ATMEGA8/16/32U2 Datasheet by Microchip Technology

[Irma AVR A1—IIIEI.®
Features
High Performance, Low Power AVR® 8-Bit Microcontroller
Advanced RISC Architecture
125 Powerful Instructions – Most Single Clock Cycle Execution
32 x 8 General Purpose Working Registers
Fully Static Operation
Up to 16 MIPS Throughput at 16 MHz
Non-volatile Program and Data Memories
8K/16K/32K Bytes of In-System Self-Programmable Flash
512/512/1024 EEPROM
512/512/1024 Internal SRAM
Write/Erase Cycles: 10,000 Flash/ 100,000 EEPROM
Data retention: 20 years at 85C/ 100 years at 25C(1)
Optional Boot Code Section with Independent Lock Bits
In-System Programming by on-chip Boot Program hardware-activated after
reset
True Read-While-Write Operation
Programming Lock for Software Security
USB 2.0 Full-speed Device Module with Interrupt on Transfer Completion
Complies fully with Universal Serial Bus Specification REV 2.0
48 MHz PLL for Full-speed Bus Operation : data transfer rates at 12 Mbit/s
Fully independant 176 bytes USB DPRAM for endpoint memory allocation
Endpoint 0 for Control Transfers: from 8 up to 64-bytes
4 Programmable Endpoints:
IN or Out Directions
Bulk, Interrupt and IsochronousTransfers
Programmable maximum packet size from 8 to 64 bytes
Programmable single or double buffer
Suspend/Resume Interrupts
Microcontroller reset on USB Bus Reset without detach
USB Bus Disconnection on Microcontroller Request
Peripheral Features
One 8-bit Timer/Counters with Separate Prescaler and Compare Mode (two 8-bit
PWM channels)
One 16-bit Timer/Counter with Separate Prescaler, Compare and Capture Mode
(three 8-bit PWM channels)
USART with SPI master only mode and hardware flow control (RTS/CTS)
Master/Slave SPI Serial Interface
Programmable Watchdog Timer with Separate On-chip Oscillator
On-chip Analog Comparator
Interrupt and Wake-up on Pin Change
On Chip Debug Interface (debugWIRE)
Special Microcontroller Features
Power-On Reset and Programmable Brown-out Detection
Internal Calibrated Oscillator
External and Internal Interrupt Sources
Five Sleep Modes: Idle, Power-save, Power-down, Standby, and Extended Standby
I/O and Packages
22 Programmable I/O Lines
QFN32 (5x5mm) / TQFP32 packages
Operating Voltages
2.7 - 5.5V
Operating temperature
Industrial (-40°C to +85°C)
Maximum Frequency
8 MHz at 2.7V - Industrial range
16 MHz at 4.5V - Industrial range
Note: 1. See “Data Retention” on page 6 for details.
8-bit
Microcontroller
with
8/16/32K Bytes
of ISP Flash
and USB
Controller
ATmega8U2
ATmega16U2
ATmega32U2
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1. Pin Configurations
Figure 1-1. Pinout
Note: The large center pad underneath the QFN package should be soldered to ground on the board to
ensure good mechanical stability.
1.1 Disclaimer
Typical values contained in this datasheet are based on simulations and characterization of
other AVR microcontrollers manufactured on the same process technology. Min and Max values
will be available after the device is characterized.
UVCC
QFN32
(PCINT11 / AIN2 ) PC2
(OC.0B / INT0) PD0
VCC
XTAL1
(INT5/ AIN3) PD4
(TXD1 / INT3) PD3
(XCK / AIN4 / PCINT12) PD5
PB3 (PDO / MISO / PCINT3)
GND
(PC0) XTAL2
UGND
PB4 (T1 / PCINT4)
28 27 26
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
1211109131415
(AIN0 / INT1) PD1
8
16
17
PB6 (PCINT6)
D-
D+
2529303132
PB7 (PCINT7 / OC.0A / OC.1C)
PB5 (PCINT5)
PC7 (INT4 / ICP1 / CLKO)
PC6 (OC.1A / PCINT8)
Reset (PC1 / dW)
PC5 ( PCINT9/ OC.1B)
PC4 (PCINT10)
UCAP
(RXD1 / AIN1 / INT2) PD2
(RTS / AIN5 / INT6) PD6
(CTS / HWB / AIN6 / T0 / INT7) PD7
(SS / PCINT0) PB0
(SCLK / PCINT1) PB1
(PDI / MOSI / PCINT2) PB2
AVCC
UVCC
TQFP32
(PCINT11 /AIN2 ) PC2
(OC.0B / INT0) PD0
VCC
XTAL1
(INT5/ AIN3) PD4
(TXD1 / INT3) PD3
(XCK AIN4 / PCINT12) PD5
PB3 (PDO / MISO / PCINT3)
GND
(PC0) XTAL2
UGND
PB4 (T1 / PCINT4)
28 27 26
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
1211109131415
(AIN0 / INT1) PD1
8
16
17
PB6 (PCINT6)
D-
D+
2529303132
PB7 (PCINT7 / OC.0A / OC.1C)
PB5 (PCINT5)
PC7 (INT4 / ICP1 / CLKO)
PC6 (OC.1A / PCINT8)
Reset (PC1 / dW)
PC5 ( PCINT9/ OC.1B)
PC4 (PCINT10)
UCAP
(RXD1 / AIN1 / INT2) PD2
(RTS / AIN5 / INT6) PD6
/ HWB / AIN6 / T0 / INT7) PD7
(SS / PCINT0) PB0
(SCLK / PCINT1) PB1
(PDI / MOSI / PCINT2) PB2
AVCC
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2. Overview
The ATmega8U2/16U2/32U2 is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR enhanced RISC architecture.
By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the ATmega8U2/16U2/32U2 achieves throughputs approaching
1 MIPS per MHz allowing the system designer to optimize power consumption versus processing speed.
2.1 Block Diagram
Figure 2-1. Block Diagram
The AVR core combines a rich instruction set with 32 general purpose working registers. All the
32 registers are directly connected to the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), allowing two independent
registers to be accessed in one single instruction executed in one clock cycle. The resulting
PROGRAM
COUNTER STACK
POINTER
PROGRAM
FLASH MCU CONTROL
REGISTER
SRAM
GENERAL
PURPOSE
REGISTERS
INSTRUCTION
REGISTER TIMER/
COUNTERS
INSTRUCTION
DECODER
DATA DIR.
REG. PORTC
DATA REGISTER
PORTC
INTERRUPT
UNIT
EEPROM
USART1
STATUS
REGISTER
Z
Y
X
ALU
PORTC DRIVERS
PORTD DRIVERS PORTB DRIVERS
PC7 - PC0 PD7 - PD0
RESET
VCC
GND
XTAL1
XTAL2
CONTROL
LINES
ANALOG
COMPARATOR
PB7 - PB0
D+/SCK
D-/SDATA
INTERNAL
OSCILLATOR
WATCHDOG
TIMER
8-BIT DA TA BUS
USB
PS/2
TIMING AND
CONTROL
OSCILLATOR
CALIB. OSC
DATA DIR.
REG. PORTB
DATA REGISTER
PORTB
ON-CHIP DEBUG
Debug-Wire
PROGRAMMING
LOGIC
DATA DIR.
REG. PORTD
DATA REGISTER
PORTD
POR - BOD
RESET
PLL
+
-
SPI
ON-CHIP
3.3V
REGULATOR
UVcc
UCap
1uF
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architecture is more code efficient while achieving throughputs up to ten times faster than con-
ventional CISC microcontrollers.
The ATmega8U2/16U2/32U2 provides the following features: 8K/16K/32K Bytes of In-System
Programmable Flash with Read-While-Write capabilities, 512/512/1024 Bytes EEPROM,
512/512/1024 SRAM, 22 general purpose I/O lines, 32 general purpose working registers, two
flexible Timer/Counters with compare modes and PWM, one USART, a programmable Watch-
dog Timer with Internal Oscillator, an SPI serial port, debugWIRE interface, also used for
accessing the On-chip Debug system and programming and five software selectable power sav-
ing modes. The Idle mode stops the CPU while allowing the SRAM, Timer/Counters, SPI port,
and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the register contents
but freezes the Oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt or Hardware
Reset. In Standby mode, the Crystal/Resonator Oscillator is running while the rest of the device
is sleeping. This allows very fast start-up combined with low power consumption. In Extended
Standby mode, the main Oscillator continues to run.
The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology. The on-
chip ISP Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system through an SPI serial
interface, by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer, or by an on-chip Boot program
running on the AVR core. The boot program can use any interface to download the application
program in the application Flash memory. Software in the Boot Flash section will continue to run
while the Application Flash section is updated, providing true Read-While-Write operation. By
combining an 8-bit RISC CPU with In-System Self-Programmable Flash on a monolithic chip,
the Atmel ATmega8U2/16U2/32U2 is a powerful microcontroller that provides a highly flexible
and cost effective solution to many embedded control applications.
The ATmega8U2/16U2/32U2 are supported with a full suite of program and system develop-
ment tools including: C compilers, macro assemblers, program debugger/simulators, in-circuit
emulators, and evaluation kits.
2.2 Pin Descriptions
2.2.1 VCC
Digital supply voltage.
2.2.2 GND
Ground.
2.2.3 AVCC
AVCC is the supply voltage pin (input) for all analog features (Analog Comparator, PLL). It
should be externally connected to VCC through a low-pass filter.
2.2.4 Port B (PB7..PB0)
Port B is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The
Port B output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source
capability. As inputs, Port B pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up
resistors are activated. The Port B pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active,
even if the clock is not running.
Port B also serves the functions of various special features of the ATmega8U2/16U2/32U2 as
listed on page 74.
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2.2.5 Port C (PC7..PC0)
Port C is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The
Port C output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source
capability. As inputs, Port C pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up
resistors are activated. The Port C pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active,
even if the clock is not running.
Port C also serves the functions of various special features of the ATmega8U2/16U2/32U2 as
listed on page 77.
2.2.6 Port D (PD7..PD0)
Port D serves as analog inputs to the analog comparator.
Port D also serves as an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port, if the analog comparator is not used (con-
cerns PD2/PD1 pins). Port pins can provide internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The
Port D output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source
capability. As inputs, Port D pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up
resistors are activated. The Port D pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active,
even if the clock is not running.
2.2.7 D-
USB Full Speed Negative Data Upstream Port
2.2.8 D+
USB Full Speed Positive Data Upstream Port
2.2.9 UGND
USB Ground.
2.2.10 UVCC
USB Pads Internal Regulator Input supply voltage.
2.2.11 UCAP
USB Pads Internal Regulator Output supply voltage. Should be connected to an external capac-
itor (1μF).
2.2.12 RESET/PC1/dW
Reset input. A low level on this pin for longer than the minimum pulse length will generate a
reset, even if the clock is not running. The minimum pulse length is given in “System Control and
Reset” on page 47. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate a reset. This pin alternatively
serves as debugWire channel or as generic I/O. The configuration depends on the fuses RST-
DISBL and DWEN.
2.2.13 XTAL1
Input to the inverting Oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit.
2.2.14 XTAL2/PC0
Output from the inverting Oscillator amplifier if enabled by Fuse. Also serves as a generic I/O.
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3. Resources
A comprehensive set of development tools, application notes and datasheets are available for
download on http://www.atmel.com/avr.
4. Code Examples
This documentation contains simple code examples that briefly show how to use various parts of
the device. Be aware that not all C compiler vendors include bit definitions in the header files
and interrupt handling in C is compiler dependent. Please confirm with the C compiler documen-
tation for more details.
These code examples assume that the part specific header file is included before compilation.
For I/O registers located in extended I/O map, "IN", "OUT", "SBIS", "SBIC", "CBI", and "SBI"
instructions must be replaced with instructions that allow access to extended I/O. Typically
"LDS" and "STS" combined with "SBRS", "SBRC", "SBR", and "CBR".
5. Data Retention
Reliability Qualification results show that the projected data retention failure rate is much less
than 1 PPM over 20 years at 85°C or 100 years at 25°C.
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6. AVR CPU Core
6.1 Introduction
This section discusses the AVR core architecture in general. The main function of the CPU core
is to ensure correct program execution. The CPU must therefore be able to access memories,
perform calculations, control peripherals, and handle interrupts.
6.2 Architectural Overview
Figure 6-1. Block Diagram of the AVR Architecture
In order to maximize performance and parallelism, the AVR uses a Harvard architecture – with
separate memories and buses for program and data. Instructions in the program memory are
executed with a single level pipelining. While one instruction is being executed, the next instruc-
tion is pre-fetched from the program memory. This concept enables instructions to be executed
in every clock cycle. The program memory is In-System Reprogrammable Flash memory.
Flash
Program
Memory
Instruction
Register
Instruction
Decoder
Program
Counter
Control Lines
32 x 8
General
Purpose
Registrers
ALU
Status
and Control
I/O Lines
EEPROM
Data Bus 8-bit
Data
SRAM
Direct Addressing
Indirect Addressing
Interrupt
Unit
SPI
Unit
Watchdog
Timer
Analog
Comparator
I/O Module 2
I/O Module1
I/O Module n
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The fast-access Register File contains 32 x 8-bit general purpose working registers with a single
clock cycle access time. This allows single-cycle Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) operation. In a typ-
ical ALU operation, two operands are output from the Register File, the operation is executed,
and the result is stored back in the Register File – in one clock cycle.
Six of the 32 registers can be used as three 16-bit indirect address register pointers for Data
Space addressing – enabling efficient address calculations. One of these address pointers can
also be used as an address pointer for look up tables in Flash program memory. These added
function registers are the 16-bit X-, Y-, and Z-register, described later in this section.
The ALU supports arithmetic and logic operations between registers or between a constant and
a register. Single register operations can also be executed in the ALU. After an arithmetic opera-
tion, the Status Register is updated to reflect information about the result of the operation.
Program flow is provided by conditional and unconditional jump and call instructions, able to
directly address the whole address space. Most AVR instructions have a single 16-bit word for-
mat. Every program memory address contains a 16- or 32-bit instruction.
Program Flash memory space is divided in two sections, the Boot Program section and the
Application Program section. Both sections have dedicated Lock bits for write and read/write
protection. The SPM instruction that writes into the Application Flash memory section must
reside in the Boot Program section.
During interrupts and subroutine calls, the return address Program Counter (PC) is stored on the
Stack. The Stack is effectively allocated in the general data SRAM, and consequently the Stack
size is only limited by the total SRAM size and the usage of the SRAM. All user programs must
initialize the SP in the Reset routine (before subroutines or interrupts are executed). The Stack
Pointer (SP) is read/write accessible in the I/O space. The data SRAM can easily be accessed
through the five different addressing modes supported in the AVR architecture.
The memory spaces in the AVR architecture are all linear and regular memory maps.
A flexible interrupt module has its control registers in the I/O space with an additional Global
Interrupt Enable bit in the Status Register. All interrupts have a separate Interrupt Vector in the
Interrupt Vector table. The interrupts have priority in accordance with their Interrupt Vector posi-
tion. The lower the Interrupt Vector address, the higher the priority.
The I/O memory space contains 64 addresses for CPU peripheral functions as Control Regis-
ters, SPI, and other I/O functions. The I/O Memory can be accessed directly, or as the Data
Space locations following those of the Register File, 0x20 - 0x5F. In addition, the
ATmega8U2/16U2/32U2 has Extended I/O space from 0x60 - 0xFF in SRAM where only the
ST/STS/STD and LD/LDS/LDD instructions can be used.
6.3 ALU – Arithmetic Logic Unit
The high-performance AVR ALU operates in direct connection with all the 32 general purpose
working registers. Within a single clock cycle, arithmetic operations between general purpose
registers or between a register and an immediate are executed. The ALU operations are divided
into three main categories – arithmetic, logical, and bit-functions. See the “Instruction Set” sec-
tion for a detailed description.
6.4 Status Register
The Status Register contains information about the result of the most recently executed arithme-
tic instruction. This information can be used for altering program flow in order to perform
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conditional operations. Note that the Status Register is updated after all ALU operations, as
specified in the Instruction Set Reference. This will in many cases remove the need for using the
dedicated compare instructions, resulting in faster and more compact code.
The Status Register is not automatically stored when entering an interrupt routine and restored
when returning from an interrupt. This must be handled by software.
6.4.1 SREG – Status Register
Bit 7 – I: Global Interrupt Enable
The Global Interrupt Enable bit must be set for the interrupts to be enabled. The individual inter-
rupt enable control is then performed in separate control registers. If the Global Interrupt Enable
Register is cleared, none of the interrupts are enabled independent of the individual interrupt
enable settings. The I-bit is cleared by hardware after an interrupt has occurred, and is set by
the RETI instruction to enable subsequent interrupts. The I-bit can also be set and cleared by
the application with the SEI and CLI instructions, as described in the instruction set reference.
Bit 6 – T: Bit Copy Storage
The Bit Copy instructions BLD (Bit LoaD) and BST (Bit STore) use the T-bit as source or desti-
nation for the operated bit. A bit from a register in the Register File can be copied into T by the
BST instruction, and a bit in T can be copied into a bit in a register in the Register File by the
BLD instruction.
Bit 5 – H: Half Carry Flag
The Half Carry Flag H indicates a Half Carry in some arithmetic operations. Half Carry Is useful
in BCD arithmetic. See the “Instruction Set Description” for detailed information.
Bit 4 – S: Sign Bit, S = N V
The S-bit is always an exclusive or between the Negative Flag N and the Two’s Complement
Overflow Flag V. See the “Instruction Set Description” for detailed information.
Bit 3 – V: Two’s Complement Overflow Flag
The Two’s Complement Overflow Flag V supports two’s complement arithmetics. See the
“Instruction Set Description” for detailed information.
Bit 2 – N: Negative Flag
The Negative Flag N indicates a negative result in an arithmetic or logic operation. See the
“Instruction Set Description” for detailed information.
Bit 1 – Z: Zero Flag
The Zero Flag Z indicates a zero result in an arithmetic or logic operation. See the “Instruction
Set Description” for detailed information.
Bit 76543210
0x3F (0x5F) I T H S V N Z C SREG
Read/Write R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W
Initial Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
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Bit 0 – C: Carry Flag
The Carry Flag C indicates a carry in an arithmetic or logic operation. See the “Instruction Set
Description” for detailed information.
6.5 General Purpose Register File
The Register File is optimized for the AVR Enhanced RISC instruction set. In order to achieve
the required performance and flexibility, the following input/output schemes are supported by the
Register File:
One 8-bit output operand and one 8-bit result input
Two 8-bit output operands and one 8-bit result input
Two 8-bit output operands and one 16-bit result input
One 16-bit output operand and one 16-bit result input
Figure 6-2 shows the structure of the 32 general purpose working registers in the CPU.
Figure 6-2. AVR CPU General Purpose Working Registers
Most of the instructions operating on the Register File have direct access to all registers, and
most of them are single cycle instructions.
