sd7_out 1’d1
108 pwm1_f2_in 0 no pwm1_out0a 1’d1
109 pwm0_cap0_in 0 no pwm1_out0b 1’d1
110 pwm0_cap1_in 0 no pwm1_out1a 1’d1
111 pwm0_cap2_in 0 no pwm1_out1b 1’d1
112 pwm1_cap0_in 0 no pwm1_out2a 1’d1
113 pwm1_cap1_in 0 no pwm1_out2b 1’d1
114 pwm1_cap2_in 0 no pwm2_out1h 1’d1
115 pwm2_flta 1 no pwm2_out1l 1’d1
116 pwm2_fltb 1 no pwm2_out2h 1’d1
117 pwm2_cap1_in 0 no pwm2_out2l 1’d1
118 pwm2_cap2_in 0 no pwm2_out3h 1’d1
119 pwm2_cap3_in 0 no pwm2_out3l 1’d1
120 pwm3_flta 1 no pwm2_out4h 1’d1
121 pwm3_fltb 1 no pwm2_out4l 1’d1
Espressif Systems 46 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0
Appendix A
Same input
Signal Default value signal from Output enable
No. Input signals if unassigned IO_MUX
core
Output signals of output signals
122 pwm3_cap1_in 0 no - 1’d1
123 pwm3_cap2_in 0 no - 1’d1
124 pwm3_cap3_in 0 no - 1’d1
140 I2S0I_DATA_in0 0 no I2S0O_DATA_out0 1’d1
141 I2S0I_DATA_in1 0 no I2S0O_DATA_out1 1’d1
142 I2S0I_DATA_in2 0 no I2S0O_DATA_out2 1’d1
143 I2S0I_DATA_in3 0 no I2S0O_DATA_out3 1’d1
144 I2S0I_DATA_in4 0 no I2S0O_DATA_out4 1’d1
145 I2S0I_DATA_in5 0 no I2S0O_DATA_out5 1’d1
146 I2S0I_DATA_in6 0 no I2S0O_DATA_out6 1’d1
147 I2S0I_DATA_in7 0 no I2S0O_DATA_out7 1’d1
148 I2S0I_DATA_in8 0 no I2S0O_DATA_out8 1’d1
149 I2S0I_DATA_in9 0 no I2S0O_DATA_out9 1’d1
150 I2S0I_DATA_in10 0 no I2S0O_DATA_out10 1’d1
151 I2S0I_DATA_in11 0 no I2S0O_DATA_out11 1’d1
152 I2S0I_DATA_in12 0 no I2S0O_DATA_out12 1’d1
153 I2S0I_DATA_in13 0 no I2S0O_DATA_out13 1’d1
154 I2S0I_DATA_in14 0 no I2S0O_DATA_out14 1’d1
155 I2S0I_DATA_in15 0 no I2S0O_DATA_out15 1’d1
156 - - - I2S0O_DATA_out16 1’d1
157 - - - I2S0O_DATA_out17 1’d1
158 - - - I2S0O_DATA_out18 1’d1
159 - - - I2S0O_DATA_out19 1’d1
160 - - - I2S0O_DATA_out20 1’d1
161 - - - I2S0O_DATA_out21 1’d1
162 - - - I2S0O_DATA_out22 1’d1
163 - - - I2S0O_DATA_out23 1’d1
164 I2S1I_BCK_in 0 no I2S1I_BCK_out 1’d1
165 I2S1I_WS_in 0 no I2S1I_WS_out 1’d1
166 I2S1I_DATA_in0 0 no I2S1O_DATA_out0 1’d1
167 I2S1I_DATA_in1 0 no I2S1O_DATA_out1 1’d1
168 I2S1I_DATA_in2 0 no I2S1O_DATA_out2 1’d1
169 I2S1I_DATA_in3 0 no I2S1O_DATA_out3 1’d1
170 I2S1I_DATA_in4 0 no I2S1O_DATA_out4 1’d1
171 I2S1I_DATA_in5 0 no I2S1O_DATA_out5 1’d1