As shown in Figure 6-2, each register is also assigned a data memory address, mapping them
directly into the first 32 locations of the user Data Space. Although not being physically imple-
mented as SRAM locations, this memory organization provides great flexibility in access of the
registers, as the X-, Y- and Z-pointer registers can be set to index any register in the file.
6.5.1 The X-register, Y-register, and Z-register
The registers R26..R31 have some added functions to their general purpose usage. These reg-
isters are 16-bit address pointers for indirect addressing of the data space. The three indirect
address registers X, Y, and Z are defined as described in Figure 6-3.
7 0 Addr.
R0 0x00
R1 0x01
R2 0x02
R13 0x0D
General R14 0x0E
Purpose R15 0x0F
Working R16 0x10
Registers R17 0x11
R26 0x1A X-register Low Byte
R27 0x1B X-register High Byte
R28 0x1C Y-register Low Byte
R29 0x1D Y-register High Byte
R30 0x1E Z-register Low Byte
R31 0x1F Z-register High Byte
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Figure 6-3. The X-, Y-, and Z-registers
In the different addressing modes these address registers have functions as fixed displacement,
automatic increment, and automatic decrement (see the instruction set reference for details).
6.6 Stack Pointer
The Stack is mainly used for storing temporary data, for storing local variables and for storing
return addresses after interrupts and subroutine calls. Note that the Stack is implemented as
growing from higher to lower memory locations. The Stack Pointer Register always points to the
top of the Stack. The Stack Pointer points to the data SRAM Stack area where the Subroutine
and Interrupt Stacks are located. A Stack PUSH command will decrease the Stack Pointer.
The Stack in the data SRAM must be defined by the program before any subroutine calls are
executed or interrupts are enabled. Initial Stack Pointer value equals the last address of the
internal SRAM and the Stack Pointer must be set to point above start of the SRAM, see Figure
7-2 on page 18.
See Table 6-1 for Stack Pointer details.
The AVR Stack Pointer is implemented as two 8-bit registers in the I/O space. The number of
bits actually used is implementation dependent. Note that the data space in some implementa-
tions of the AVR architecture is so small that only SPL is needed. In this case, the SPH Register
will not be present.
15 XH XL 0
X-register 7 0 7 0
R27 (0x1B) R26 (0x1A)
15 YH YL 0
Y-register 7 0 7 0
R29 (0x1D) R28 (0x1C)
15 ZH ZL 0
Z-register 7 0 7 0
R31 (0x1F) R30 (0x1E)
Table 6-1. Stack Pointer instructions
Instruction Stack pointer Description
PUSH Decremented by 1 Data is pushed onto the stack
CALL
ICALL
RCALL
Decremented by 2
Return address is pushed onto the stack with a subroutine call or
interrupt
POP Incremented by 1 Data is popped from the stack
RET
RETI
Incremented by 2 Return address is popped from the stack with return from
subroutine or return from interrupt
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6.6.1 SPH and SPL – Stack Pointer High and Low Register
6.7 Instruction Execution Timing
This section describes the general access timing concepts for instruction execution. The AVR
CPU is driven by the CPU clock clkCPU, directly generated from the selected clock source for the
chip. No internal clock division is used.
Figure 6-4 shows the parallel instruction fetches and instruction executions enabled by the Har-
vard architecture and the fast-access Register File concept. This is the basic pipelining concept
to obtain up to 1 MIPS per MHz with the corresponding unique results for functions per cost,
functions per clocks, and functions per power-unit.
Figure 6-4. The Parallel Instruction Fetches and Instruction Executions
Figure 6-5 shows the internal timing concept for the Register File. In a single clock cycle an ALU
operation using two register operands is executed, and the result is stored back to the destina-
tion register.
Figure 6-5. Single Cycle ALU Operation
Bit 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8
0x3E (0x5E) SP15 SP14 SP13 SP12 SP11 SP10 SP9 SP8 SPH
0x3D (0x5D) SP7 SP6 SP5 SP4 SP3 SP2 SP1 SP0 SPL
76543210
Read/Write R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W
R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W
Initial Value 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
11111111
clk
1st Instruction Fetch
1st Instruction Execute
2nd Instruction Fetch
2nd Instruction Execute
3rd Instruction Fetch
3rd Instruction Execute
4th Instruction Fetch
T1 T2 T3 T4
CPU
Total Execution Time
Register Operands Fetch
ALU Operation Execute
Result Write Back
T1 T2 T3 T4
clkCPU
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6.8 Reset and Interrupt Handling
The AVR provides several different interrupt sources. These interrupts and the separate Reset
Vector each have a separate program vector in the program memory space. All interrupts are
assigned individual enable bits which must be written logic one together with the Global Interrupt
Enable bit in the Status Register in order to enable the interrupt. Depending on the Program
Counter value, interrupts may be automatically disabled when Boot Lock bits BLB02 or BLB12
are programmed. This feature improves software security. See the section “Memory Program-
ming” on page 246 for details.
The lowest addresses in the program memory space are by default defined as the Reset and
Interrupt Vectors. The complete list of vectors is shown in “Interrupts” on page 64. The list also
determines the priority levels of the different interrupts. The lower the address the higher is the
priority level. RESET has the highest priority, and next is INT0 – the External Interrupt Request
0. The Interrupt Vectors can be moved to the start of the Boot Flash section by setting the IVSEL
bit in the MCU Control Register (MCUCR). Refer to “Interrupts” on page 64 for more information.
The Reset Vector can also be moved to the start of the Boot Flash section by programming the
BOOTRST Fuse, see “Memory Programming” on page 246.
When an interrupt occurs, the Global Interrupt Enable I-bit is cleared and all interrupts are dis-
abled. The user software can write logic one to the I-bit to enable nested interrupts. All enabled
interrupts can then interrupt the current interrupt routine. The I-bit is automatically set when a
Return from Interrupt instruction – RETI – is executed.
There are basically two types of interrupts. The first type is triggered by an event that sets the
Interrupt Flag. For these interrupts, the Program Counter is vectored to the actual Interrupt Vec-
tor in order to execute the interrupt handling routine, and hardware clears the corresponding
Interrupt Flag. Interrupt Flags can also be cleared by writing a logic one to the flag bit position(s)
to be cleared. If an interrupt condition occurs while the corresponding interrupt enable bit is
cleared, the Interrupt Flag will be set and remembered until the interrupt is enabled, or the flag is
cleared by software. Similarly, if one or more interrupt conditions occur while the Global Interrupt
Enable bit is cleared, the corresponding Interrupt Flag(s) will be set and remembered until the
Global Interrupt Enable bit is set, and will then be executed by order of priority.
The second type of interrupts will trigger as long as the interrupt condition is present. These
interrupts do not necessarily have Interrupt Flags. If the interrupt condition disappears before the
interrupt is enabled, the interrupt will not be triggered.
When the AVR exits from an interrupt, it will always return to the main program and execute one
more instruction before any pending interrupt is served.
Note that the Status Register is not automatically stored when entering an interrupt routine, nor
restored when returning from an interrupt routine. This must be handled by software.
When using the CLI instruction to disable interrupts, the interrupts will be immediately disabled.
No interrupt will be executed after the CLI instruction, even if it occurs simultaneously with the
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CLI instruction. The following example shows how this can be used to avoid interrupts during the
timed EEPROM write sequence..
When using the SEI instruction to enable interrupts, the instruction following SEI will be exe-
cuted before any pending interrupts, as shown in this example.
Assembly Code Example
in r16, SREG ; store SREG value
cli ; disable interrupts during timed sequence
sbi EECR, EEMPE ; start EEPROM write
sbi EECR, EEPE
out SREG, r16 ; restore SREG value (I-bit)
C Code Example
char cSREG;
cSREG = SREG; /* store SREG value */
/* disable interrupts during timed sequence */
__disable_interrupt();
EECR |= (1<<EEMPE); /* start EEPROM write */
EECR |= (1<<EEPE);
SREG = cSREG; /* restore SREG value (I-bit) */
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6.8.1 Interrupt Response Time
The interrupt execution response for all the enabled AVR interrupts is five clock cycles minimum.
After five clock cycles the program vector address for the actual interrupt handling routine is exe-
cuted. During these five clock cycle period, the Program Counter is pushed onto the Stack. The
vector is normally a jump to the interrupt routine, and this jump takes three clock cycles. If an
interrupt occurs during execution of a multi-cycle instruction, this instruction is completed before
the interrupt is served. If an interrupt occurs when the MCU is in sleep mode, the interrupt exe-
cution response time is increased by five clock cycles. This increase comes in addition to the
start-up time from the selected sleep mode.
A return from an interrupt handling routine takes five clock cycles. During these five clock cycles,
the Program Counter (three bytes) is popped back from the Stack, the Stack Pointer is incre-
mented by three, and the I-bit in SREG is set.
Assembly Code Example
sei ; set Global Interrupt Enable
sleep; enter sleep, waiting for interrupt
; note: will enter sleep before any pending
; interrupt(s)
C Code Example
__enable_interrupt(); /* set Global Interrupt Enable */
__sleep(); /* enter sleep, waiting for interrupt */
/* note: will enter sleep before any pending interrupt(s) */
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7. AVR Memories
This section describes the different memories in the ATmega8U2/16U2/32U2. The AVR archi-
tecture has two main memory spaces, the Data Memory and the Program Memory space. In
addition, the ATmega8U2/16U2/32U2 features an EEPROM Memory for data storage. All three
memory spaces are linear and regular.
7.1 In-System Reprogrammable Flash Program Memory
The ATmega8U2/16U2/32U2 contains 8K/16K/32K bytes On-chip In-System Reprogrammable
Flash memory for program storage. Since all AVR instructions are 16 or 32 bits wide, the Flash
is organized as 4K x 16, 8K x 16. For software security, the Flash Program memory space is
divided into two sections, Boot Program section and Application Program section.
The Flash memory has an endurance of at least 100,000 write/erase cycles. The
ATmega8U2/16U2/32U2 Program Counter (PC) is 16 bits wide, thus addressing the
8K/16K/32K program memory locations. The operation of Boot Program section and associated
Boot Lock bits for software protection are described in detail in “Memory Programming” on page
246. “Memory Programming” on page 246 contains a detailed description on Flash data serial
downloading using the SPI pins or the debugWIRE interface.
Constant tables can be allocated within the entire program memory address space (see the LPM
– Load Program Memory instruction description and ELPM - Extended Load Program Memory
instruction description).
Timing diagrams for instruction fetch and execution are presented in “Instruction Execution Tim-
ing” on page 12.
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Figure 7-1. Program Memory Map
7.2 SRAM Data Memory
Figure 7-2 shows how the ATmega8U2/16U2/32U2 SRAM Memory is organized.
The ATmega8U2/16U2/32U2 is a complex microcontroller with more peripheral units than can
be supported within the 64 location reserved in the Opcode for the IN and OUT instructions. For
the Extended I/O space from $060 - $0FF in SRAM, only the ST/STS/STD and LD/LDS/LDD
instructions can be used.
The first 768 Data Memory locations address the Register File, the I/O Memory, Extended I/O
Memory, and the internal data SRAM. The first 32 locations address the Register file, the next
64 location the standard I/O Memory, then 160 locations of Extended I/O memory, and the 512
locations of internal data SRAM.The five different addressing modes for the data memory cover:
Direct, Indirect with Displacement, Indirect, Indirect with Pre-decrement, and Indirect with Post-
increment. In the Register file, registers R26 to R31 feature the indirect addressing pointer
registers.
The direct addressing reaches the entire data space.
The Indirect with Displacement mode reaches 63 address locations from the base address given
by the Y- or Z-register.
When using register indirect addressing modes with automatic pre-decrement and post-incre-
ment, the address registers X, Y, and Z are decremented or incremented.
0x00000
0x1FFF (8KBytes)
0x3FFF (16KBytes)
Program Memory
Application Flash Section
Boot Flash Section 0x7FFF (32KBytes)
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The 32 general purpose working registers, 64 I/O registers, and the 512/512/1024bytes of inter-
nal data SRAM in the ATmega8U2/16U2/32U2 are all accessible through all these addressing
modes. The Register File is described in “General Purpose Register File” on page 10.
Figure 7-2. Data Memory Map
7.2.1 Data Memory Access Times
This section describes the general access timing concepts for internal memory access. The
internal data SRAM access is performed in two clkCPU cycles as described in Figure 7-3.
Figure 7-3. On-chip Data SRAM Access Cycles
7.3 EEPROM Data Memory
The ATmega8U2/16U2/32U2 contains 512/512/1024 bytes of data EEPROM memory. It is orga-
nized as a separate data space, in which single bytes can be read and written. The EEPROM
has an endurance of at least 100,000 write/erase cycles. The access between the EEPROM and
the CPU is described in the following, specifying the EEPROM Address Registers, the EEPROM
Data Register, and the EEPROM Control Register.
32 Registers
64 I/O Registers
Internal SRAM
(512/512/1024 x 8)
$0000 - $001F
$0020 - $005F
$2FF/$2FF/$4FF (8U2/16U2/32U2)
$0060 - $00FF
Data Memory
160 Ext I/O Reg.
$0100
clk
WR
RD
Data
Data
Address Address valid
T1 T2 T3
Compute Address
Read Write
CPU
Memory Access Instruction Next Instruction
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For a detailed description of SPI, debugWIRE and Parallel data downloading to the EEPROM,
see page 259, page 244, and page 250 respectively.
7.3.1 EEPROM Read/Write Access
The EEPROM Access Registers are accessible in the I/O space.
The write access time for the EEPROM is given in Table 7-2 on page 22. A self-timing function,
however, lets the user software detect when the next byte can be written. If the user code con-
tains instructions that write the EEPROM, some precautions must be taken. In heavily filtered
power supplies, VCC is likely to rise or fall slowly on power-up/down. This causes the device for
some period of time to run at a voltage lower than specified as minimum for the clock frequency
used. See “Preventing EEPROM Corruption” on page 19. for details on how to avoid problems in
these situations.
In order to prevent unintentional EEPROM writes, a specific write procedure must be followed.
Refer to the description of the EEPROM Control Register for details on this.
When the EEPROM is read, the CPU is halted for four clock cycles before the next instruction is
executed. When the EEPROM is written, the CPU is halted for two clock cycles before the next
instruction is executed.
7.3.2 Preventing EEPROM Corruption
During periods of low VCC, the EEPROM data can be corrupted because the supply voltage is
too low for the CPU and the EEPROM to operate properly. These issues are the same as for
board level systems using EEPROM, and the same design solutions should be applied.
An EEPROM data corruption can be caused by two situations when the voltage is too low. First,
a regular write sequence to the EEPROM requires a minimum voltage to operate correctly. Sec-
ondly, the CPU itself can execute instructions incorrectly, if the supply voltage is too low.
EEPROM data corruption can easily be avoided by following this design recommendation:
Keep the AVR RESET active (low) during periods of insufficient power supply voltage. This can
be done by enabling the internal Brown-out Detector (BOD). If the detection level of the internal
BOD does not match the needed detection level, an external low VCC reset Protection circuit can
be used. If a reset occurs while a write operation is in progress, the write operation will be com-
pleted provided that the power supply voltage is sufficient.
7.4 I/O Memory
The I/O space definition of the ATmega8U2/16U2/32U2 is shown in “Register Summary” on
page 288.
All ATmega8U2/16U2/32U2 I/Os and peripherals are placed in the I/O space. All I/O locations
may be accessed by the LD/LDS/LDD and ST/STS/STD instructions, transferring data between
the 32 general purpose working registers and the I/O space. I/O Registers within the address
range 0x00 - 0x1F are directly bit-accessible using the SBI and CBI instructions. In these regis-
ters, the value of single bits can be checked by using the SBIS and SBIC instructions. Refer to
the instruction set section for more details. When using the I/O specific commands IN and OUT,
the I/O addresses 0x00 - 0x3F must be used. When addressing I/O Registers as data space
using LD and ST instructions, 0x20 must be added to these addresses. The
ATmega8U2/16U2/32U2 is a complex microcontroller with more peripheral units than can be
supported within the 64 location reserved in Opcode for the IN and OUT instructions. For the
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Extended I/O space from 0x60 - 0x1FF in SRAM, only the ST/STS/STD and LD/LDS/LDD
instructions can be used.
For compatibility with future devices, reserved bits should be written to zero if accessed.
Reserved I/O memory addresses should never be written.
Some of the Status Flags are cleared by writing a logical one to them. Note that, unlike most
other AVRs, the CBI and SBI instructions will only operate on the specified bit, and can therefore
be used on registers containing such Status Flags. The CBI and SBI instructions work with reg-
isters 0x00 to 0x1F only.
The I/O and peripherals control registers are explained in later sections.
7.4.1 General Purpose I/O Registers
The ATmega8U2/16U2/32U2 contains three General Purpose I/O Registers. These registers
can be used for storing any information, and they are particularly useful for storing global vari-
ables and Status Flags. General Purpose I/O Registers within the address range 0x00 - 0x1F
are directly bit-accessible using the SBI, CBI, SBIS, and SBIC instructions.
7.5 Register Description
7.5.1 EEARH and EEARL – The EEPROM Address Register
Bits 15:12 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved and will always read as zero.
Bits 11:0 – EEAR[8:0]: EEPROM Address
The EEPROM Address Registers – EEARH and EEARL specify the EEPROM address in the
512 bytes EEPROM space. The EEPROM data bytes are addressed linearly between 0 and
512. The initial value of EEAR is undefined. A proper value must be written before the EEPROM
may be accessed.
7.5.2 EEDR – The EEPROM Data Register
Bits 7:0 – EEDR[7:0]: EEPROM Data
For the EEPROM write operation, the EEDR Register contains the data to be written to the
EEPROM in the address given by the EEAR Register. For the EEPROM read operation, the
EEDR contains the data read out from the EEPROM at the address given by EEAR.
Bit 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8
0x22 (0x42) – – – – EEAR11 EEAR10 EEAR9 EEAR8 EEARH
0x21 (0x41) EEAR7 EEAR6 EEAR5 EEAR4 EEAR3 EEAR2 EEAR1 EEAR0 EEARL
76543 210
Read/Write R R R R R/W R/W R/W R/W
R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W
Initial Value 0 0 0 0 X X X X
XXXX X X XX
Bit 76543210
0x20 (0x40) MSB LSB EEDR
Read/Write R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W
Initial Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
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7.5.3 EECR – The EEPROM Control Register
Bits 7:6 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits and will always read as zero.
Bits 5, 4 – EEPM1 and EEPM0: EEPROM Programming Mode Bits
The EEPROM Programming mode bit setting defines which programming action that will be trig-
gered when writing EEPE. It is possible to program data in one atomic operation (erase the old
value and program the new value) or to split the Erase and Write operations in two different
operations. The Programming times for the different modes are shown in Table 7-1. While EEPE
is set, any write to EEPMn will be ignored. During reset, the EEPMn bits will be reset to 0b00
unless the EEPROM is busy programming.
Bit 3 – EERIE: EEPROM Ready Interrupt Enable
Writing EERIE to one enables the EEPROM Ready Interrupt if the I bit in SREG is set. Writing
EERIE to zero disables the interrupt. The EEPROM Ready interrupt generates a constant inter-
rupt when EEPE is cleared.
Bit 2 – EEMPE: EEPROM Master Programming Enable
The EEMPE bit determines whether setting EEPE to one causes the EEPROM to be written.
When EEMPE is set, setting EEPE within four clock cycles will write data to the EEPROM at the
selected address If EEMPE is zero, setting EEPE will have no effect. When EEMPE has been
written to one by software, hardware clears the bit to zero after four clock cycles. See the
description of the EEPE bit for an EEPROM write procedure.
Bit 1 – EEPE: EEPROM Programming Enable
The EEPROM Write Enable Signal EEPE is the write strobe to the EEPROM. When address
and data are correctly set up, the EEPE bit must be written to one to write the value into the
EEPROM. The EEMPE bit must be written to one before a logical one is written to EEPE, other-
wise no EEPROM write takes place. The following procedure should be followed when writing
the EEPROM (the order of steps 3 and 4 is not essential):
Bit 76543210
0x1F (0x3F) EEPM1 EEPM0 EERIE EEMPE EEPE EERE EECR
Read/Write R R R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W
Initial Value 0 0 X X 0 0 X 0
Table 7-1. EEPROM Mode Bits
EEPM1 EEPM0 Programming
Time Operation
0 0 3.4 ms Erase and Write in one operation (Atomic Operation)
0 1 1.8 ms Erase Only
1 0 1.8 ms Write Only
1 1 Reserved for future use
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1. Wait until EEPE becomes zero.
2. Wait until SELFPRGEN in SPMCSR becomes zero.
3. Write new EEPROM address to EEAR (optional).
4. Write new EEPROM data to EEDR (optional).
5. Write a logical one to the EEMPE bit while writing a zero to EEPE in EECR.
6. Within four clock cycles after setting EEMPE, write a logical one to EEPE.
The EEPROM can not be programmed during a CPU write to the Flash memory. The software
must check that the Flash programming is completed before initiating a new EEPROM write.
Step 2 is only relevant if the software contains a Boot Loader allowing the CPU to program the
Flash. If the Flash is never being updated by the CPU, step 2 can be omitted. See “Memory Pro-
gramming” on page 246 for details about Boot programming.
Caution: An interrupt between step 5 and step 6 will make the write cycle fail, since the
EEPROM Master Write Enable will time-out. If an interrupt routine accessing the EEPROM is
interrupting another EEPROM access, the EEAR or EEDR Register will be modified, causing the
interrupted EEPROM access to fail. It is recommended to have the Global Interrupt Flag cleared
during all the steps to avoid these problems.
When the write access time has elapsed, the EEPE bit is cleared by hardware. The user soft-
ware can poll this bit and wait for a zero before writing the next byte. When EEPE has been set,
the CPU is halted for two cycles before the next instruction is executed.
Bit 0 – EERE: EEPROM Read Enable
The EEPROM Read Enable Signal EERE is the read strobe to the EEPROM. When the correct
address is set up in the EEAR Register, the EERE bit must be written to a logic one to trigger the
EEPROM read. The EEPROM read access takes one instruction, and the requested data is
available immediately. When the EEPROM is read, the CPU is halted for four cycles before the
next instruction is executed.
The user should poll the EEPE bit before starting the read operation. If a write operation is in
progress, it is neither possible to read the EEPROM, nor to change the EEAR Register.
The calibrated Oscillator is used to time the EEPROM accesses. Table 7-2 lists the typical pro-
gramming time for EEPROM access from the CPU.
The following code examples show one assembly and one C function for writing to the
EEPROM. The examples assume that interrupts are controlled (e.g. by disabling interrupts glob-
ally) so that no interrupts will occur during execution of these functions. The examples also
assume that no Flash Boot Loader is present in the software. If such code is present, the
EEPROM write function must also wait for any ongoing SPM command to finish.
Table 7-2. EEPROM Programming Time
Symbol Number of Calibrated RC Oscillator Cycles Typ Programming Time
EEPROM write
(from CPU) 26,368 3.3 ms
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Note: 1. See “Code Examples” on page 6.
Assembly Code Example(1)
EEPROM_write:
; Wait for completion of previous write
sbic EECR,EEPE
rjmp EEPROM_write
; Set up address (r18:r17) in address register
out EEARH, r18
out EEARL, r17
; Write data (r16) to Data Register
out EEDR,r16
; Write logical one to EEMPE
sbi EECR,EEMPE
; Start eeprom write by setting EEPE
sbi EECR,EEPE
ret
C Code Example(1)
void EEPROM_write(unsigned int uiAddress, unsigned char ucData)
{
/* Wait for completion of previous write */
while(EECR & (1<<EEPE))
;
/* Set up address and Data Registers */
EEAR = uiAddress;
EEDR = ucData;
/* Write logical one to EEMPE */
EECR |= (1<<EEMPE);
/* Start eeprom write by setting EEPE */
EECR |= (1<<EEPE);
}
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The next code examples show assembly and C functions for reading the EEPROM. The exam-
ples assume that interrupts are controlled so that no interrupts will occur during execution of
these functions.
Note: 1. See “Code Examples” on page 6.
7.5.4 GPIOR2 – General Purpose I/O Register 2
7.5.5 GPIOR1 – General Purpose I/O Register 1
Assembly Code Example(1)
EEPROM_read:
; Wait for completion of previous write
sbic EECR,EEPE
rjmp EEPROM_read
; Set up address (r18:r17) in address register
out EEARH, r18
out EEARL, r17
; Start eeprom read by writing EERE
sbi EECR,EERE
; Read data from Data Register
in r16,EEDR
ret
C Code Example(1)
unsigned char EEPROM_read(unsigned int uiAddress)
{
/* Wait for completion of previous write */
while(EECR & (1<<EEPE))
;
/* Set up address register */
EEAR = uiAddress;
/* Start eeprom read by writing EERE */
EECR |= (1<<EERE);
/* Return data from Data Register */
return EEDR;
}
Bit 76543210
0x2B (0x4B) MSB LSB GPIOR2
Read/Write R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W
Initial Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Bit 76543210
0x2A (0x4A) MSB LSB GPIOR1
Read/Write R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W
Initial Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
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7.5.6 GPIOR0 – General Purpose I/O Register 0
Bit 76543210
0x1E (0x3E) MSB LSB GPIOR0
Read/Write R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W
Initial Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
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8. System Clock and Clock Options
8.1 Clock Systems and their Distribution
Figure 8-1 presents the principal clock systems in the AVR and their distribution. All of the clocks
need not be active at a given time. In order to reduce power consumption, the clocks to modules
not being used can be halted by using different sleep modes, as described in “Power Manage-
ment and Sleep Modes” on page 42. The clock systems are detailed below.
Figure 8-1. Clock Distribution
8.1.1 CPU Clock – clkCPU
The CPU clock is routed to parts of the system concerned with operation of the AVR core.
Examples of such modules are the General Purpose Register File, the Status Register and the
data memory holding the Stack Pointer. Halting the CPU clock inhibits the core from performing
general operations and calculations.
8.1.2 I/O Clock – clkI/O
The I/O clock is used by the majority of the I/O modules, like Timer/Counters, SPI, and USART.
The I/O clock is also used by the External Interrupt module, but note that some external inter-
rupts are detected by asynchronous logic, allowing such interrupts to be detected even if the I/O
clock is halted.
8.1.3 Flash Clock – clkFLASH
The Flash clock controls operation of the Flash interface. The Flash clock is usually active simul-
taneously with the CPU clock.
General I/O
Modules CPU Core RAM
clk
I/O
AVR Clock
Control Unit
clk
CPU
Flash and
EEPROM
clk
FLASH
Source clock
Watchdog TimerReset Logic
Clock
Multiplexer
Watchdog clock
Calibrated RC
Oscillator
System Clock
Prescaler
Watchdog
Oscillator
USB
clk
USB (48MHz)
PLL Clock
Prescaler
clk
Pllin (8MHz)
USB PLL
X6
clk
XTAL (2-16 MHz)
Crystal
Oscillator
External
Clock
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8.1.4 USB Clock – clkUSB
The USB is provided with a dedicated clock domain. This clock is generated with an on-chip PLL
running at 48 MHz. The PLL always multiply its input frequency by 6. Thus the PLL clock register
should be programmed by software to generate a 8 MHz clock on the PLL input.
8.2 Clock Switch
In the ATmega8U2/16U2/32U2 product, the Clock Multiplexer and the System Clock Prescaler
can be modified by software.
8.2.1 Exemple of use
The modification can occur when the device enters in USB Suspend mode. It then switches from
External Clock to Calibrated RC Oscillator in order to reduce consumption. In such a configura-
tion, the External Clock is disabled.
The firmware can use the watchdog timer to be woken-up from power-down in order to check if
there is an event on the application.
If an event occurs on the application or if the USB controller signals a non-idle state on the USB
line (Resume for example), the firmware switches the Clock Multiplexer from the Calibrated RC
Oscillator to the External Clock.
Figure 8-2. Example of clock switching with wake-up from USB Host
USB
CPU Clock
External
Oscillator
RC oscillator
Ext RC Ext
non-Idle Idle (Suspend) non-Idle
3ms
resume
1
1Resume from Host
Watchdog wake-up
from power-down
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Figure 8-3. Example of clock switching with wake-up from Device
8.2.2 Clock switch Algorythm
8.2.2.1 Swith from external clock to RC clock
if (Usb_suspend_detected()) // if (UDINT.SUSPI == 1)
{
Usb_ack_suspend(); // UDINT.SUSPI = 0;
Usb_freeze_clock(); // USBCON.FRZCLK = 1;
Disable_pll(); // PLLCSR.PLLE = 0;
Enable_RC_clock(); // CLKSEL0.RCE = 1;
while (!RC_clock_ready()); // while (CLKSTA.RCON != 1);
Select_RC_clock(); // CLKSEL0.CLKS = 0;
Disable_external_clock(); // CLKSEL0.EXTE = 0;
}
8.2.2.2 Switch from RC clock to external clock
if (Usb_wake_up_detected()) // if (UDINT.WAKEUPI == 1)
{
Usb_ack_wake_up(); // UDINT.WAKEUPI = 0;
Enable_external_clock(); // CKSEL0.EXTE = 1;
while (!External_clock_ready()); // while (CLKSTA.EXTON != 1);
Select_external_clock(); // CLKSEL0.CLKS = 1;
Enable_pll(); // PLLCSR.PLLE = 1;
Disable_RC_clock(); // CLKSEL0.RCE = 0;
while (!Pll_ready()); // while (PLLCSR.PLOCK != 1);
Usb_unfreeze_clock(); // USBCON.FRZCLK = 0;
}
USB
CPU Clock
External
Oscillator
RC oscillator
Ext RC Ext
non-Idle Idle (Suspend) non-Idle
3ms
upstream-resume
2
2Upstream Resume from device
Watchdog wake-up
from power-down
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8.3 Clock Sources
The device has the following clock source options, selectable by Flash Fuse bits as shown
below. The clock from the selected source is input to the AVR clock generator, and routed to the
appropriate modules.
Note: 1. For all fuses “1” means unprogrammed while “0” means programmed.
8.3.1 Default Clock Source
The device is shipped with internal RC oscillator at 8.0 MHz and with the fuse CKDIV8 pro-
grammed, resulting in 1.0 MHz system clock. The startup time is set to maximum and time-out
period enabled. (CKSEL = "0010", SUT = "10", CKDIV8 = "0"). The default setting ensures that
all users can make their desired clock source setting using any available programming interface.
8.3.2 Clock Startup Sequence
Any clock source needs a sufficient VCC to start oscillating and a minimum number of oscillating
cycles before it can be considered stable.
To ensure sufficient VCC, the device issues an internal reset with a time-out delay (tTOUT) after
the device reset is released by all other reset sources. “On-chip Debug System” on page 45
describes the start conditions for the internal reset. The delay (tTOUT) is timed from the Watchdog
Oscillator and the number of cycles in the delay is set by the SUTx and CKSELx fuse bits. The
selectable delays are shown in Table 8-2. The frequency of the Watchdog Oscillator is voltage
dependent as shown in “Typical Characteristics” on page 273.
Main purpose of the delay is to keep the AVR in reset until it is supplied with minimum Vcc. The
delay will not monitor the actual voltage and it will be required to select a delay longer than the
Vcc rise time. If this is not possible, an internal or external Brown-Out Detection circuit should be
used. A BOD circuit will ensure sufficient Vcc before it releases the reset, and the time-out delay
can be disabled. Disabling the time-out delay without utilizing a Brown-Out Detection circuit is
not recommended.
Table 8-1. Device Clocking Options Select(1)
Device Clocking Option CKSEL3:0
Low Power Crystal Oscillator 1111 - 1000
Full Swing Crystal Oscillator 0111 - 0110
Reserved 0101 - 0100
Reserved 0011
Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator 0010
External Clock 0000
Reserved 0001
Table 8-2. Number of Watchdog Oscillator Cycles
Typ Time-out (VCC = 5.0V) Typ Time-out (VCC = 3.0V) Number of Cycles
0 ms 0 ms 0
4.1 ms 4.3 ms 512
65 ms 69 ms 8K (8,192)
C2 ‘ lDT C1 ‘ .1 mg
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The oscillator is required to oscillate for a minimum number of cycles before the clock is consid-
ered stable. An internal ripple counter monitors the oscillator output clock, and keeps the internal
reset active for a given number of clock cycles. The reset is then released and the device will
start to execute. The recommended oscillator start-up time is dependent on the clock type, and
varies from 6 cycles for an externally applied clock to 32K cycles for a low frequency crystal.
The start-up sequence for the clock includes both the time-out delay and the start-up time when
the device starts up from reset. When starting up from Power-save or Power-down mode, Vcc is
assumed to be at a sufficient level and only the start-up time is included.
8.4 Low Power Crystal Oscillator
Pins XTAL1 and XTAL2 are input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifier which can be
configured for use as an On-chip Oscillator, as shown in Figure 8-4. Either a quartz crystal or a
ceramic resonator may be used.
This Crystal Oscillator is a low power oscillator, with reduced voltage swing on the XTAL2 out-
put. It gives the lowest power consumption, but is not capable of driving other clock inputs, and
may be more susceptible to noise in noisy environments.
C1 and C2 should always be equal for both crystals and resonators. The optimal value of the
capacitors depends on the crystal or resonator in use, the amount of stray capacitance, and the
electromagnetic noise of the environment. Some initial guidelines for choosing capacitors for
use with crystals are given in Table 8-3. For ceramic resonators, the capacitor values given by
the manufacturer should be used.
Figure 8-4. Crystal Oscillator Connections
The Low Power Oscillator can operate in three different modes, each optimized for a specific fre-
quency range. The operating mode is selected by the fuses CKSEL3..1 as shown in Table 8-3.
Notes: 1. The frequency ranges are preliminary values. Actual values are TBD.
2. This option should not be used with crystals, only with ceramic resonators.
Table 8-3. Low Power Crystal Oscillator Operating Modes(3)
Frequency Range(1) (MHz) CKSEL3..1 Recommended Range for Capacitors C1
and C2 (pF)
0.4 - 0.9 100(2)
0.9 - 3.0 101 12 - 22
3.0 - 8.0 110 12 - 22
8.0 - 16.0 111 12 - 22
XTAL2
XTAL1
GND
C2
C1
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3. If 8 MHz frequency exceeds the specification of the device (depends on VCC), the CKDIV8
Fuse can be programmed in order to divide the internal frequency by 8. It must be ensured
that the resulting divided clock meets the frequency specification of the device.
The CKSEL0 Fuse together with the SUT1..0 Fuses select the start-up times as shown in Table
8-4.
Notes: 1. These options should only be used when not operating close to the maximum frequency of the
device, and only if frequency stability at start-up is not important for the application. These
options are not suitable for crystals.
2. These options are intended for use with ceramic resonators and will ensure frequency stability
at start-up. They can also be used with crystals when not operating close to the maximum fre-
quency of the device, and if frequency stability at start-up is not important for the application.
Note: 1. The device is shipped with this option selected.
Table 8-4. Start-up Times for the Low Power Crystal Oscillator Clock Selection
Oscillator Source /
Power Conditions
Start-up Time from
Power-down and
Power-save
Additional Delay
from Reset
(VCC = 5.0V) CKSEL0 SUT1..0
Ceramic resonator, fast
rising power 258 CK 14CK + 4.1 ms(1) 000
Ceramic resonator, slowly
rising power 258 CK 14CK + 65 ms(1) 001
Ceramic resonator, BOD
enabled 1K CK 14CK(2) 010
Ceramic resonator, fast
rising power 1K CK 14CK + 4.1 ms(2) 011
Ceramic resonator, slowly
rising power 1K CK 14CK + 65 ms(2) 100
Crystal Oscillator, BOD
enabled 16K CK 14CK 1 01
Crystal Oscillator, fast
rising power 16K CK 14CK + 4.1 ms 1 10
Crystal Oscillator, slowly
rising power 16K CK 14CK + 65 ms 1 11
Table 8-5. Start-up times for the internal calibrated RC Oscillator clock selection
Power Conditions Start-up Time from Power-
down and Power-save Additional Delay from
Reset (VCC = 5.0V) SUT1..0
BOD enabled 6 CK 14CK 00
Fast rising power 6 CK 14CK + 4.1 ms 01
Slowly rising power 6 CK 14CK + 65 ms(1) 10
Reserved 11
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8.5 Full Swing Crystal Oscillator
Pins XTAL1 and XTAL2 are input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifier which can be
configured for use as an On-chip Oscillator, as shown in Figure 8-4. Either a quartz crystal or a
ceramic resonator may be used.
This Crystal Oscillator is a full swing oscillator, with rail-to-rail swing on the XTAL2 output. This is
useful for driving other clock inputs and in noisy environments. The current consumption is
higher than the “Low Power Crystal Oscillator” on page 30. Note that the Full Swing Crystal
Oscillator will only operate for VCC = 2.7 - 5.5 volts.
C1 and C2 should always be equal for both crystals and resonators. The optimal value of the
capacitors depends on the crystal or resonator in use, the amount of stray capacitance, and the
electromagnetic noise of the environment. Some initial guidelines for choosing capacitors for
use with crystals are given in Table 1. For ceramic resonators, the capacitor values given by the
manufacturer should be used.
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Notes: 1. These options should only be used when not operating close to the maximum frequency of the
device, and only if frequency stability at start-up is not important for the application. These
options are not suitable for crystals.
They can also be used with crystals when not operating close to the maximum frequency of the device, and
if frequency stability at start-up is not important for the application.
8.6 Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator
By default, the Internal RC Oscillator provides an approximate 8 MHz clock. Though voltage and
temperature dependent, this clock can be very accurately calibrated by the the user. See Table
26-1 on page 266 for more details. The device is shipped with the CKDIV8 Fuse programmed.
See “System Clock Prescaler” on page 35 for more details.