172 I2S1I_DATA_in6 0 no I2S1O_DATA_out6 1’d1
173 I2S1I_DATA_in7 0 no I2S1O_DATA_out7 1’d1
174 I2S1I_DATA_in8 0 no I2S1O_DATA_out8 1’d1
175 I2S1I_DATA_in9 0 no I2S1O_DATA_out9 1’d1
176 I2S1I_DATA_in10 0 no I2S1O_DATA_out10 1’d1
177 I2S1I_DATA_in11 0 no I2S1O_DATA_out11 1’d1
Espressif Systems 47 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0
Appendix A
Same input
Signal Default value signal from Output enable
No. Input signals if unassigned IO_MUX
core
Output signals of output signals
178 I2S1I_DATA_in12 0 no I2S1O_DATA_out12 1’d1
179 I2S1I_DATA_in13 0 no I2S1O_DATA_out13 1’d1
180 I2S1I_DATA_in14 0 no I2S1O_DATA_out14 1’d1
181 I2S1I_DATA_in15 0 no I2S1O_DATA_out15 1’d1
182 - - - I2S1O_DATA_out16 1’d1
183 - - - I2S1O_DATA_out17 1’d1
184 - - - I2S1O_DATA_out18 1’d1
185 - - - I2S1O_DATA_out19 1’d1
186 - - - I2S1O_DATA_out20 1’d1
187 - - - I2S1O_DATA_out21 1’d1
188 - - - I2S1O_DATA_out22 1’d1
189 - - - I2S1O_DATA_out23 1’d1
190 I2S0I_H_SYNC 0 no pwm3_out1h 1’d1
191 I2S0I_V_SYNC 0 no pwm3_out1l 1’d1
192 I2S0I_H_ENABLE 0 no pwm3_out2h 1’d1
193 I2S1I_H_SYNC 0 no pwm3_out2l 1’d1
194 I2S1I_V_SYNC 0 no pwm3_out3h 1’d1
195 I2S1I_H_ENABLE 0 no pwm3_out3l 1’d1
196 - - - pwm3_out4h 1’d1
197 - - - pwm3_out4l 1’d1
198 U2RXD_in 0 yes U2TXD_out 1’d1
199 U2CTS_in 0 yes U2RTS_out 1’d1
200 emac_mdc_i 0 no emac_mdc_o emac_mdc_oe
201 emac_mdi_i 0 no emac_mdo_o emac_mdo_o_e
202 emac_crs_i 0 no emac_crs_o emac_crs_oe
203 emac_col_i 0 no emac_col_o emac_col_oe
204 pcmfsync_in 0 no bt_audio0_irq 1’d1
205 pcmclk_in 0 no bt_audio1_irq 1’d1
206 pcmdin 0 no bt_audio2_irq 1’d1
207 - - - ble_audio0_irq 1’d1
208 - - - ble_audio1_irq 1’d1
209 - - - ble_audio2_irq 1’d1
210 - - - pcmfsync_out pcmfsync_en
211 - - - pcmclk_out pcmclk_en
212 - - - pcmdout pcmdout_en
213 - - - ble_audio_sync0_p 1’d1
214 - - - ble_audio_sync1_p 1’d1
215 - - - ble_audio_sync2_p 1’d1
224 - - - sig_in_func224 1’d1
225 - - - sig_in_func225 1’d1
226 - - - sig_in_func226 1’d1
Espressif Systems 48 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0
Appendix A
Same input
Signal Default value signal from Output enable
No. Input signals if unassigned IO_MUX
core
Output signals of output signals
227 - - - sig_in_func227 1’d1