This clock may be selected as the system clock by programming the CKSEL Fuses as shown in
Table 8-6. If selected, it will operate with no external components. During reset, hardware loads
the pre-programmed calibration value into the OSCCAL Register and thereby automatically cal-
ibrates the RC Oscillator. The accuracy of this calibration is shown as Factory calibration in
Table 26-1 on page 266.
By changing the OSCCAL register from SW, see “OSCCAL – Oscillator Calibration Register” on
page 38, it is possible to get a higher calibration accuracy than by using the factory calibration.
The accuracy of this calibration is shown as User calibration in Table 26-1 on page 266.
When this Oscillator is used as the chip clock, the Watchdog Oscillator will still be used for the
Watchdog Timer and for the Reset Time-out. For more information on the pre-programmed cali-
bration value, see the section “Calibration Byte” on page 249.
Table 1. Start-up Times for the Full Swing Crystal Oscillator Clock Selection
Oscillator Source /
Power Conditions
Start-up Time from
Power-down and
Power-save
Additional Delay
from Reset
(VCC = 5.0V) CKSEL0 SUT1..0
Ceramic resonator, fast
rising power
258 CK 14CK + 4.1 ms(1) 000
Ceramic resonator,
slowly rising power
258 CK 14CK + 65 ms(1) 001
Ceramic resonator,
BOD enabled
1K CK 14CK(2) 010
Ceramic resonator, fast
rising power
1K CK 14CK + 4.1 ms(2) 011
Ceramic resonator,
slowly rising power
1K CK 14CK + 65 ms(2) 100
Crystal Oscillator, BOD
enabled
16K CK 14CK 101
Crystal Oscillator, fast
rising power
16K CK 14CK + 4.1 ms 110
Crystal Oscillator,
slowly rising power
16K CK 14CK + 65 ms 111
Table 8-6. Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator Operating Modes(3)
Frequency Range(2) (MHz) CKSEL3..0
7.3 - 8.1 0010(1)
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Notes: 1. The device is shipped with this option selected.
2. The frequency ranges are preliminary values. Actual values are TBD.
3. If 8 MHz frequency exceeds the specification of the device (depends on VCC), the CKDIV8
Fuse can be programmed in order to divide the internal frequency by 8.
When this Oscillator is selected, start-up times are determined by the SUT Fuses as shown in
Table 8-5 on page 31.
Note: 1. The device is shipped with this option selected.
Table 8-7. Start-up times for the internal calibrated RC Oscillator clock selection
Power Conditions Start-up Time from Power-
down and Power-save Additional Delay from
Reset (VCC = 5.0V) SUT1..0
BOD enabled 6 CK 14 CK 00
Fast rising power 6 CK 14 CK + 4.1 ms 01
Slowly rising power 6 CK 14 CK + 65 ms(1) 10
Reserved 11
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8.7 External Clock
The device can utilize a external clock source as shown in Figure 8-5. To run the device on an
external clock, the CKSEL Fuses must be programmed as shown in Table 8-1.
Figure 8-5. External Clock Drive Configuration
When this clock source is selected, start-up times are determined by the SUT Fuses as shown in
Table 8-8.
When applying an external clock, it is required to avoid sudden changes in the applied clock fre-
quency to ensure stable operation of the MCU. A variation in frequency of more than 2% from
one clock cycle to the next can lead to unpredictable behavior. If changes of more than 2% is
required, ensure that the MCU is kept in Reset during the changes.
Note that the System Clock Prescaler can be used to implement run-time changes of the internal
clock frequency while still ensuring stable operation. Refer to “System Clock Prescaler” on page
35 for details.
8.8 Clock Output Buffer
The device can output the system clock on the CLKO pin. To enable the output, the CKOUT
Fuse has to be programmed. This mode is suitable when the chip clock is used to drive other cir-
cuits on the system. The clock also will be output during reset, and the normal operation of I/O
pin will be overridden when the fuse is programmed. Any clock source, including the internal RC
Oscillator, can be selected when the clock is output on CLKO. If the System Clock Prescaler is
used, it is the divided system clock that is output.
8.9 System Clock Prescaler
The ATmega8U2/16U2/32U2 has a system clock prescaler, and the system clock can be divided
by setting the “CLKPR – Clock Prescale Register” on page 39. This feature can be used to
Table 8-8. Start-up Times for the External Clock Selection
Power Conditions Start-up Time from Power-
down and Power-save Additional Delay from
Reset (VCC = 5.0V) SUT1..0
BOD enabled 6 CK 14CK 00
Fast rising power 6 CK 14CK + 4.1 ms 01
Slowly rising power 6 CK 14CK + 65 ms 10
Reserved 11
NC
EXTERNAL
CLOCK
SIGNAL
XTAL2
XTAL1
GND
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decrease the system clock frequency and the power consumption when the requirement for pro-
cessing power is low. This can be used with all clock source options, and it will affect the clock
frequency of the CPU and all synchronous peripherals. clkI/O, clkCPU, and clkFLASH are divided by
a factor as shown in Table 8-9 on page 40.
When switching between prescaler settings, the System Clock Prescaler ensures that no
glitches occurs in the clock system. It also ensures that no intermediate frequency is higher than
neither the clock frequency corresponding to the previous setting, nor the clock frequency corre-
sponding to the new setting.
The ripple counter that implements the prescaler runs at the frequency of the undivided clock,
which may be faster than the CPU's clock frequency. Hence, it is not possible to determine the
state of the prescaler - even if it were readable, and the exact time it takes to switch from one
clock division to the other cannot be exactly predicted. From the time the CLKPS values are writ-
ten, it takes between T1 + T2 and T1 + 2 * T2 before the new clock frequency is active. In this
interval, 2 active clock edges are produced. Here, T1 is the previous clock period, and T2 is the
period corresponding to the new prescaler setting.
To avoid unintentional changes of clock frequency, a special write procedure must be followed
to change the CLKPS bits:
1. Write the Clock Prescaler Change Enable (CLKPCE) bit to one and all other bits in
CLKPR to zero.
2. Within four cycles, write the desired value to CLKPS while writing a zero to CLKPCE.
Interrupts must be disabled when changing prescaler setting to make sure the write procedure is
not interrupted.
8.10 PLL
The PLL is used to generate internal high frequency (48 MHz) clock for USB interface, the PLL
input is generated from an external low-frequency (the crystal oscillator or external clock input
pin from XTAL1).
8.10.1 Internal PLL for USB interface
The internal PLL in ATmega8U2/16U2/32U2 generates a clock frequency that is 6x multiplied
from nominally 8 MHz input. The source of the 8 MHz PLL input clock is the output of the internal
PLL clock prescaler that generates the 8 MHz.
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Figure 8-6. PLL Clocking System
8.11 Register Description
8.11.1 CLKSEL0 – Clock Selection Register 0
Bit 7:6 – RCSUT[1:0]: SUT for RC oscillator
These 2 bits are the SUT value for the RC Oscillator. If the RC oscillator is selected by fuse bits,
the SUT fuse are copied into these bits. A firmware change will not have any effect because this
additionnal start-up time is only used after a reset and not after a clock switch.
Bit 5:4 – EXSUT[1:0]: SUT for External Oscillator / Low Power Oscillator
These 2 bits are the SUT value for the External Oscillator / Low Power Oscillator. If the External
oscillator / Low Power Oscillator is selected by fuse bits, the SUT fuse are copyed into these
bits. The firmware can modify these bits by writing a new value. This value will be used at the
next start of the External Oscillator / Low Power Oscillator.
Bit 3 – RCE: Enable RC Oscillator
The RCE bit must be written to logic one to enable the RC Oscillator. The RCE bit must be writ-
ten to logic zero to disable the RC Oscillator.
Bit 2 – EXTE: Enable External Oscillator / Low Power Oscillator
The OSCE bit must be written to logic one to enable External Oscillator / Low Power Oscillator.
The OSCE bit must be written to logic zero to disable the External Oscillator / Low Power
Oscillator.
Bit 0 – CLKS: Clock Selector
The CLKS bit must be written to logic one to select the External Oscillator / Low Power Oscillator
as CPU clock. The CLKS bit must be written to logic zero to select the RC Oscillator as CPU
clock. After a reset, the CLKS bit is set by hardware if the External Oscillator / Low Power Oscil-
8 MHz
RC OSCILLATOR
XTAL1
XTAL2
XTAL
OSCILLATOR
PLL
PLLE
Lock
Detector
TclkTimer1
To System
Clock Prescaler
clk
8MHz
PLL clock
Prescaler
PINDIV
PDIV3..0
clkUSB
/2
/48
PLLITM
PLLUSB
0
1
0
1
CKSEL3:0
PLOCK
T1
Bit 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
(0xD0) RCSUT1 RCSUT0 EXSUT1 EXSUT0 RCE EXTE - CLKS CLKSEL0
Read/Write R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R R/W
Initial Value 0 0 0 0 See Bit Description
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lator is selected by the fuse bits configuration. The firmware has to check if the clock is correctly
started before selected it.
8.11.2 CLKSEL1 – Clock Selection Register 1
Bit 7:4 – RCCKSEL[3:0]: CKSEL for RC oscillator
Clock configuration for the RC Oscillator. After a reset, this part of the register is loaded with the
0010b value that corresponds to the RC oscillator. Modifying this value by firmware before
switching to RC oscillator is prohibited because the RC clock will not start.
Bit 3:0 – EXCKSEL[3:0]: CKSEL for External oscillator / Low Power Oscillator
Clock configuration for the External Oscillator / Low Power Oscillator. After a reset, if the Exter-
nal oscillator / Low Power Oscillator is selected by fuse bits, this part of the register is loaded
with the fuse configuration. Firmware can modify it to change the start-up time after the clock
switch.
8.11.3 CLKSTA – Clock Status Register
Bit 7:2 - Res: Reserved bits
These bits are reserved and will always read as zero.
Bit 1 – RCON: RC Oscillator On
This bit is set by hardware to one if the RC Oscillator is running.
This bit is set by hardware to zero if the RC Oscillator is stoped.
Bit 0 – EXTON: External Oscillator / Low Power Oscillator On
This bit is set by hardware to one if the External Oscillator / Low Power Oscillator is running.
This bit is set by hardware to zero if the External Oscillator / Low Power Oscillator is stoped.
8.11.4 OSCCAL – Oscillator Calibration Register
Bits 7:0 – CAL[7:0]: Oscillator Calibration Value
The Oscillator Calibration Register is used to trim the Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator to
remove process variations from the oscillator frequency. A pre-programmed calibration value is
automatically written to this register during chip reset, giving the Factory calibrated frequency as
specified in Table 26-1 on page 266. The application software can write this register to change
Bit 76543210
(0xD1) RCCKSE
L3 RCCKSE
L2 RCCKSE
L1 RCCKSE
L0 EXCKSE
L3 EXCKSE
L2 EXCKSE
L1 EXCKSE
L0 CLKSEL1
Read/Write R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W
Initial Value 0 0 1 0 0000
Bit 76543210
(0xD2) - - - - - - RCON EXTON CLKSTA
Read/Write R R R R R R R R
Initial Value 0 0 0 0 See Bit Description
Bit 76543210
(0x66) CAL7 CAL6 CAL5 CAL4 CAL3 CAL2 CAL1 CAL0 OSCCAL
Read/Write R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W
Initial Value Device Specific Calibration Value
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the oscillator frequency. The oscillator can be calibrated to frequencies as specified in Table 26-
1 on page 266. Calibration outside that range is not guaranteed.
Note that this oscillator is used to time EEPROM and Flash write accesses, and these write
times will be affected accordingly. If the EEPROM or Flash are written, do not calibrate to more
than 8.8 MHz. Otherwise, the EEPROM or Flash write may fail.
The CAL7 bit determines the range of operation for the oscillator. Setting this bit to 0 gives the
lowest frequency range, setting this bit to 1 gives the highest frequency range. The two fre-
quency ranges are overlapping, in other words a setting of OSCCAL = 0x7F gives a higher
frequency than OSCCAL = 0x80.
The CAL[6:0] bits are used to tune the frequency within the selected range. A setting of 0x00
gives the lowest frequency in that range, and a setting of 0x7F gives the highest frequency in the
range.
8.11.5 CLKPR – Clock Prescale Register
Bit 7 – CLKPCE: Clock Prescaler Change Enable
The CLKPCE bit must be written to logic one to enable change of the CLKPS bits. The CLKPCE
bit is only updated when the other bits in CLKPR are simultaneously written to zero. CLKPCE is
cleared by hardware four cycles after it is written or when CLKPS bits are written. Rewriting the
CLKPCE bit within this time-out period does neither extend the time-out period, nor clear the
CLKPCE bit.
Bit 6:4 - Reserved bits
These bits are reserved and will always read as zero.
Bits 3:0 – CLKPS[3:0]: Clock Prescaler Select Bits 3 - 0
These bits define the division factor between the selected clock source and the internal system
clock. These bits can be written run-time to vary the clock frequency to suit the application
requirements. As the divider divides the master clock input to the MCU, the speed of all synchro-
nous peripherals is reduced when a division factor is used. The division factors are given in
Table 8-9.
The CKDIV8 Fuse determines the initial value of the CLKPS bits. If CKDIV8 is unprogrammed,
the CLKPS bits will be reset to “0000”. If CKDIV8 is programmed, CLKPS bits are reset to
“0011”, giving a division factor of 8 at start up. This feature should be used if the selected clock
source has a higher frequency than the maximum frequency of the device at the present operat-
ing conditions. Note that any value can be written to the CLKPS bits regardless of the CKDIV8
Fuse setting. The Application software must ensure that a sufficient division factor is chosen if
the selected clock source has a higher frequency than the maximum frequency of the device at
the present operating conditions. The device is shipped with the CKDIV8 Fuse programmed.
Bit 76543210
(0x61) CLKPCE CLKPS3 CLKPS2 CLKPS1 CLKPS0 CLKPR
Read/Write R/W R R R R/W R/W R/W R/W
Initial Value 0 0 0 0 See Bit Description
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8.11.6 PLLCSR – PLL Control and Status Register
Bit 7:5 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits in the ATmega8U2/16U2/32U2 and always read as zero.
Bit 4 – DIV5 PLL Input Prescaler (1:5)
Bit 3 – DIV3 PLL Input Prescaler (1:3)
Bit 2 – PINDIV PLL Input Prescaler (1:1, 1:2)
These bits allow to configure the PLL input prescaler to generate the 8MHz input clock for the
PLL from either a 8 or 16 MHz input.
When using a 8 MHz clock source, this bit must be set to 0 before enabling PLL (1:1).
When using a 16 MHz clock source, this bit must be set to 1 before enabling PLL (1:2).
Bit 3:2 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved and always read as zero.
Table 8-9. Clock Prescaler Select
CLKPS3 CLKPS2 CLKPS1 CLKPS0 Clock Division Factor
0000 1
0001 2
0010 4
0011 8
0100 16
0101 32
0110 64
0111 128
1000 256
1 0 0 1 Reserved
1 0 1 0 Reserved
1 0 1 1 Reserved
1 1 0 0 Reserved
1 1 0 1 Reserved
1 1 1 0 Reserved
1 1 1 1 Reserved
Bit 76543210
0x29 (0x49) DIV5 DIV3 PINDIV PLLE PLOCK PLLCSR
Read/Write R R R R/W R R R/W R
Initial Value 0 0 000000
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Bit 1 – PLLE: PLL Enable
When the PLLE is set, the PLL is started. Note that the Calibrated 8 MHz Internal RC oscillator is
automatically enabled when the PLLE bit is set and with PINMUX (see PLLFRQ register) is set.
The PLL must be disabled before entering Power down mode in order to stop Internal RC Oscil-
lator and avoid extra-consumption.
Bit 0 – PLOCK: PLL Lock Detector
When the PLOCK bit is set, the PLL is locked to the reference clock. After the PLL is enabled, it
takes about several ms for the PLL to lock. To clear PLOCK, clear PLLE.
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9. Power Management and Sleep Modes
9.1 Overview
Sleep modes enable the application to shut down unused modules in the MCU, thereby saving
power. The AVR provides various sleep modes allowing the user to tailor the power consump-
tion to the application’s requirements.
9.2 Sleep Modes
Figure 8-1 on page 26 presents the different clock systems in the ATmega8U2/16U2/32U2, and
their distribution. The figure is helpful in selecting an appropriate sleep mode. shows the differ-
ent sleep modes and their wake up sources.
Notes: 1. Only recommended with external crystal or resonator selected as clock source.
2. For INT[7:4], only level interrupt.
3. Asynchronous USB interrupt is WAKEUPI only.
To enter any of the five sleep modes, the SE bit in SMCR must be written to logic one and a
SLEEP instruction must be executed. The SM2, SM1, and SM0 bits in the SMCR Register select
which sleep mode (Idle, Power-down, Power-save, Standby or Extended standby) will be acti-
vated by the SLEEP instruction. See Table 9-2 for a summary.
If an enabled interrupt occurs while the MCU is in a sleep mode, the MCU wakes up. The MCU
is then halted for four cycles in addition to the start-up time, executes the interrupt routine, and
resumes execution from the instruction following SLEEP. The contents of the Register File and
SRAM are unaltered when the device wakes up from sleep. If a reset occurs during sleep mode,
the MCU wakes up and executes from the Reset Vector.
9.3 Idle Mode
When the SM2:0 bits are written to 000, the SLEEP instruction makes the MCU enter Idle mode,
stopping the CPU but allowing the USB, SPI, USART, Analog Comparator, Timer/Counters,
Table 9-1. Active Clock Domains and Wake-up Sources in the Different Sleep Modes.
Active Clock
Domains Oscillators Wake-up Sources
Sleep Mode
clkCPU
clkFLASH
clkIO
Main Clock
Source
Enabled
INT[7:0] and
PCINT12-0
SPM/
EEPROM Ready
WDT Interrupt
Other I/O
USB Synchronous
Interrupts
USB Asynchonous
Interrupts(3)
Idle X X X X X X X X
Power-down X(2) XX
Power-save X(2) XX
Standby(1) XX
(2) XX
Extended
Standby XX
(2) XX
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Watchdog, and the interrupt system to continue operating. This sleep mode basically halts clk-
CPU and clkFLASH, while allowing the other clocks to run.
Idle mode enables the MCU to wake up from external triggered interrupts as well as internal
ones like the Timer Overflow, USART Transmit Complete or some USB interrupts (like SOFI,
WAKEUPI...). If wake-up from the Analog Comparator interrupt is not required, the Analog Com-
parator can be powered down by setting the ACD bit in the Analog Comparator Control and
Status Register – ACSR. This will reduce power consumption in Idle mode.
9.4 Power-down Mode
When the SM2:0 bits are written to 010, the SLEEP instruction makes the MCU enter Power-
down mode. In this mode, the external Oscillator is stopped, while the external interrupts, the 2-
wire Serial Interface, and the Watchdog continue operating (if enabled). Only an External Reset,
a Watchdog Reset, a Brown-out Reset, 2-wire Serial Interface address match, an external level
interrupt on INT7:4, an external interrupt on INT3:0, a pin change interrupt or an asynchronous
USB interrupt source (WAKEUPI only), can wake up the MCU. This sleep mode basically halts
all generated clocks, allowing operation of asynchronous modules only.
Note that if a level triggered interrupt is used for wake-up from Power-down mode, the changed
level must be held for some time to wake up the MCU. Refer to “External Interrupts” on page 84
for details.
When waking up from Power-down mode, there is a delay from the wake-up condition occurs
until the wake-up becomes effective. This allows the clock to restart and become stable after
having been stopped. The wake-up period is defined by the same CKSEL Fuses that define the
Reset Time-out period, as described in “Clock Sources” on page 29.
9.5 Power-save Mode
When the SM2:0 bits are written to 011, the SLEEP instruction makes the MCU enter Power-
save mode. This mode is identical to Power-down. This mode has been conserved for compati-
bility purpose with higher-end products.
9.6 Standby Mode
When the SM2:0 bits are 110 and an external crystal/resonator clock option is selected, the
SLEEP instruction makes the MCU enter Standby mode. This mode is identical to Power-down
with the exception that the Oscillator is kept running. From Standby mode, the device wakes up
in six clock cycles.
9.7 Extended Standby Mode
When the SM2:0 bits are 111 and an external crystal/resonator clock option is selected, the
SLEEP instruction makes the MCU enter Extended Standby mode. This mode is identical to
Power-save mode with the exception that the Oscillator is kept running. So Extended Standby
Mode is equivalent to Standy Mode, but is also conserved for compatibility purpose. From
Extended Standby mode, the device wakes up in six clock cycle.
9.8 Power Reduction Register
The Power Reduction Registers (PRR0 and PRR1), provides a method to stop the clock to indi-
vidual peripherals to reduce power consumption. See “PRR0 – Power Reduction Register 0” and
“PRR1 – Power Reduction Register 1” on page 46 for details. The current state of the peripheral
is frozen and the I/O registers can not be read or written. Resources used by the peripheral
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when stopping the clock will remain occupied, hence the peripheral should in most cases be dis-
abled before stopping the clock. Waking up a module, which is done by clearing the bit in PRR,
puts the module in the same state as before shutdown.
Module shutdown can be used in Idle mode and Active mode to significantly reduce the overall
power consumption.
9.9 Minimizing Power Consumption
There are several issues to consider when trying to minimize the power consumption in an AVR
controlled system. In general, sleep modes should be used as much as possible, and the sleep
mode should be selected so that as few as possible of the device’s functions are operating. All
functions not needed should be disabled. In particular, the following modules may need special
consideration when trying to achieve the lowest possible power consumption.
9.9.1 Analog Comparator
When entering Idle mode, the Analog Comparator should be disabled if not used. In other sleep
modes, the Analog Comparator is automatically disabled. However, if the Analog Comparator is
set up to use the Internal Voltage Reference as input, the Analog Comparator should be dis-
abled in all sleep modes. Otherwise, the Internal Voltage Reference will be enabled,
independent of sleep mode. Refer to “Analog Comparator” on page 223 for details on how to
configure the Analog Comparator.
9.9.2 Brown-out Detector
If the Brown-out Detector is not needed by the application, this module should be turned off. If
the Brown-out Detector is enabled by the BODLEVEL Fuses, it will be enabled in all sleep
modes, and hence, always consume power. In the deeper sleep modes, this will contribute sig-
nificantly to the total current consumption. Refer to “Brown-out Detection” on page 50 for details
on how to configure the Brown-out Detector.
9.9.3 Internal Voltage Reference
The Internal Voltage Reference will be enabled when needed by the Brown-out Detection, or the
Analog Comparator. If these modules are disabled as described in the sections above, the inter-
nal voltage reference will be disabled and it will not be consuming power. When turned on again,
the user must allow the reference to start up before the output is used. If the reference is kept on
in sleep mode, the output can be used immediately. Refer to “Internal Voltage Reference” on
page 51 for details on the start-up time.
9.9.4 Watchdog Timer
If the Watchdog Timer is not needed in the application, the module should be turned off. If the
Watchdog Timer is enabled, it will be enabled in all sleep modes, and hence, always consume
power. In the deeper sleep modes, this will contribute significantly to the total current consump-
tion. Refer to “Interrupts” on page 64 for details on how to configure the Watchdog Timer.
9.9.5 Port Pins
When entering a sleep mode, all port pins should be configured to use minimum power. The
most important is then to ensure that no pins drive resistive loads. In sleep modes where the I/O
clock (clkI/O) is stopped, the input buffers of the device will be disabled. This ensures that no
power is consumed by the input logic when not needed. In some cases, the input logic is needed
for detecting wake-up conditions, and it will then be enabled. Refer to the section “Digital Input
Enable and Sleep Modes” on page 71 for details on which pins are enabled. If the input buffer is
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enabled and the input signal is left floating or have an analog signal level close to VCC/2, the
input buffer will use excessive power.
For analog input pins, the digital input buffer should be disabled at all times. An analog signal
level close to VCC/2 on an input pin can cause significant current even in active mode. Digital
input buffers can be disabled by writing to the Digital Input Disable Registers (DIDR1). Refer to
“DIDR1 – Digital Input Disable Register 1” on page 225 for details.
9.9.6 On-chip Debug System
If the On-chip debug system is enabled by the OCDEN Fuse and the chip enters sleep mode,
the main clock source is enabled, and hence, always consumes power. In the deeper sleep
modes, this will contribute significantly to the total current consumption.
9.10 Register Description
9.10.1 SMCR – Sleep Mode Control Register
The Sleep Mode Control Register contains control bits for power management.
Bit 7:4 - Reserved bits
These bits are reserved and will always read as zero.
Bits 3:1 – SM[2:0]: Sleep Mode Select Bits 2, 1, and 0
These bits select between the five available sleep modes as shown in Table 9-2.
Note: 1. Standby modes are only recommended for use with external crystals or resonators.
Bit 0– SE: Sleep Enable
The SE bit must be written to logic one to make the MCU enter the sleep mode when the SLEEP
instruction is executed. To avoid the MCU entering the sleep mode unless it is the programmer’s
purpose, it is recommended to write the Sleep Enable (SE) bit to one just before the execution of
the SLEEP instruction and to clear it immediately after waking up.
Bit 76543210
0x33 (0x53) – – – – SM2 SM1 SM0 SE SMCR
Read/Write R R R R R/W R/W R/W R/W
Initial Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Table 9-2. Sleep Mode Select
SM2 SM1 SM0 Sleep Mode
0 0 0 Idle
0 0 1 Reserved
0 1 0 Power-down
0 1 1 Power-save
1 0 0 Reserved
1 0 1 Reserved
1 1 0 Standby(1)
1 1 1 Extended Standby(1)
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9.10.2 PRR0 – Power Reduction Register 0
Bit 7:6 - Res: Reserved bits
These bits are reserved and will always read as zero.
Bit 5 - PRTIM0: Power Reduction Timer/Counter0
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the Timer/Counter0 module. When the Timer/Counter0
is enabled, operation will continue like before the shutdown.
Bit 4 - Res: Reserved bit
This bit is reserved and will always read as zero.
Bit 3 - PRTIM1: Power Reduction Timer/Counter1
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the Timer/Counter1 module. When the Timer/Counter1
is enabled, operation will continue like before the shutdown.
Bit 2 - PRSPI: Power Reduction Serial Peripheral Interface
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the Serial Peripheral Interface by stopping the clock to
the module. When waking up the SPI again, the SPI should be re initialized to ensure proper
operation.
Bit 1 - Res: Reserved bit
These bits are reserved and will always read as zero.
Bit 0 - Res: Reserved bit
These bits are reserved and will always read as zero.
9.10.3 PRR1 – Power Reduction Register 1
Bit 7 - PRUSB: Power Reduction USB
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the USB by stopping the clock to the module. When
waking up the USB again, the USB should be re initialized to ensure proper operation.
Bit 6:1 - Res: Reserved bits
These bits are reserved and will always read as zero.
Bit 0 - PRUSART1: Power Reduction USART1
Writing a logic one to this bit shuts down the USART1 by stopping the clock to the module.
When waking up the USART1 again, the USART1 should be re initialized to ensure proper
operation.
Bit 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
(0x64) - - PRTIM0 PRTIM1 PRSPI - - PRR0
Read/Write R/W R/W R/W R R/W R/W R R/W
Initial Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Bit 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
(0x65) PRUSB - PRUSART1 PRR1
Read/Write R/W R R R R/W R R R/W
Initial Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
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10. System Control and Reset
10.1 Resetting the AVR
During reset, all I/O Registers are set to their initial values, and the program starts execution
from the Reset Vector. The instruction placed at the Reset Vector must be a JMP – Absolute
Jump – instruction to the reset handling routine. If the program never enables an interrupt
source, the Interrupt Vectors are not used, and regular program code can be placed at these
locations. This is also the case if the Reset Vector is in the Application section while the Interrupt
Vectors are in the Boot section or vice versa. The circuit diagram in Figure 10-1 shows the reset
logic. “System and Reset Characteristics” on page 267 defines the electrical parameters of the
reset circuitry.
The I/O ports of the AVR are immediately reset to their initial state when a reset source goes
active. This does not require any clock source to be running.
After all reset sources have gone inactive, a delay counter is invoked, stretching the internal
reset. This allows the power to reach a stable level before normal operation starts. The time-out
period of the delay counter is defined by the user through the SUT and CKSEL Fuses. The dif-
ferent selections for the delay period are presented in “Clock Sources” on page 29.
10.2 Reset Sources
The ATmega8U2/16U2/32U2 has five sources of reset:
Power-on Reset. The MCU is reset when the supply voltage is below the Power-on Reset
threshold (VPOT).
External Reset. The MCU is reset when a low level is present on the RESET pin for longer
than the minimum pulse length.
Watchdog Reset. The MCU is reset when the Watchdog Timer period expires and the
Watchdog is enabled.
Brown-out Reset. The MCU is reset when the supply voltage VCC is below the Brown-out
Reset threshold (VBOT) and the Brown-out Detector is enabled.
USB Reset. The MCU is reset when the USB macro is enabled and detects a USB Reset.
Note that with this reset the USB macro remains enabled so that the device stays attached to
the bus.
Emwm SEE; a s R Emma $228 Reset 0mm Wammog mar vcc .1 mg
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Figure 10-1. Reset Logic
10.2.1 Power-on Reset
A Power-on Reset (POR) pulse is generated by an On-chip detection circuit. The detection level
is defined in “System and Reset Characteristics” on page 267. The POR is activated whenever
VCC is below the detection level. The POR circuit can be used to trigger the start-up Reset, as
well as to detect a failure in supply voltage.
A Power-on Reset (POR) circuit ensures that the device is reset from Power-on. Reaching the
Power-on Reset threshold voltage invokes the delay counter, which determines how long the
device is kept in RESET after VCC rise. The RESET signal is activated again, without any delay,
when VCC decreases below the detection level.
Figure 10-2. MCU Start-up, RESET Tied to VCC
MCU Status
Register (MCUSR)
Brown-out
Reset Circuit
BODLEVEL [2..0]
Delay Counters
CKSEL[3:0]
CK
TIMEOUT
WDRF
BORF
EXTRF
PORF
DATA BUS
Clock
Generator
SPIKE
FILTER
Pull-up Resistor
USBRF
USB Device
Reset Detection
Watchdog
Oscillator
SUT[1:0]
Power-on Reset
Circuit
V
RESET
TIME-OUT
INTERNAL
RESET
t
TOUT
V
POT
V
RST
CC
RESE RESET T‘MEVOUT \NTERNAL RESET Ry A1—IIIEI.®
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Figure 10-3. MCU Start-up, RESET Extended Externally
10.2.2 External Reset
An External Reset is generated by a low level on the RESET pin. Reset pulses longer than the
minimum pulse width (see “System and Reset Characteristics” on page 267) will generate a
reset, even if the clock is not running. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate a reset.
When the applied signal reaches the Reset Threshold Voltage – VRST – on its positive edge, the
delay counter starts the MCU after the Time-out period – tTOUT has expired.
Figure 10-4. External Reset During Operation
RESET
TIME-OUT
INTERNAL
RESET
t
TOUT
V
POT
V
RST
V
CC
CC
RESET WDT TTME-OUT RESET T‘MEVOUT TNTERNAL RESET A1—IIIEI.®
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10.2.3 Brown-out Detection
ATmega8U2/16U2/32U2 has an On-chip Brown-out Detection (BOD) circuit for monitoring the
VCC level during operation by comparing it to a fixed trigger level. The trigger level for the BOD
can be selected by the BODLEVEL Fuses. The trigger level has a hysteresis to ensure spike
free Brown-out Detection. The hysteresis on the detection level should be interpreted as VBOT+ =
VBOT + VHYST/2 and VBOT- = VBOT - VHYST/2. When the BOD is enabled, and VCC decreases to a
value below the trigger level (VBOT- in Figure 10-5), the Brown-out Reset is immediately acti-
vated. When VCC increases above the trigger level (VBOT+ in Figure 10-5), the delay counter
starts the MCU after the Time-out period tTOUT has expired.
The BOD circuit will only detect a drop in VCC if the voltage stays below the trigger level for lon-
ger than tBOD given in “System and Reset Characteristics” on page 267.
Figure 10-5. Brown-out Reset During Operation
10.2.4 Watchdog Reset
When the Watchdog times out, it will generate a short reset pulse of one CK cycle duration. On
the falling edge of this pulse, the delay timer starts counting the Time-out period tTOUT. Refer to
“Watchdog Timer” on page 51 for details on operation of the Watchdog Timer.
Figure 10-6. Watchdog Reset During Operation
10.2.5 USB Reset
When the USB macro is enabled and configured with the USB reset MCU feature enabled, and
if a valid USB Reset signalling is detected, the microcontroller is reset unless the USB macro
V
CC
RESET
TIME-OUT
INTERNAL
RESET
V
BOT-
V
BOT+
t
TOUT
CK
CC
RESET RESET T‘MEVOUT \NTERNAL RESET A1—IIIEI.® 47 1mm —>
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that remains enabled. This allows the device to stay attached to the bus during and after the
reset, while enhancing firmware reliability.
Figure 10-7. USB Reset During Operation
10.3 Internal Voltage Reference
ATmega8U2/16U2/32U2 features an internal bandgap reference. This reference is used for
Brown-out Detection, and it can be used as an input to the Analog Comparator.
10.3.1 Voltage Reference Enable Signals and Start-up Time
The voltage reference has a start-up time that may influence the way it should be used. The
start-up time is given in “System and Reset Characteristics” on page 267. To save power, the
reference is not always turned on. The reference is on during the following situations:
1. When the BOD is enabled (by programming the BODLEVEL [2..0] Fuse).
2. When the bandgap reference is connected to the Analog Comparator (by setting the
ACBG bit in ACSR).
Thus, when the BOD is not enabled, after setting the ACBG bit, the user must always allow the
reference to start up before the output from the Analog Comparator is used. To reduce power
consumption in Power-down mode, the user can avoid the three conditions above to ensure that
the reference is turned off before entering Power-down mode.
10.4 Watchdog Timer
10.4.1 Features
Clocked from separate On-chip Oscillator
3 Operating modes
– Interrupt
System Reset
Interrupt and System ResetSelectable Time-out period from 16ms to 8s
Possible Hardware fuse Watchdog always on (WDTON) for fail-safe mode
Early warning after one Time-Out period reached, programmable Reset (see operating modes)
after 2 Time-Out periods reached.
10.4.2 Overview
ATmega8U2/16U2/32U2 has an Enhanced Watchdog Timer (WDT). The WDT is a timer count-
ing cycles of a separate on-chip 128 kHz oscillator. The WDT gives a early warning interrupt
CC
USB Traffic USB Traffic
DP
DM
(USB Lines)
t
USBRSTMIN
End of Reset
mrcwas PRESCALER
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when the counter reaches a given time-out value. The WDT gives an interrupt or a system reset
when the counter reaches two times the given time-out value. In normal operation mode, it is
required that the system uses the WDR - Watchdog Timer Reset - instruction to restart the coun-
ter before the time-out value is reached. If the system doesn't restart the counter, an interrupt or
system reset will be issued.
Figure 10-8. Watchdog Timer
In Interrupt mode, the WDT gives an interrupt when the timer expires two times. This interrupt
can be used to wake the device from sleep-modes, and also as a general system timer. One
example is to limit the maximum time allowed for certain operations, giving an interrupt when the
operation has run longer than expected.
In System Reset mode, the WDT gives a reset when the timer expires two times. This is typically
used to prevent system hang-up in case of runaway code.
The third mode, Interrupt and System Reset mode, combines the other two modes by first giving
an interrupt and then switch to System Reset mode. This mode will for instance allow a safe
shutdown by saving critical parameters before a system reset.
In addition to these modes, the early warning interrupt can be enabled in order to generate an
interrupt when the WDT counter expires the first time.
The Watchdog always on (WDTON) fuse, if programmed, will force the Watchdog Timer to Sys-
tem Reset mode. With the fuse programmed the System Reset mode bit (WDE) and Interrupt
mode bit (WDIE) are locked to 1 and 0 respectively. To further ensure program security, altera-
tions to the Watchdog set-up must follow timed sequences. The sequence for clearing WDE or
changing time-out configuration is as follows:
1. In the same operation, write a logic one to the Watchdog change enable bits WDCE
and WDE. A logic one must be written to WDE regardless of the previous value of the
WDE bit and even if it will be cleared after the operation.
2. Within the next four clock cycles, write the WDE and Watchdog prescaler bits (WDP) as
desired, but with the WDCE bit cleared. This must be done in one operation.
128kHz
OSCILLATOR
OSC/2K
OSC/4K
OSC/8K
OSC/16K
OSC/32K
OSC/64K
OSC/128K
OSC/256K
OSC/512K
OSC/1024K
WDP0
WDP1
WDP2
WDP3
WATCHDOG
RESET
WDE
WDIF
WDIE
WDEWIE
MCU RESET
INTERRUPT
EARLY WARNING
INTERRUPT
CLOCK
DIVIDER
WCLKD0
WCLKD1
OSC/1
OSC/3
OSC/5
OSC/7
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While the WDT prescaler allows only even division factors (2, 4, 8...), the WDT peripheral also
includes a clock divider that directly acts on the clock source. This divider handles odd division
factors (3, 5, 7). In combination with the prescaler, a large number of time-out values can be
obtained.
The divider factor change is also ruled by the secure timed sequence : first the WDE and WDCE
bits must be set, and then four cycles are available to load the new divider value into the
WDTCKD register. Be aware that after this operation WDE will still be set. So keep in mind the
importance of order of operations. When setting up the WDT in Interrupt mode with specific val-
ues of prescaler and divider, the divider register must be loaded before the prescaler register :
1. Set WDCE and WDE
2. Load the divider factor into WDTCKD
3. Wait WDCE being automatically cleared (just wait 2 more cycles)
4. Set again WDCE and WDE
5. Clear WDE, set WDIE and load the prescaler factor into WDTCSR in a same operation
6. Now the system is properly configured for Interrupt only mode. Inverting the two opera-
tions would have been resulted into “Reset and Interrupt mode” and needed a third
operation to clear WDE.