228 - - - sig_in_func228 1’d1
A.3. Ethernet_MAC
Table 26: Ethernet_MAC
PIN Name Function6 MII (int_osc) MII (ext_osc) RMII (int_osc) RMII (ext_osc)
GPIO0 EMAC_TX_CLK TX_CLK (I) TX_CLK (I) CLK_OUT(O) EXT_OSC_CLK(I)
GPIO5 EMAC_RX_CLK RX_CLK (I) RX_CLK (I) - -
GPIO21 EMAC_TX_EN TX_EN(O) TX_EN(O) TX_EN(O) TX_EN(O)
GPIO19 EMAC_TXD0 TXD[0](O) TXD[0](O) TXD[0](O) TXD[0](O)
GPIO22 EMAC_TXD1 TXD[1](O) TXD[1](O) TXD[1](O) TXD[1](O)
MTMS EMAC_TXD2 TXD[2](O) TXD[2](O) - -
MTDI EMAC_TXD3 TXD[3](O) TXD[3](O) - -
MTCK EMAC_RX_ER RX_ER(I) RX_ER(I) - -
GPIO27 EMAC_RX_DV RX_DV(I) RX_DV(I) CRS_DV(I) CRS_DV(I)
GPIO25 EMAC_RXD0 RXD[0](I) RXD[0](I) RXD[0](I) RXD[0](I)
GPIO26 EMAC_RXD1 RXD[1](I) RXD[1](I) RXD[1](I) RXD[1](I)
U0TXD EMAC_RXD2 RXD[2](I) RXD[2](I) - -
MTDO EMAC_RXD3 RXD[3](I) RXD[3](I) - -
GPIO16 EMAC_CLK_OUT CLK_OUT(O) - CLK_OUT(O) -
GPIO17 EMAC_CLK_OUT_180 CLK_OUT_180(O) - CLK_OUT_180(O) -
GPIO4 EMAC_TX_ER TX_ERR(O)* TX_ERR(O)* - -
In GPIO Matrix* - MDC(O) MDC(O) MDC(O) MDC(O)
In GPIO Matrix* - MDIO(IO) MDIO(IO) MDIO(IO) MDIO(IO)
In GPIO Matrix* - CRS(I) CRS(I) - -
In GPIO Matrix* - COL(I) COL(I) - -
*Notes: 1. The GPIO Matrix can be any GPIO. 2. The TX_ERR (O) is optional.
A.4. IO_MUX
For the list of IO_MUX pins, please see the next page.
Espressif Systems 49 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0
Appendix A
IO_MUX
Pin No.
Power
Supply Pin
Analog Pin
Digital Pin
Power Domain
Analog
Function1
Analog
Function2
Analog
Function3
RTC
Function1
RTC
Function2
Function1
Type
Function2
Type
Function3
Type
Function4
Type
Function5
Type
Function6
Type
Drive Strength
(2’d2: 20 mA)
At Reset
After Reset
1
VDDA
VDDA supply in
2
LNA_IN
VDD3P3
3
VDD3P3
VDD3P3 supply in
4
VDD3P3
VDD3P3 supply in
5
SENSOR_VP
VDD3P3_RTC
ADC_H
ADC1_CH0
RTC_GPIO0
GPIO36
I
GPIO36
I
oe=0, ie=0
oe=0, ie=0
6
SENSOR_CAPP
VDD3P3_RTC
ADC_H
ADC1_CH1
RTC_GPIO1
GPIO37
I
GPIO37
I
oe=0, ie=0
oe=0, ie=0
7
SENSOR_CAPN
VDD3P3_RTC
ADC_H
ADC1_CH2
RTC_GPIO2
GPIO38
I
GPIO38
I
oe=0, ie=0
oe=0, ie=0
8
SENSOR_VN
VDD3P3_RTC
ADC_H
ADC1_CH3
RTC_GPIO3
GPIO39
I
GPIO39
I
oe=0, ie=0
oe=0, ie=0
9
CHIP_PU
VDD3P3_RTC
10
VDET_1
VDD3P3_RTC
ADC1_CH6
RTC_GPIO4
GPIO34
I
GPIO34
I
oe=0, ie=0
oe=0, ie=0
11
VDET_2
VDD3P3_RTC
ADC1_CH7