The following code example shows one assembly and one C function for turning off the Watch-
dog Timer. The example assumes that interrupts are controlled (e.g. by disabling interrupts
globally) so that no interrupts will occur during the execution of these functions.
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Note: 1. The example code assumes that the part specific header file is included.
Note: If the Watchdog is accidentally enabled, for example by a runaway pointer or brown-out
condition, the device will be reset and the Watchdog Timer will stay enabled. If the code is not
set up to handle the Watchdog, this might lead to an eternal loop of time-out resets. To avoid this
situation, the application software should always clear the Watchdog System Reset Flag
(WDRF) and the WDE control bit in the initialisation routine, even if the Watchdog is not in use.
The following code example shows one assembly and one C function for changing the time-out
value of the Watchdog Timer.
Assembly Code Example(1)
WDT_off:
; Turn off global interrupt
cli
; Reset Watchdog Timer
wdr
; Clear WDRF in MCUSR
in r16, MCUSR
andi r16, (0xff & (0<<WDRF))
out MCUSR, r16
; Write logical one to WDCE and WDE
; Keep old prescaler setting to prevent unintentional time-out
in r16, WDTCSR
ori r16, (1<<WDCE) | (1<<WDE)
out WDTCSR, r16
; Turn off WDT
ldi r16, (0<<WDE)
out WDTCSR, r16
; Turn on global interrupt
sei
ret
C Code Example(1)
void WDT_off(void)
{
__disable_interrupt();
__watchdog_reset();
/* Clear WDRF in MCUSR */
MCUSR &= ~(1<<WDRF);
/* Write logical one to WDCE and WDE */
/* Keep old prescaler setting to prevent unintentional time-out */
WDTCSR |= (1<<WDCE) | (1<<WDE);
/* Turn off WDT */
WDTCSR = 0x00;
__enable_interrupt();
}
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Note: 1. The example code assumes that the part specific header file is included.
Note: The Watchdog Timer should be reset before any change of the WDP bits, since a change
in the WDP bits can result in a time-out when switching to a shorter time-out period.
10.5 Register Description
10.5.1 MCUSR – MCU Status Register
The MCU Status Register provides information on which reset source caused an MCU reset.
Bit 7:6 – Res: Reserved Bit
These bits are reserved and will always read as zero.
Assembly Code Example(1)
WDT_Prescaler_Change:
; Turn off global interrupt
cli
; Reset Watchdog Timer
wdr
; Start timed sequence
in r16, WDTCSR
ori r16, (1<<WDCE) | (1<<WDE)
out WDTCSR, r16
; -- Got four cycles to set the new values from here -
; Set new prescaler(time-out) value = 64K cycles (~0.5 s)
ldi r16, (1<<WDE) | (1<<WDP2) | (1<<WDP0)
out WDTCSR, r16
; -- Finished setting new values, used 2 cycles -
; Turn on global interrupt
sei
ret
C Code Example(1)
void WDT_Prescaler_Change(void)
{
__disable_interrupt();
__watchdog_reset();
/* Start timed equence */
WDTCSR |= (1<<WDCE) | (1<<WDE);
/* Set new prescaler(time-out) value = 64K cycles (~0.5 s) */
WDTCSR = (1<<WDE) | (1<<WDP2) | (1<<WDP0);
__enable_interrupt();
}
Bit 76543210
0x34 (0x54) USBRF WDRF BORF EXTRF PORF MCUSR
Read/Write R R R R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W
Initial Value 0 0 0 See Bit Description
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Bit 5 – USBRF: USB Reset Flag
This bit is set if a USB Reset occurs. The bit is reset by a Power-on Reset, or by writing a logic
zero to the flag.
Bit 4 – Res: Reserved Bit
This bit is reserved and will always read as zero.
Bit 3 – WDRF: Watchdog Reset Flag
This bit is set if a Watchdog Reset occurs. The bit is reset by a Power-on Reset, or by writing a
logic zero to the flag.
Bit 2 – BORF: Brown-out Reset Flag
This bit is set if a Brown-out Reset occurs. The bit is reset by a Power-on Reset, or by writing a
logic zero to the flag.
Bit 1 – EXTRF: External Reset Flag
This bit is set if an External Reset occurs. The bit is reset by a Power-on Reset, or by writing a
logic zero to the flag.
Bit 0 – PORF: Power-on Reset Flag
This bit is set if a Power-on Reset occurs. The bit is reset only by writing a logic zero to the flag.
To make use of the Reset Flags to identify a reset condition, the user should read and then
Reset the MCUSR as early as possible in the program. If the register is cleared before another
reset occurs, the source of the reset can be found by examining the Reset Flags.
10.5.2 WDTCSR – Watchdog Timer Control Register
Bit 7 - WDIF: Watchdog Interrupt Flag
This bit is set when a time-out occurs twice in the Watchdog Timer and if the Watchdog Timer is
configured for interrupt. WDIF is automatically cleared by hardware when executing the corre-
sponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, WDIF is cleared by writing a logic one to the
flag. When the I-bit in SREG and WDIE are set, the Watchdog Time-out Interrupt is executed.
Bit 6 - WDIE: Watchdog Interrupt Enable
When this bit is written to one and the I-bit in the Status Register is set, the Watchdog Interrupt is
enabled. If WDE is cleared in combination with this setting, the Watchdog Timer is in Interrupt
Mode, and the corresponding interrupt is executed if time-out in the Watchdog Timer occurs.
If WDE is set, the Watchdog Timer is in Interrupt and System Reset Mode. Two consecutives
times-out in the Watchdog Timer will set WDIF. Executing the corresponding interrupt vector will
clear WDIE and WDIF automatically by hardware : the Watchdog goes to System Reset Mode.
This is useful for keeping the Watchdog Timer security while using the interrupt. To reinitialize
the Interrupt and System Reset Mode, WDIE must be set after each interrupt. This should how-
ever not be done within the interrupt service routine itself, as this might compromise the safety-
Bit 76543210
(0x60) WDIF WDIE WDP3 WDCE WDE WDP2 WDP1 WDP0 WDTCSR
Read/Write R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W
Initial Value 0 0 0 0 X 0 0 0
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function of the Watchdog System Reset mode. If the interrupt is not executed before the next
time-out, a System Reset will be applied.
Bit 4 - WDCE: Watchdog Change Enable
This bit is used in timed sequences for changing WDE and prescaler bits. To clear the WDE bit,
and/or change the prescaler bits, WDCE must be set.
Once written to one, hardware will clear WDCE after four clock cycles.
Bit 3 - WDE: Watchdog System Reset Enable
WDE is overridden by WDRF in MCUSR. This means that WDE is always set when WDRF is
set. To clear WDE, WDRF must be cleared first. This feature ensures multiple resets during con-
ditions causing failure, and a safe start-up after the failure.
Bit 5, 2:0 - WDP[3:0]: Watchdog Timer Prescaler 3, 2, 1 and 0
The WDP3..0 bits determine the Watchdog Timer prescaling when the Watchdog Timer is run-
ning. The different prescaling values and their corresponding time-out periods are shown in
Table on page 58.
10.5.3 WDTCKD – Watchdog Timer Clock Divider Register
Bit 7:6 - Res: Reserved bits
These bits are reserved and will always read as zero.
Bit 5 - WDEWIFCL: Watchdog Early Warning Flag Clear Mode
When this bit has been set by software, the WDEWIF interrupt flag is not cleared by hardware
when entering the Watchdog Interrupt subroutine (it has to be cleared by software by writing a
logic one to the flag).
When cleared, the WDEWIF is cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt
handling vector.
Bit 4 - WCLKD2 bit: Watchdog Timer Clock Divider
See “Bit 1:0 - WCLKD[1:0]: Watchdog Timer Clock Divider” on page 58.
Table 10-1. Watchdog Timer Configuration
WDTON (Fuse) WDE WDIE Mode Action on 2x Time-out
1 (unprogrammed) 0 0 Stopped None
1 (unprogrammed) 0 1 Interrupt Mode Interrupt
1 (unprogrammed) 1 0 System Reset Mode Reset
1 (unprogrammed) 1 1 Interrupt and System
Reset Mode
Interrupt, then go to
System Reset Mode
0 (programmed) x x System Reset Mode Reset
Bit 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
(0x62) - - WDEWIF-
CM WCLKD2 WDEWIF WDEWIE WCLKD1 WCLKD0 WDTCKD
Read/Write R R R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W
Initial Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
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Bit 3 - WDEWIF: Watchdog Early Warning Interrupt Flag
This bit is set when a first time-out occurs in the Watchdog Timer and if the WDEWIE bit is
enabled. WDEWIF is automatically cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding
interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, WDIF can be cleared by writing a logic one to the flag.
When the I-bit in SREG and WDEWIE are set, the Watchdog Time-out Interrupt is executed.
Bit 2 - WDEWIE: Watchdog Early Warning Interrupt Enable
When this bit has been set by software, an interrupt will be generated on the watchdog interrupt
vector when the Early warning flag is set to one by hardware.
Bit 1:0 - WCLKD[1:0]: Watchdog Timer Clock Divider
Table 10-2. Watchdog Timer Clock Divider Configuration
WCLKD2 WCLKD1 WCLKD0 Mode
000
ClkWDT = Clk128k
001ClkWDT = Clk128k / 3
010ClkWDT = Clk128k / 5
011ClkWDT = Clk128k / 7
100ClkWDT = Clk128k / 9
101ClkWDT = Clk128k / 11
110ClkWDT = Clk128k / 13
111ClkWDT = Clk128k / 15
Table 10-3. Watchdog Timer Prescale Select, DIV = 0 (CLKwdt = CLK128 / 1)
WDP3 WDP2 WDP1 WDP0
Number of WDT Oscillator
Cycles before 1st time-out
(Early warning)
Early warning Typical
Time-out at
VCC = 5.0V
Watchdog
Reset/Interrupt Typical
Time-out at
VCC = 5.0V
0 0 0 0 2K (2048) cycles 16 ms 32 ms
0 0 0 1 4K (4096) cycles 32 ms 64 ms
0 0 1 0 8K (8192) cycles 64 ms 128 ms
0 0 1 1 16K (16384) cycles 0.125 s 0.250 s
0 1 0 0 32K (32768) cycles 0.25 s 0.5 s
0 1 0 1 64K (65536) cycles 0.5 s 1.0 s
0 1 1 0 128K (131072) cycles 1.0 s 2.0 s
0 1 1 1 256K (262144) cycles 2.0 s 4.0 s
1 0 0 0 512K (524288) cycles 4.0 s 8.0 s
1 0 0 1 1024K (1048576) cycles 8.0 s 16.0 s
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1010
Reserved
1011
1100
1101
1110
1111
Table 10-3. Watchdog Timer Prescale Select, DIV = 0 (CLKwdt = CLK128 / 1) (Continued)
WDP3 WDP2 WDP1 WDP0
Number of WDT Oscillator
Cycles before 1st time-out
(Early warning)
Early warning Typical
Time-out at
VCC = 5.0V
Watchdog
Reset/Interrupt Typical
Time-out at
VCC = 5.0V
Table 10-4. Watchdog Timer Prescale Select, DIV = 1 (CLKwdt = CLK128 / 3)
WDP3 WDP2 WDP1 WDP0
Number of WDT Oscillator
Cycles before 1st time-out
(Early warning)
Early warning Typical
Time-out at
VCC = 5.0V
Watchdog
Reset/Interrupt Typical
Time-out at
VCC = 5.0V
0 0 0 0 2K (2048) cycles 48 ms 96 ms
0 0 0 1 4K (4096) cycles 96 ms 192 ms
0 0 1 0 8K (8192) cycles 192 ms 384 ms
0 0 1 1 16K (16384) cycles 0.375 s 0.75 s
0 1 0 0 32K (32768) cycles 0.75 s 1.5 s
0 1 0 1 64K (65536) cycles 1.5 s 3 s
0 1 1 0 128K (131072) cycles 3 s 6 s
0 1 1 1 256K (262144) cycles 6 s 12 s
1 0 0 0 512K (524288) cycles 12 s 24 s
1 0 0 1 1024K (1048576) cycles 24 s 48 s
1010
Reserved
1011
1100
1101
1110
1111
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Table 10-5. Watchdog Timer Prescale Select, DIV = 2 (CLKwdt = CLK128 / 5)
WDP3 WDP2 WDP1 WDP0
Number of WDT Oscillator
Cycles before 1st time-out
(Early warning)
Early warning Typical
Time-out at
VCC = 5.0V
Watchdog
Reset/Interrupt Typical
Time-out at
VCC = 5.0V
0 0 0 0 2K (2048) cycles 80 ms 160 ms
0 0 0 1 4K (4096) cycles 160 ms 320 ms
0 0 1 0 8K (8192) cycles 320 ms 640 ms
0 0 1 1 16K (16384) cycles 0.625 s 1.25 s
0 1 0 0 32K (32768) cycles 1.25 s 2.5 s
0 1 0 1 64K (65536) cycles 2.5 s 5 s
0 1 1 0 128K (131072) cycles 5 s 10 s
0 1 1 1 256K (262144) cycles 10 s 20 s
1 0 0 0 512K (524288) cycles 20 s 40 s
1 0 0 1 1024K (1048576) cycles 40 s 80 s
1010
Reserved
1011
1100
1101
1110
1111
Table 10-6. Watchdog Timer Prescale Select, DIV = 3 (CLKwdt = CLK128 / 7)
WDP3 WDP2 WDP1 WDP0
Number of WDT Oscillator
Cycles before 1st time-out
(Early warning)
Early warning Typical
Time-out at
VCC = 5.0V
Watchdog
Reset/Interrupt Typical
Time-out at
VCC = 5.0V
0 0 0 0 2K (2048) cycles 112 ms 224 ms
0 0 0 1 4K (4096) cycles 224 ms 448 ms
0 0 1 0 8K (8192) cycles 448 ms 896 ms
0 0 1 1 16K (16384) cycles 0.875 s 1.75 s
0 1 0 0 32K (32768) cycles 1.75 s 3.5 s
0 1 0 1 64K (65536) cycles 3.5 s 7 s
0 1 1 0 128K (131072) cycles 7 s 14 s
0 1 1 1 256K (262144) cycles 14 s 28 s
1 0 0 0 512K (524288) cycles 28 s 56 s
1 0 0 1 1024K (1048576) cycles 56 s 112 s
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1010
Reserved
1011
1100
1101
1110
1111
Table 10-6. Watchdog Timer Prescale Select, DIV = 3 (CLKwdt = CLK128 / 7) (Continued)
WDP3 WDP2 WDP1 WDP0
Number of WDT Oscillator
Cycles before 1st time-out
(Early warning)
Early warning Typical
Time-out at
VCC = 5.0V
Watchdog
Reset/Interrupt Typical
Time-out at
VCC = 5.0V
Table 10-7. Watchdog Timer Prescale Select, DIV = 4 (CLKwdt = CLK128 / 9)
WDP3 WDP2 WDP1 WDP0
Number of WDT Oscillator
Cycles before 1st time-out
(Early warning)
Early warning Typical
Time-out at
VCC = 5.0V
Watchdog
Reset/Interrupt Typical
Time-out at
VCC = 5.0V
0 0 0 0 2K (2048) cycles 72ms 144 ms
0 0 0 1 4K (4096) cycles 144 ms 288 ms
0 0 1 0 8K (8192) cycles 288 ms 576 ms
0 0 1 1 16K (16384) cycles 576 s 1.15 s
0 1 0 0 32K (32768) cycles 1.1 s 2.3 s
0 1 0 1 64K (65536) cycles 2.3 s 4.6 s
0 1 1 0 128K (131072) cycles 4.6 s 9.2 s
0 1 1 1 256K (262144) cycles 9.2 s 18.4s
1 0 0 0 512K (524288) cycles 18.4 s 36.8 s
1 0 0 1 1024K (1048576) cycles 36.8 s 73 s
1010
Reserved
1011
1100
1101
1110
1111
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Table 10-8. Watchdog Timer Prescale Select, DIV = 5 (CLKwdt = CLK128 / 11)
WDP3 WDP2 WDP1 WDP0
Number of WDT Oscillator
Cycles before 1st time-out
(Early warning)
Early warning Typical
Time-out at
VCC = 5.0V
Watchdog
Reset/Interrupt Typical
Time-out at
VCC = 5.0V
0 0 0 0 2K (2048) cycles 88 ms 176 ms
0 0 0 1 4K (4096) cycles 176 ms 352 ms
0 0 1 0 8K (8192) cycles 352 ms 704 ms
0 0 1 1 16K (16384) cycles 704 ms 1.4 s
0 1 0 0 32K (32768) cycles 1.4 s 2.8 s
0 1 0 1 64K (65536) cycles 2.8 s 5.6 s
0 1 1 0 128K (131072) cycles 5.6 s 11.2 s
0 1 1 1 256K (262144) cycles 11.2 s 22.5 s
1 0 0 0 512K (524288) cycles 22.5 s 45 s
1 0 0 1 1024K (1048576) cycles 45s 90 s
1010
Reserved
1011
1100
1101
1110
1111
Table 10-9. Watchdog Timer Prescale Select, DIV = 6(CLKwdt = CLK128 / 13)
WDP3 WDP2 WDP1 WDP0
Number of WDT Oscillator
Cycles before 1st time-out
(Early warning)
Early warning Typical
Time-out at
VCC = 5.0V
Watchdog
Reset/Interrupt Typical
Time-out at
VCC = 5.0V
0 0 0 0 2K (2048) cycles 104 ms 208 ms
0 0 0 1 4K (4096) cycles 208 ms 416 ms
0 0 1 0 8K (8192) cycles 416 ms 832 ms
0 0 1 1 16K (16384) cycles 832 ms 1.64 s
0 1 0 0 32K (32768) cycles 1.6 s 3.3 s
0 1 0 1 64K (65536) cycles 3.3 s 6.6 s
0 1 1 0 128K (131072) cycles 6.6 s 13.3 s
0 1 1 1 256K (262144) cycles 13.3 s 26.6 s
1 0 0 0 512K (524288) cycles 26.6 s 53.2 s
1 0 0 1 1024K (1048576) cycles 53.2 s 106.4 s
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1010
Reserved
1011
1100
1101
1110
1111
Table 10-9. Watchdog Timer Prescale Select, DIV = 6(CLKwdt = CLK128 / 13) (Continued)
WDP3 WDP2 WDP1 WDP0
Number of WDT Oscillator
Cycles before 1st time-out
(Early warning)
Early warning Typical
Time-out at
VCC = 5.0V
Watchdog
Reset/Interrupt Typical
Time-out at
VCC = 5.0V
Table 10-10. Watchdog Timer Prescale Select, DIV = 7 (CLKwdt = CLK128 / 15)
WDP3 WDP2 WDP1 WDP0
Number of WDT Oscillator
Cycles before 1st time-out
(Early warning)
Early warning Typical
Time-out at
VCC = 5.0V
Watchdog
Reset/Interrupt Typical
Time-out at
VCC = 5.0V
0 0 0 0 2K (2048) cycles 120 ms 240 ms
0 0 0 1 4K (4096) cycles 240 ms 480 ms
0 0 1 0 8K (8192) cycles 480 ms 960 ms
0 0 1 1 16K (16384) cycles 0.960 s 1.9 s
0 1 0 0 32K (32768) cycles 1.92 s 3.8 s
0 1 0 1 64K (65536) cycles 3.8 s 7.6 s
0 1 1 0 128K (131072) cycles 7.6 s 15.3 s
0 1 1 1 256K (262144) cycles 15.3 s 30.7 s
1 0 0 0 512K (524288) cycles 30.7 s 61.4 s
1 0 0 1 1024K (1048576) cycles 61.4 s 122 s
1010
Reserved
1011
1100
1101
1110
1111
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11. Interrupts
11.1 Overview
This section describes the specifics of the interrupt handling as performed in
ATmega8U2/16U2/32U2. For a general explanation of the AVR interrupt handling, refer to
“Reset and Interrupt Handling” on page 13.
11.2 Interrupt Vectors in ATmega8U2/16U2/32U2
Table 11-1. Reset and Interrupt Vectors
Vector
No. Program
Address(2) Source Interrupt Definition
1 $0000(1) RESET
External Pin, Power-on Reset, Brown-out Reset,
Watchdog Reset, USB Reset and debugWIRE AVR
Reset
2 $0002 INT0 External Interrupt Request 0
3 $0004 INT1 External Interrupt Request 1
4 $0006 INT2 External Interrupt Request 2
5 $0008 INT3 External Interrupt Request 3
6 $000A INT4 External Interrupt Request 4
7 $000C INT5 External Interrupt Request 5
8 $000E INT6 External Interrupt Request 6
9 $0010 INT7 External Interrupt Request 7
10 $0012 PCINT0 Pin Change Interrupt Request 0
11 $0014 PCINT1 Pin Change Interrupt Request 1
12 $0016 USB General USB General Interrupt request
13 $0018 USB Endpoint USB Endpoint Interrupt request
14 $001A WDT Watchdog Time-out Interrupt
15 $001C TIMER1 CAPT Timer/Counter1 Capture Event
16 $001E TIMER1 COMPA Timer/Counter1 Compare Match A
17 $0020 TIMER1 COMPB Timer/Counter1 Compare Match B
18 $0022 TIMER1 COMPC Timer/Counter1 Compare Match C
19 $0024 TIMER1 OVF Timer/Counter1 Overflow
20 $0026 TIMER0 COMPA Timer/Counter0 Compare Match A
21 $0028 TIMER0 COMPB Timer/Counter0 Compare match B
22 $002A TIMER0 OVF Timer/Counter0 Overflow
23 $002C SPI, STC SPI Serial Transfer Complete
24 $002E USART1 RX USART1 Rx Complete
25 $0030 USART1 UDRE USART1 Data Register Empty
26 $0032 USART1TX USART1 Tx Complete
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Notes: 1. When the BOOTRST Fuse is programmed, the device will jump to the Boot Loader address at
reset, see “Memory Programming” on page 246.
2. When the IVSEL bit in MCUCR is set, Interrupt Vectors will be moved to the start of the Boot
Flash Section. The address of each Interrupt Vector will then be the address in this table
added to the start address of the Boot Flash Section. Moreover, contrary to other 8K/16K
devices, the interrupt vectors spacing remains identical (2 words) for both 8KB and 16KB
versions.
Table 11-2 shows reset and Interrupt Vectors placement for the various combinations of
BOOTRST and IVSEL settings. If the program never enables an interrupt source, the Interrupt
Vectors are not used, and regular program code can be placed at these locations. This is also
the case if the Reset Vector is in the Application section while the Interrupt Vectors are in the
Boot section or vice versa.
Note: 1. The Boot Reset Address is shown in Table 23-8 on page 239. For the BOOTRST Fuse “1”
means unprogrammed while “0” means programmed.
11.2.1 Moving Interrupts Between Application and Boot Space
The General Interrupt Control Register controls the placement of the Interrupt Vector table.
11.3 Register Description
11.3.1 MCUCR – MCU Control Register
Bit 1 – IVSEL: Interrupt Vector Select
When the IVSEL bit is cleared (zero), the Interrupt Vectors are placed at the start of the Flash
memory. When this bit is set (one), the Interrupt Vectors are moved to the beginning of the Boot
Loader section of the Flash. The actual address of the start of the Boot Flash Section is deter-
mined by the BOOTSZ Fuses. Refer to the section “Memory Programming” on page 246 for
details. To avoid unintentional changes of Interrupt Vector tables, a special write procedure must
be followed to change the IVSEL bit:
27 $0034 ANALOG COMP Analog Comparator
28 $0036 EE READY EEPROM Ready
29 $0038 SPM READY Store Program Memory Ready
Table 11-2. Reset and Interrupt Vectors Placement(1)
BOOTRST IVSEL Reset Address Interrupt Vectors Start Address
1 0 0x0000 0x0002
1 1 0x0000 Boot Reset Address + 0x0002
0 0 Boot Reset Address 0x0002
0 1 Boot Reset Address Boot Reset Address + 0x0002
Table 11-1. Reset and Interrupt Vectors (Continued)
Vector
No. Program
Address(2) Source Interrupt Definition
Bit 76543210
0x35 (0x55) JTD – – PUD – – IVSEL IVCE MCUCR
Read/Write R/W R R R/W R R R/W R/W
Initial Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
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a. Write the Interrupt Vector Change Enable (IVCE) bit to one.
b. Within four cycles, write the desired value to IVSEL while writing a zero to IVCE.
Interrupts will automatically be disabled while this sequence is executed. Interrupts are disabled
in the cycle IVCE is set, and they remain disabled until after the instruction following the write to
IVSEL. If IVSEL is not written, interrupts remain disabled for four cycles. The I-bit in the Status
Register is unaffected by the automatic disabling.
Note: If Interrupt Vectors are placed in the Boot Loader section and Boot Lock bit BLB02 is pro-
grammed, interrupts are disabled while executing from the Application section. If Interrupt Vectors
are placed in the Application section and Boot Lock bit BLB12 is programed, interrupts are dis-
abled while executing from the Boot Loader section. Refer to the section “Memory
Programming” on page 246 for details on Boot Lock bits.
Bit 0 – IVCE: Interrupt Vector Change Enable
The IVCE bit must be written to logic one to enable change of the IVSEL bit. IVCE is cleared by
hardware four cycles after it is written or when IVSEL is written. Setting the IVCE bit will disable
interrupts, as explained in the IVSEL description above. See Code Example below.
Assembly Code Example
Move_interrupts:
; Enable change of Interrupt Vectors
ldi r16, (1<<IVCE)
out MCUCR, r16
; Move interrupts to Boot Flash section
ldi r16, (1<<IVSEL)
out MCUCR, r16
ret
C Code Example
void Move_interrupts(void)
{
/* Enable change of Interrupt Vectors */
MCUCR = (1<<IVCE);
/* Move interrupts to Boot Flash section */
MCUCR = (1<<IVSEL);
}
IIIIIIIIIIII Alli—El.
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12. I/O-Ports
12.1 Overview
All AVR ports have true Read-Modify-Write functionality when used as general digital I/O ports.
This means that the direction of one port pin can be changed without unintentionally changing
the direction of any other pin with the SBI and CBI instructions. The same applies when chang-
ing drive value (if configured as output) or enabling/disabling of pull-up resistors (if configured as
input). Each output buffer has symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source
capability. The pin driver is strong enough to drive LED displays directly. All port pins have indi-
vidually selectable pull-up resistors with a supply-voltage invariant resistance. All I/O pins have
protection diodes to both VCC and Ground as indicated in Figure 12-1. Refer to “Electrical Char-
acteristics” on page 264 for a complete list of parameters.
Figure 12-1. I/O Pin Equivalent Schematic
All registers and bit references in this section are written in general form. A lower case “x” repre-
sents the numbering letter for the port, and a lower case “n” represents the bit number. However,
when using the register or bit defines in a program, the precise form must be used. For example,
PORTB3 for bit no. 3 in Port B, here documented generally as PORTxn. The physical I/O Regis-
ters and bit locations are listed in “Register Description for I/O-Ports” on page 82.
Three I/O memory address locations are allocated for each port, one each for the Data Register
– PORTx, Data Direction Register – DDRx, and the Port Input Pins – PINx. The Port Input Pins
I/O location is read only, while the Data Register and the Data Direction Register are read/write.
However, writing a logic one to a bit in the PINx Register, will result in a toggle in the correspond-
ing bit in the Data Register. In addition, the Pull-up Disable – PUD bit in MCUCR disables the
pull-up function for all pins in all ports when set.
Using the I/O port as General Digital I/O is described in “Ports as General Digital I/O” on page
68. Most port pins are multiplexed with alternate functions for the peripheral features on the
device. How each alternate function interferes with the port pin is described in “Alternate Port
Functions” on page 72. Refer to the individual module sections for a full description of the alter-
nate functions.
Cpin
Logic
Rpu
See Figure
"General Digital I/O" for
Details
Pxn
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Note that enabling the alternate function of some of the port pins does not affect the use of the
other pins in the port as general digital I/O.
12.2 Ports as General Digital I/O
The ports are bi-directional I/O ports with optional internal pull-ups. Figure 12-2 shows a func-
tional description of one I/O-port pin, here generically called Pxn.
Figure 12-2. General Digital I/O(1)
Note: 1. WRx, WPx, WDx, RRx, RPx, and RDx are common to all pins within the same port. clkI/O,
SLEEP, and PUD are common to all ports.
12.2.1 Configuring the Pin
Each port pin consists of three register bits: DDxn, PORTxn, and PINxn. As shown in “Register
Description for I/O-Ports” on page 82, the DDxn bits are accessed at the DDRx I/O address, the
PORTxn bits at the PORTx I/O address, and the PINxn bits at the PINx I/O address.
The DDxn bit in the DDRx Register selects the direction of this pin. If DDxn is written logic one,
Pxn is configured as an output pin. If DDxn is written logic zero, Pxn is configured as an input
pin.
If PORTxn is written logic one when the pin is configured as an input pin, the pull-up resistor is
activated. To switch the pull-up resistor off, PORTxn has to be written logic zero or the pin has to
be configured as an output pin. The port pins are tri-stated when reset condition becomes active,
even if no clocks are running.
clk
RPx
RRx
RDx
WDx
PUD
SYNCHRONIZER
WDx: WRITE DDRx
WRx: WRITE PORTx
RRx: READ PORTx REGISTER
RPx: READ PORTx PIN
PUD: PULLUP DISABLE
clk
I/O
: I/O CLOCK
RDx: READ DDRx
D
L
Q
Q
RESET
RESET
Q
Q
D
Q
Q D
CLR
PORTxn
Q
QD
CLR
DDxn
PINxn
DATA BUS
SLEEP
SLEEP: SLEEP CONTROL
Pxn
I/O
WPx
0
1
WRx
WPx: WRITE PINx REGISTER
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If PORTxn is written logic one when the pin is configured as an output pin, the port pin is driven
high (one). If PORTxn is written logic zero when the pin is configured as an output pin, the port
pin is driven low (zero).
12.2.2 Toggling the Pin
Writing a logic one to PINxn toggles the value of PORTxn, independent on the value of DDRxn.
Note that the SBI instruction can be used to toggle one single bit in a port.
12.2.3 Switching Between Input and Output
When switching between tri-state ({DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b00) and output high ({DDxn, PORTxn}
= 0b11), an intermediate state with either pull-up enabled {DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b01) or output
low ({DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b10) occurs. Normally, the pull-up enabled state is fully acceptable, as
a high-impedant environment will not notice the difference between a strong high driver and a
pull-up. If this is not the case, the PUD bit in the MCUCR Register can be set to disable all pull-
ups in all ports.
Switching between input with pull-up and output low generates the same problem. The user
must use either the tri-state ({DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b00) or the output high state ({DDxn, PORTxn}
= 0b11) as an intermediate step.
Table 12-1 summarizes the control signals for the pin value.
12.2.4 Reading the Pin Value
Independent of the setting of Data Direction bit DDxn, the port pin can be read through the
PINxn Register bit. As shown in Figure 12-2, the PINxn Register bit and the preceding latch con-
stitute a synchronizer. This is needed to avoid metastability if the physical pin changes value
near the edge of the internal clock, but it also introduces a delay. Figure 12-3 shows a timing dia-
gram of the synchronization when reading an externally applied pin value. The maximum and
minimum propagation delays are denoted tpd,max and tpd,min respectively.
Table 12-1. Port Pin Configurations
DDxn PORTxn PUD
(in MCUCR) I/O Pull-up Comment
0 0 X Input No Tri-state (Hi-Z)
0 1 0 Input Yes Pxn will source current if ext. pulled low.
0 1 1 Input No Tri-state (Hi-Z)
1 0 X Output No Output Low (Sink)
1 1 X Output No Output High (Source)
.1 mg
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Figure 12-3. Synchronization when Reading an Externally Applied Pin value
Consider the clock period starting shortly after the first falling edge of the system clock. The latch
is closed when the clock is low, and goes transparent when the clock is high, as indicated by the
shaded region of the “SYNC LATCH” signal. The signal value is latched when the system clock
goes low. It is clocked into the PINxn Register at the succeeding positive clock edge. As indi-
cated by the two arrows tpd,max and tpd,min, a single signal transition on the pin will be delayed
between ½ and 1½ system clock period depending upon the time of assertion.
When reading back a software assigned pin value, a nop instruction must be inserted as indi-
cated in Figure 12-4. The out instruction sets the “SYNC LATCH” signal at the positive edge of
the clock. In this case, the delay tpd through the synchronizer is 1 system clock period.
Figure 12-4. Synchronization when Reading a Software Assigned Pin Value
The following code example shows how to set port B pins 0 and 1 high, 2 and 3 low, and define
the port pins from 4 to 7 as input with pull-ups assigned to port pins 6 and 7. The resulting pin
values are read back again, but as previously discussed, a nop instruction is included to be able
to read back the value recently assigned to some of the pins.
XXX in r17, PINx
0x00 0xFF
INSTRUCTIONS
SYNC LATCH
PINxn
r17
XXX
SYSTEM CLK
tpd, max
tpd, min
out PORTx, r16 nop in r17, PINx
0xFF
0x00 0xFF
SYSTEM CLK
r16
INSTRUCTIONS
SYNC LATCH
PINxn
r17
t
pd
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Note: 1. For the assembly program, two temporary registers are used to minimize the time from pull-
ups are set on pins 0, 1, 6, and 7, until the direction bits are correctly set, defining bit 2 and 3
as low and redefining bits 0 and 1 as strong high drivers.
12.2.5 Digital Input Enable and Sleep Modes
As shown in Figure 12-2, the digital input signal can be clamped to ground at the input of the
schmitt-trigger. The signal denoted SLEEP in the figure, is set by the MCU Sleep Controller in
Power-down mode, Power-save mode, and Standby mode to avoid high power consumption if
some input signals are left floating, or have an analog signal level close to VCC/2.
SLEEP is overridden for port pins enabled as external interrupt pins. If the external interrupt
request is not enabled, SLEEP is active also for these pins. SLEEP is also overridden by various
other alternate functions as described in “Alternate Port Functions” on page 72.
If a logic high level (“one”) is present on an asynchronous external interrupt pin configured as
“Interrupt on Rising Edge, Falling Edge, or Any Logic Change on Pin” while the external interrupt
is not enabled, the corresponding External Interrupt Flag will be set when resuming from the
above mentioned Sleep mode, as the clamping in these sleep mode produces the requested
logic change.
Assembly Code Example(1)
...
; Define pull-ups and set outputs high
; Define directions for port pins
ldi r16,(1<<PB7)|(1<<PB6)|(1<<PB1)|(1<<PB0)
ldi r17,(1<<DDB3)|(1<<DDB2)|(1<<DDB1)|(1<<DDB0)
out PORTB,r16
out DDRB,r17
; Insert nop for synchronization
nop
; Read port pins
in r16,PINB
...
C Code Example
unsigned char i;
...
/* Define pull-ups and set outputs high */
/* Define directions for port pins */
PORTB = (1<<PB7)|(1<<PB6)|(1<<PB1)|(1<<PB0);
DDRB = (1<<DDB3)|(1<<DDB2)|(1<<DDB1)|(1<<DDB0);
/* Insert nop for synchronization*/
__no_operation();
/* Read port pins */
i = PINB;
...
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12.2.6 Unconnected Pins
If some pins are unused, it is recommended to ensure that these pins have a defined level. Even
though most of the digital inputs are disabled in the deep sleep modes as described above, float-
ing inputs should be avoided to reduce current consumption in all other modes where the digital
inputs are enabled (Reset, Active mode and Idle mode).
The simplest method to ensure a defined level of an unused pin, is to enable the internal pull-up.
In this case, the pull-up will be disabled during reset. If low power consumption during reset is
important, it is recommended to use an external pull-up or pull-down. Connecting unused pins
directly to VCC or GND is not recommended, since this may cause excessive currents if the pin is
accidentally configured as an output.
12.3 Alternate Port Functions
Most port pins have alternate functions in addition to being general digital I/Os. Figure 12-5
shows how the port pin control signals from the simplified Figure 12-2 can be overridden by
alternate functions. The overriding signals may not be present in all port pins, but the figure
serves as a generic description applicable to all port pins in the AVR microcontroller family.
Figure 12-5. Alternate Port Functions(1)
clk
RPx
RRx
WRx
RDx
WDx
PUD
SYNCHRONIZER
WDx: WRITE DDRx
WRx: WRITE PORTx
RRx: READ PORTx REGISTER
RPx: READ PORTx PIN
PUD: PULLUP DISABLE
clk
I/O
: I/O CLOCK
RDx: READ DDRx
D
L
Q
Q
SET
CLR
0
1
0
1
0
1
DIxn
AIOxn
DIEOExn
PVOVxn
PVOExn
DDOVxn
DDOExn
PUOExn
PUOVxn
PUOExn: Pxn PULL-UP OVERRIDE ENABLE
PUOVxn: Pxn PULL-UP OVERRIDE VALUE
DDOExn: Pxn DATA DIRECTION OVERRIDE ENABLE
DDOVxn: Pxn DATA DIRECTION OVERRIDE VALUE
PVOExn: Pxn PORT VALUE OVERRIDE ENABLE
PVOVxn: Pxn PORT VALUE OVERRIDE VALUE
DIxn: DIGITAL INPUT PIN n ON PORTx
AIOxn: ANALOG INPUT/OUTPUT PIN n ON PORTx
RESET
RESET
Q
QD
CLR
Q
QD
CLR
Q
Q
D
CLR
PINxn
PORTxn
DDxn
DATA BUS
0
1
DIEOVxn
SLEEP
DIEOExn: Pxn DIGITAL INPUT-ENABLE OVERRIDE ENABLE
DIEOVxn: Pxn DIGITAL INPUT-ENABLE OVERRIDE VALUE
SLEEP: SLEEP CONTROL
Pxn
I/O
0
1
PTOExn
PTOExn: Pxn, PORT TOGGLE OVERRIDE ENABLE
WPx: WRITE PINx
WPx
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Note: 1. WRx, WPx, WDx, RRx, RPx, and RDx are common to all pins within the same port. clkI/O,
SLEEP, and PUD are common to all ports. All other signals are unique for each pin.