RTC_GPIO5
GPIO35
I
GPIO35
I
oe=0, ie=0
oe=0, ie=0
12
32K_XP
VDD3P3_RTC
XTAL_32K_P
ADC1_CH4
TOUCH9
RTC_GPIO9
GPIO32
I/O/T
GPIO32
I/O/T
2'd2
oe=0, ie=0
oe=0, ie=0
13
32K_XN
VDD3P3_RTC
XTAL_32K_N
ADC1_CH5
TOUCH8
RTC_GPIO8
GPIO33
I/O/T
GPIO33
I/O/T
2'd2
oe=0, ie=0
oe=0, ie=0
14
GPIO25
VDD3P3_RTC
DAC_1
ADC2_CH8
RTC_GPIO6
GPIO25
I/O/T
GPIO25
I/O/T
EMAC_RXD0
I
2'd2
oe=0, ie=0
oe=0, ie=0
15
GPIO26
VDD3P3_RTC
DAC_2
ADC2_CH9
RTC_GPIO7
GPIO26
I/O/T
GPIO26
I/O/T
EMAC_RXD1
I
2'd2
oe=0, ie=0
oe=0, ie=0
16
GPIO27
VDD3P3_RTC
ADC2_CH7
TOUCH7
RTC_GPIO17
GPIO27
I/O/T
GPIO27
I/O/T
EMAC_RX_DV
I
2'd2
oe=0, ie=0
oe=0, ie=1
17
MTMS
VDD3P3_RTC
ADC2_CH6
TOUCH6
RTC_GPIO16
MTMS
I0
HSPICLK
I/O/T
GPIO14
I/O/T
HS2_CLK
O
SD_CLK
I0
EMAC_TXD2
O
2'd2
oe=0, ie=0
oe=0, ie=1
18
MTDI
VDD3P3_RTC
ADC2_CH5
TOUCH5
RTC_GPIO15
MTDI
I1
HSPIQ
I/O/T
GPIO12
I/O/T
HS2_DATA2
I1/O/T
SD_DATA2
I1/O/T
EMAC_TXD3
O
2'd2
oe=0, ie=1, wpd
oe=0, ie=1, wpd
19
VDD3P3_RTC
VDD3P3_RTC supply in
20
MTCK
VDD3P3_RTC
ADC2_CH4
TOUCH4
RTC_GPIO14
MTCK
I1
HSPID
I/O/T
GPIO13
I/O/T
HS2_DATA3
I1/O/T
SD_DATA3
I1/O/T
EMAC_RX_ER
I
2'd2
oe=0, ie=0
oe=0, ie=1
21
MTDO
VDD3P3_RTC
ADC2_CH3
TOUCH3
RTC_GPIO13
I2C_SDA
MTDO
O/T
HSPICS0
I/O/T
GPIO15
I/O/T
HS2_CMD
I1/O/T
SD_CMD
I1/O/T
EMAC_RXD3
I
2'd2
oe=0, ie=1, wpu
oe=0, ie=1, wpu
22
GPIO2
VDD3P3_RTC
ADC2_CH2
TOUCH2
RTC_GPIO12
I2C_SCL
GPIO2
I/O/T
HSPIWP
I/O/T
GPIO2
I/O/T
HS2_DATA0
I1/O/T
SD_DATA0
I1/O/T
2'd2
oe=0, ie=1, wpd
oe=0, ie=1, wpd
23
GPIO0
VDD3P3_RTC
ADC2_CH1
TOUCH1
RTC_GPIO11
I2C_SDA
GPIO0
I/O/T
CLK_OUT1
O
GPIO0
I/O/T
EMAC_TX_CLK
I
2'd2
oe=0, ie=1, wpu
oe=0, ie=1, wpu
24
GPIO4
VDD3P3_RTC
ADC2_CH0
TOUCH0
RTC_GPIO10
I2C_SCL
GPIO4
I/O/T
HSPIHD
I/O/T
GPIO4
I/O/T
HS2_DATA1
I1/O/T
SD_DATA1
I1/O/T
EMAC_TX_ER
O
2'd2
oe=0, ie=1, wpd
oe=0, ie=1, wpd
25
GPIO16
VDD_SDIO
GPIO16
I/O/T
GPIO16
I/O/T
HS1_DATA4
I1/O/T
U2RXD
I1
EMAC_CLK_OUT
O
2'd2
oe=0, ie=0
oe=0, ie=1
26
VDD_SDIO
VDD_SDIO supply out/in
27
GPIO17
VDD_SDIO
GPIO17
I/O/T
GPIO17
I/O/T
HS1_DATA5
I1/O/T
U2TXD
O
EMAC_CLK_OUT_180
O
2'd2
oe=0, ie=0
oe=0, ie=1
28
SD_DATA_2
VDD_SDIO
SD_DATA2
I1/O/T
SPIHD
I/O/T
GPIO9
I/O/T
HS1_DATA2
I1/O/T
U1RXD
I1
2'd2
oe=0, ie=1, wpu
oe=0, ie=1, wpu
29
SD_DATA_3
VDD_SDIO
SD_DATA3
I0/O/T
SPIWP
I/O/T
GPIO10
I/O/T
HS1_DATA3
I1/O/T
U1TXD
O
2'd2
oe=0, ie=1, wpu
oe=0, ie=1, wpu
30
SD_CMD
VDD_SDIO
SD_CMD
I1/O/T
SPICS0
I/O/T
GPIO11
I/O/T
HS1_CMD
I1/O/T
U1RTS
O
2'd2
oe=0, ie=1, wpu
oe=0, ie=1, wpu
31
SD_CLK
VDD_SDIO
SD_CLK
I0
SPICLK
I/O/T
GPIO6
I/O/T
HS1_CLK
O
U1CTS
I1
2'd2
oe=0, ie=1, wpu
oe=0, ie=1, wpu
32
SD_DATA_0
VDD_SDIO
SD_DATA0
I1/O/T
SPIQ
I/O/T
GPIO7
I/O/T
HS1_DATA0
I1/O/T
U2RTS
O
2'd2
oe=0, ie=1, wpu
oe=0, ie=1, wpu
33
SD_DATA_1
VDD_SDIO
SD_DATA1
I1/O/T
SPID
I/O/T
GPIO8
I/O/T
HS1_DATA1
I1/O/T
U2CTS
I1
2'd2
oe=0, ie=1, wpu
oe=0, ie=1, wpu
34
GPIO5
VDD3P3_CPU
GPIO5
I/O/T
VSPICS0
I/O/T
GPIO5
I/O/T
HS1_DATA6
I1/O/T
EMAC_RX_CLK
I
2'd2
oe=0, ie=1, wpu
oe=0, ie=1, wpu
35
GPIO18
VDD3P3_CPU
GPIO18
I/O/T
VSPICLK
I/O/T
GPIO18
I/O/T
HS1_DATA7
I1/O/T
2'd2
oe=0, ie=0
oe=0, ie=1
36
GPIO23
VDD3P3_CPU
GPIO23
I/O/T
VSPID
I/O/T
GPIO23
I/O/T
HS1_STROBE
I0
2'd2
oe=0, ie=0
oe=0, ie=1
37
VDD3P3_CPU
VDD3P3_CPU supply in
38
GPIO19
VDD3P3_CPU
GPIO19
I/O/T
VSPIQ
I/O/T
GPIO19
I/O/T
U0CTS
I1
EMAC_TXD0
O
2'd2
oe=0, ie=0
oe=0, ie=1
39
GPIO22
VDD3P3_CPU
GPIO22
I/O/T
VSPIWP
I/O/T
GPIO22
I/O/T
U0RTS
O
EMAC_TXD1
O
2'd2
oe=0, ie=0
oe=0, ie=1
40
U0RXD
VDD3P3_CPU
U0RXD
I1
CLK_OUT2
O
GPIO3
I/O/T
2'd2
oe=0, ie=1, wpu
oe=0, ie=1, wpu
41
U0TXD
VDD3P3_CPU
U0TXD
O
CLK_OUT3
O
GPIO1
I/O/T
EMAC_RXD2
I
2'd2
oe=0, ie=1, wpu
oe=0, ie=1, wpu
42
GPIO21
VDD3P3_CPU
GPIO21
I/O/T
VSPIHD
I/O/T
GPIO21
I/O/T
EMAC_TX_EN
O
2'd2
oe=0, ie=0
oe=0, ie=1
43
VDDA
VDDA supply in
44
XTAL_N
VDDA
45
XTAL_P
VDDA
46
VDDA
VDDA supply in
47
CAP2
VDDA
48
CAP1
VDDA
Total
Number
8
14
26
Notes:
wpu: weak pull-up;"
wpd: weak pull-down;"
ie: input enable;"
oe: output enable;"
Please see Table: Notes on ESP32 Pin Lists for more information.(请参考表:管脚清单说明。)
Espressif
www.espressif.com
Espressif Systems 50 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0
Revision History
Revision History
Date Version Release notes
2019.04 V3.0 Added information about the setup and hold times for the strapping pins in Section
2.4: Strapping Pins.
2019.02 V2.9
Applied new formatting to Table 1: Pin Description;
Fixed typos with respect to the ADC1 channel mappings in Table 10: Peripheral
Pin Configurations.
2019.01 V2.8
Changed the RF power control range in Table 18, Table 20 and Table 22 from –12
~+12 to –12 ~+9 dBm;
Small text changes.
2018.11 V2.7 Updated Section 1.5;
Updated pin statuses at reset and after reset in Table IO_MUX.
2018.10 V2.6 Updated QFN package drawings in Chapter 6: Package Information.
2018.08 V2.5
Added ”Cumulative IO output current” entry to Table 11: Absolute Maximum
Ratings;
Added more parameters to Table 13: DC Characteristics;
Changed the power domain names in Table IO_MUX to be consistent with
the pin names.
2018.07 V2.4
Deleted information on Packet Traffic Arbitration (PTA);
Added Figure 5: ESP32 Power-up and Reset Timing in Section 2.3: Power
Scheme;
Added the power consumption of dual-core SoCs in Table 6: Power Con-
sumption by Power Modes;
Updated section 4.1.2: Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC).
2018.06 V2.3 Added the power consumption at CPU frequency of 160 MHz in Table 6: Power
Consumption by Power Modes.
2018.05 V2.2
Changed the voltage range of VDD3P3_RTC from 1.8-3.6V to 2.3-3.6V in
Table 1: Pin Description;
Updated Section 2.3: Power Scheme;
Updated Section 3.1.3: External Flash and SRAM;
Updated Table 6: Power Consumption by Power Modes;
Deleted content about temperature sensor;
Changes to electrical characteristics:
Updated Table 11: Absolute Maximum Ratings;
Added Table 12: Recommended Operating Conditions;
Added Table 13: DC Characteristics;
Added Table 14: Reliability Qualifications;
Updated the values of ”Gain control step” and ”Adjacent channel transmit
power” in Table 18: Transmitter Characteristics - Basic Data Rate;
Updated the values of ”Gain control step”, ”π/4 DQPSK modulation accu-
racy”, ”8 DPSK modulation accuracy” and ”In-band spurious emissions” in
Table 20: Transmitter Characteristics – Enhanced Data Rate;
Updated the values of ”Gain control step”, ”Adjacent channel transmit
power” in Table 22: Transmitter Characteristics - BLE.
Espressif Systems 51 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0
Revision History
Date Version Release notes
2018.01 V2.1
Deleted software-specific features;
Deleted information on LNA pre-amplifier;
Specified the CPU speed and flash speed of ESP32-D2WD;
Added notes to Section 2.3: Power Scheme.
2017.12 V2.0 Added a note on the sequence of pin number in Chapter 6.
2017.10 V1.9
Updated the description of the pin CHIP_PU in Table 1;
Added a note to Section 2.3: Power Scheme;
Updated the description of the chip’s system reset in Section 2.4: Strapping
Pins;
Added a description of antenna diversity and selection to Section 3.5.1;
Deleted ”Association sleep pattern” in Table 6and added notes to Active
sleep and Modem-sleep.
2017.08 V1.8 Added Table 4.2 in Section 4;
Corrected a typo in Figure 1.
2017.08 V1.7
Changed the transmitting power to +12 dBm; the sensitivity of NZIF receiver
to -97 dBm in Section 1.3;
Added a note to Table 1Pin Description;
Added 160 MHz clock frequency in section 3.1.1;
Changed the transmitting power from 21 dBm to 20.5 dBm in Section 3.5.1;
Changed the dynamic control range of class-1, class-2 and class-3 transmit
output powers to ”up to 24 dBm”; and changed the dynamic range of NZIF
receiver sensitivity to ”over 97 dB” in Section 3.6.1;
Updated Table 6: Power Consumption by Power Modes, and added two
notes to it;
Updated sections 4.1.1,4.1.9;
Updated Table 11: Absolute Maximum Ratings;
Updated Table 15: RF Power Consumption Specifications, and changed the
duty cycle on which the transmitters’ measurements are based by 50%.
Updated Table 16: Wi-Fi Radio Characteristics and added a note on “Output
impedance” to it;
Updated parameter ”Sensitivity” in Table 17,19,21;
Updated parameters ”RF transmit power” and ”RF power control range”,
and added parameter ”Gain control step” in Table 18,20,22;
Deleted Chapters: ”Touch Sensor” and ”Code Examples”;
Added a link to certification download.
2017.06 V1.6
Corrected two typos:
Changed the number of external components to 20 in Section 1.1.2;
Changed the number of GPIO pins to 34 in Section 4.1.1.
2017.06 V1.5
Changed the power supply range in Section: 1.4.1 CPU and Memory;
Updated the note in Section 2.3: Power Scheme;
Updated Table 11: Absolute Maximum Ratings;
Changed the drive strength values of the digital output pins in Note 8, in
Table 24: Notes on ESP32 Pin Lists;
Added the option to subscribe for notifications of documentation changes.
Espressif Systems 52 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0
Revision History
Date Version Release notes
2017.05 V1.4
Added a note to the frequency of the external crystal oscillator in Section
1.4.2: Clocks and Timers;
Added a note to Section 2.4: Strapping Pins;
Updated Section 3.7: RTC and Low-Power Management;
Changed the maximum driving capability from 12 mA to 80 mA, in Table 11:
Absolulte Maximum Ratings;
Changed the input impedance value of 50, in Table 16: Wi-Fi Radio Char-
acteristics, to output impedance value of 30+j10 ;
Added a note to No.8 in Table 24: Notes on ESP32 Pin Lists;
Deleted GPIO20 in Table IO_MUX.
2017.04 V1.3
Added Appendix: ESP32 Pin Lists;
Updated Table: Wi-Fi Radio Characteristics;
Updated Figure: ESP32 Pin Layout (for QFN 5*5).
2017.03 V1.2 Added a note to Table: Pin Description;
Updated the note in Section: Internal Memory.
2017.02 V1.1
Added Chapter: Part Number and Ordering Information;
Updated Section: MCU and Advanced Features;
Updated Section: Block Diagram;
Updated Chapter: Pin Definitions;
Updated Section: CPU and Memory;
Updated Section: Audio PLL Clock;
Updated Section: Absolute Maximum Ratings;
Updated Chapter: Package Information;
Updated Chapter: Learning Resources.
2016.08 V1.0 First release.
Espressif Systems 53 ESP32 Datasheet V3.0

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