Table 12-2 summarizes the function of the overriding signals. The pin and port indexes from Fig-
ure 12-5 are not shown in the succeeding tables. The overriding signals are generated internally
in the modules having the alternate function.
The following subsections shortly describe the alternate functions for each port, and relate the
overriding signals to the alternate function. Refer to the alternate function description for further
details.
Table 12-2. Generic Description of Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions
Signal Name Full Name Description
PUOE Pull-up Override
Enable
If this signal is set, the pull-up enable is controlled by the PUOV
signal. If this signal is cleared, the pull-up is enabled when
{DDxn, PORTxn, PUD} = 0b010.
PUOV Pull-up Override
Value
If PUOE is set, the pull-up is enabled/disabled when PUOV is
set/cleared, regardless of the setting of the DDxn, PORTxn,
and PUD Register bits.
DDOE Data Direction
Override Enable
If this signal is set, the Output Driver Enable is controlled by the
DDOV signal. If this signal is cleared, the Output driver is
enabled by the DDxn Register bit.
DDOV Data Direction
Override Value
If DDOE is set, the Output Driver is enabled/disabled when
DDOV is set/cleared, regardless of the setting of the DDxn
Register bit.
PVOE Port Value
Override Enable
If this signal is set and the Output Driver is enabled, the port
value is controlled by the PVOV signal. If PVOE is cleared, and
the Output Driver is enabled, the port Value is controlled by the
PORTxn Register bit.
PVOV Port Value
Override Value
If PVOE is set, the port value is set to PVOV, regardless of the
setting of the PORTxn Register bit.
PTOE Port Toggle
Override Enable If PTOE is set, the PORTxn Register bit is inverted.
DIEOE
Digital Input
Enable Override
Enable
If this bit is set, the Digital Input Enable is controlled by the
DIEOV signal. If this signal is cleared, the Digital Input Enable
is determined by MCU state (Normal mode, sleep mode).
DIEOV
Digital Input
Enable Override
Value
If DIEOE is set, the Digital Input is enabled/disabled when
DIEOV is set/cleared, regardless of the MCU state (Normal
mode, sleep mode).
DI Digital Input
This is the Digital Input to alternate functions. In the figure, the
signal is connected to the output of the schmitt trigger but
before the synchronizer. Unless the Digital Input is used as a
clock source, the module with the alternate function will use its
own synchronizer.
AIO Analog
Input/Output
This is the Analog Input/output to/from alternate functions. The
signal is connected directly to the pad, and can be used bi-
directionally.
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12.3.1 Alternate Functions of Port B
The Port B pins with alternate functions are shown in Table 12-3.
The alternate pin configuration is as follows:
OC0A/OC1C/PCINT7, Bit 7
OC0A, Output Compare Match A output: The PB7 pin can serve as an external output for the
Timer/Counter0 Output Compare. The pin has to be configured as an output (DDB7 set “one”) to
serve this function. The OC0A pin is also the output pin for the PWM mode timer function.
OC1C, Output Compare Match C output: The PB7 pin can serve as an external output for the
Timer/Counter1 Output Compare C. The pin has to be configured as an output (DDB7 set “one”)
to serve this function. The OC1C pin is also the output pin for the PWM mode timer function.
PCINT7, Pin Change Interrupt source 7: The PB7 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
PCINT6, Bit 6
PCINT6, Pin Change Interrupt source 6: The PB6 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
PCINT5, Bit 5
PCINT5, Pin Change Interrupt source 5: The PB5 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
T1/PCINT4, Bit 4
T1, Timer/Counter1 counter source.
PCINT4, Pin Change Interrupt source 4: The PB4 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
PDO/MISO/PCINT3 – Port B, Bit 3
PDO, SPI Serial Programming Data Output. During Serial Program Downloading, this pin is
used as data output line for the AT90USB82/162.
MISO: Master Data input, Slave Data output pin for SPI channel. When the SPI is enabled as a
master, this pin is configured as an input regardless of the setting of DDB3. When the SPI is
enabled as a slave, the data direction of this pin is controlled by DDB3. When the pin is forced to
be an input, the pull-up can still be controlled by the PORTB3 bit.
PCINT3, Pin Change Interrupt source 3: The PB3 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
Table 12-3. Port B Pins Alternate Functions
Port Pin Alternate Functions
PB7 OC0A/OC1C/PCINT7 (Output Compare and PWM Output A for Timer/Counter0, Output
Compare and PWM Output C for Timer/Counter1 or Pin Change Interrupt 7)
PB6 PCINT6 (Pin Change Interrupt 6)
PB5 PCINT5 (Pin Change Interrupt 5)
PB4 T1/PCINT4 (Timer/Counter1 Clock Input or Pin Change Interrupt 4)
PB3 PDO/MISO/PCINT3 (Programming Data Output or SPI Bus Master Input/Slave Output or
Pin Change Interrupt 3)
PB2 PDI/MOSI/PCINT2 (Programming Data Input or SPI Bus Master Output/Slave Input or Pin
Change Interrupt 2)
PB1 SCLK/PCINT1 (SPI Bus Serial Clock or Pin Change Interrupt 1)
PB0 SS/PCINT0 (SPI Slave Select input or Pin Change Interrupt 0)
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PDI/MOSI/PCINT2 – Port B, Bit 2
PDI, SPI Serial Programming Data Input. During Serial Program Downloading, this pin is used
as data input line for the AT90USB82/162.
MOSI: SPI Master Data output, Slave Data input for SPI channel. When the SPI is enabled as a
slave, this pin is configured as an input regardless of the setting of DDB2. When the SPI is
enabled as a master, the data direction of this pin is controlled by DDB2. When the pin is forced
to be an input, the pull-up can still be controlled by the PORTB2 bit.
PCINT2, Pin Change Interrupt source 2: The PB2 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
SCK/PCINT1 – Port B, Bit 1
SCK: Master Clock output, Slave Clock input pin for SPI channel. When the SPI is enabled as a
slave, this pin is configured as an input regardless of the setting of DDB1. When the SPI0 is
enabled as a master, the data direction of this pin is controlled by DDB1. When the pin is forced
to be an input, the pull-up can still be controlled by the PORTB1 bit. This pin also serves as
Clock for the Serial Programming interface.
PCINT1, Pin Change Interrupt source 1: The PB1 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
SS/PCINT0 – Port B, Bit 0
SS: Slave Port Select input. When the SPI is enabled as a slave, this pin is configured as an
input regardless of the setting of DDB0. As a slave, the SPI is activated when this pin is driven
low. When the SPI is enabled as a master, the data direction of this pin is controlled by DDB0.
When the pin is forced to be an input, the pull-up can still be controlled by the PORTB0 bit.
PCINT0, Pin Change Interrupt source 0: The PB0 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
Table 12-4 and Table 12-5 relate the alternate functions of Port B to the overriding signals
shown in Figure 12-5 on page 72. SPI MSTR INPUT and SPI SLAVE OUTPUT constitute the
MISO signal, while MOSI is divided into SPI MSTR OUTPUT and SPI SLAVE INPUT.
PCINT0, Pin Change Interrupt source 0: The PB0 pin can serve as an external interrupt source
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.Table 12-4 and Table 12-5 relate the alternate functions of Port B to the overriding signals
shown in Figure 12-5 on page 72. SPI MSTR INPUT and SPI SLAVE OUTPUT constitute the
MISO signal, while MOSI is divided into SPI MSTR OUTPUT and SPI SLAVE INPUT..
Table 12-4. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PB7..PB4
Signal
Name PB7/OC0A/OC1C/
PCINT7 PB6/PCINT6 PB5/PCINT5 PB4/T1/PCINT4
PUOE 0 0 0 0
PUOV 0 0 0 0
DDOE 0 0 0 0
DDOV 0 0 0 0
PVOE OC0A/OC1C ENABLE 0 0 0
PVOV OC0A/OC1C 0 0 0
DIEOE PCINT7 • PCIE0 PCINT6 • PCIE0 PCINT5 • PCIE0 PCINT4 • PCIE0
DIEOV 1 1 1 1
DI PCINT7 INPUT PCINT6 INPUT PCINT5 INPUT PCINT4 INPUT
T1 INPUT
AIO –
Table 12-5. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PB3..PB0
Signal
Name PB3/MISO/PCINT3/
PDO PB2/MOSI/PCINT2/
PDI PB1/SCK/
PCINT1 PB0/SS/PCINT0
PUOE SPE • MSTR SPE • MSTR SPE • MSTR SPE • MSTR
PUOV PORTB3 PUD PORTB2 • PUD PORTB1 • PUD PORTB0 • PUD
DDOE SPE • MSTR SPE • MSTR SPE • MSTR SPE • MSTR
DDOV 0 0 0 0
PVOE SPE MSTR SPE • MSTR SPE • MSTR 0
PVOV SPI SLAVE OUTPUT SPI MSTR OUTPUT SCK OUTPUT 0
DIEOE PCINT3 • PCIE0 PCINT2 • PCIE0 PCINT1 • PCIE0 PCINT0 • PCIE0
DIEOV 1 1 1 1
DI SPI MSTR INPUT
PCINT3 INPUT
SPI SLAVE INPUT
PCINT2 INPUT
SCK INPUT
PCINT1 INPUT
SPI SS
PCINT0 INPUT
AIO –
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12.3.2 Alternate Functions of Port C
The Port C alternate function is as follows:
The alternate pin configuration is as follows:
ICP1/INT4/CLK0, Bit 7
ICP1, Input Capture pin 1 :The PC7 pin can act as an input capture for Timer/Counter1.
INT4, External Interrupt source 4 : The PC7 pin can serve as an external interrupt source to the
MCU.
CLK0, Clock Output : The PC7 pin can serve as oscillator clock ouput if the feature is enabled by
fuse.
PCINT8/OC1A, Bit 6
PCINT8, Pin Change Interrupt source 8 : The PC6 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
OC1A, Output Compare Match A output: The PC6 pin can serve as an external output for the
Timer/Counter1 Output Compare. The pin has to be configured as an output (DDC6 set “one”) to
serve this function. The OC1A pin is also the output pin for the PWM mode timer function.
PCINT9/OC1B, Bit 5
PCINT9, Pin Change Interrupt source 9: The PC5 pin can serve as an external interrupt source.
OC1B, Output Compare Match B output: The PC5 pin can serve as an external output for the
Timer/Counter1 Output Compare. The pin has to be configured as an output (DDC5 set “one”) to
serve this function. The OC1B pin is also the output pin for the PWM mode timer function.
PCINT10, Bit 4
PCINT10, Pin Change Interrupt source 10 : The PC4 pin can serve as an external interrupt
source.
PCINT11, Bit 2
PCINT11, Pin Change Interrupt source 11 : The PC2 pin can serve as an external interrupt
source.
Reset/dW, Bit 1
Table 12-6. Port C Pins Alternate Functions
Port Pin Alternate Function
PC7 ICP1/INT4/CLKO
PC6 PCINT8/OC1A
PC5 PCINT9/OC1B
PC4 PCINT10
--
PC2 PCINT11
PC1 Reset, dW
PC0 XTAL2
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Reset, Reset input. External Reset input is active low and enabled by unprogramming ("1") the
RSTDISBL Fuse. Pullup is activated and output driver and digital input are deactivated when the
pin is used as the RESET pin.
dW, debugWire channel. When the debugWIRE Enable (DWEN) Fuse is programmed and Lock
bits are unprogrammed, the debugWIRE system within the target device is activated. The
RESET port pin is configured as a wired -AND (open-drain) bi-directional I/O pin with pull-up
enabled and becomes the communication gateway between the target and the emulator.
XTAL2, Bit 0
XTAL2, Oscillator. The PC0 pin can serve as Inverting Output for internal Oscillator amplifier.
Table 12-7 and Table 12-8 relate the alternate functions of Port C to the overriding signals
shown in Figure 12-5 on page 72.
Table 12-7. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PC7..PC4
Signal
Name PC7/ICP1/INT4/CLK0 PC6/PCINT8/
OC1A PC5/PCINT9/
OC1B PC4/PCINT10
PUOE 0 0 0 0
PUOV 0 0 0 0
DDOE 0 0 0 0
DDOV 0 0 0 0
PVOE 0 OC1A ENABLE OC1B ENABLE 0
PVOV 0 OC1A OC1B 0
DIEOE INT4 ENABLE PCINT8 ENABLE PCINT9 ENABLE PCINT10 ENABLE
DIEOV 1 1 1 1
DI INT4 INPUT PCINT8 INPUT PCINT9 INPUT PCINT10 INPUT
AIO – – –
Table 12-8. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PC2..PC0
Signal
Name PC2/PCINT11 PC1/RESET/dW PC0/XTAL2
PUOE 0 0 0
PUOV 0 0 0
DDOE 0 0 0
DDOV 0 0 0
PVOE 0 0 0
PVOV 0 0 0
DIEOE PCINT11 ENABLE 0 0
DIEOV 1 0 0
DI PCINT11 INPUT
AIO –
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12.3.3 Alternate Functions of Port D
The Port D pins with alternate functions are shown in Table 12-9.
The alternate pin configuration is as follows:
HWB/TO/INT7/CTS, Bit 7
HWB, Hardware Boot : The PD7 pin can serve as
TO, Timer/Counter0 counter source.
INT7, External Interrupt source 7: The PD7 pin can serve as an external interrupt source to the
MCU.
CTS, USART1 Transmitter Flow Control. This pin can control the transmitter in function of its
state.
INT6/RTS,Bit 6
INT6, External Interrupt source 6: The PD6 pin can serve as an external interrupt source to the
MCU.
RTS, USART1 Receiver Flow Control. This pin can control the receiver in function of its state.
XCK1/PCINT12, Bit 5
XCK1, USART1 External Clock : The data direction register DDRD5 controls whether the clock
is output (DDRD5 set) or input (DDRD5 cleared). The XCK1 pin is active only when the USART1
operates in Synchronous Mode.
PCINT12, Pin Change Interrupt source 12: The PD5 pin can serve as an external interrupt
source.
INT5, Bit 4
INT5, External Interrupt source 5: The PD4 pin can serve as an external interrupt source to the
MCU.
INT3/TXD1, Bit 3
INT3, External Interrupt source 3: The PD3 pin can serve as an external interrupt source to the
MCU.
Table 12-9. Port D Pins Alternate Functions
Port Pin Alternate Function
PD7 HWB/TO/INT7/CTS
PD6 INT6/RTS
PD5 XCK1/PCINT12 (USART1 External Clock Input/Output)
PD4 INT5
PD3 INT3/TXD1 (External Interrupt3 Input or USART1 Transmit Pin)
PD2 INT2/AIN1/RXD1(External Interrupt2 Input or USART1 Receive Pin)
PD1 INT1/AIN0 (External Interrupt1 Input)
PD0 INT0/OC0B (External Interrupt0 Input)
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TXD1, USART1 Transmit Data : When the USART1 Transmitter is enabled, this pin is config-
ured as an ouput regardless of DDRD3.
INT2/AIN1/RXD1, Bit 2
INT2, External Interrupt source 2: The PD2 pin can serve as an external interrupt source to the
MCU.
AIN1, Analog Comparator Negative input. This pin is directly connected to the negative input of
the Analog Comparator.
RXD1, USART1 Receive Data : When the USART1 Receiver is enabled, this pin is configured
as an input regardless of DDRD2. When the USART forces this pin to be an input, the pull-up
can still be controlled by the PORTD2 bit.
INT1/AIN0, Bit 1
INT1, External Interrupt source 1: The PD1 pin can serve as an external interrupt source to the
MCU.
AIN0, Analog Comparator Positive input. This pin is directly connected to the positive input of
the Analog Comparator.
INT0/OC0B, Bit 0
INT0, External Interrupt source 0: The PD0 pin can serve as an external interrupt source to the
MCU.
OC0B, Output Compare Match B output: The PD0 pin can serve as an external output for the
Timer/Counter0 Output Compare. The pin has to be configured as an output (DDD0 set “one”) to
serve this function. The OC0B pin is also the output pin for the PWM mode timer function.
Table 12-10 and Table 12-11 relates the alternate functions of Port D to the overriding signals
shown in Figure 12-5 on page 72.
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Note: 1. When enabled, the 2-wire Serial Interface enables Slew-Rate controls on the output pins PD0
and PD1. This is not shown in this table. In addition, spike filters are connected between the
AIO outputs shown in the port figure.
Table 12-10. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions PD7..PD4
Signal Name PD7/T0/INT7/
HBW/CTS PD6/INT6/
RTS PD5/XCK/PCINT12 PD4/INT5
PUOE CTS RTS 0 0
PUOV PORTD7 •
PUD 00 0
DDOE CTS RTS 0 0
DDOV 0 1 0 0
PVOE 0
RTS
OUTPUT
ENABLE
XCK OUTPUT ENABLE 0
PVOV 0 RTS
OUTPUT XCK1 OUTPUT 0
DIEOE INT7/CTS
ENABLE
INT6
ENABLE PCINT12 ENABLE INT5
ENABLE
DIEOV 1 1 1 1
DI
T0 INPUT
INT7 INPUT
CTS INPUT
INT6 INPUT XCK INPUT
PCINT12 INPUT INT5 INPUT
AIO – – –
Table 12-11. Overriding Signals for Alternate Functions in PD3..PD0(1)
Signal Name PD3/INT3/TXD1 PD2/INT2/RXD1/
AIN1 PD1/INT1/AIN0 PD0/INT0/OC0B
PUOE TXEN1 RXEN1 0 0
PUOV 0 PORTD2 • PUD 0 0
DDOE TXEN1 RXEN1 0 0
DDOV 1 0 0 0
PVOE TXEN1 0 0 OC0B ENABLE
PVOV TXD1 0 0 OC0B
DIEOE INT3 ENABLE INT2 ENABLE
AIN1 ENABLE
INT1 ENABLE
AIN0 ENABLE INT0 ENABLE
DIEOV 1 AIN1 ENABLE AIN0 ENABLE 1
DI INT3 INPUT INT2 INPUT/RXD1 INT1 INPUT INT0 INPUT
AIO AIN1 INPUT AIN0 INPUT
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12.4 Register Description for I/O-Ports
12.4.1 MCUCR – MCU Control Register
Bit 4 – PUD: Pull-up Disable
When this bit is written to one, the pull-ups in the I/O ports are disabled even if the DDxn and
PORTxn Registers are configured to enable the pull-ups ({DDxn, PORTxn} = 0b01). See “Con-
figuring the Pin” on page 68 for more details about this feature.
12.4.2 PORTB – Port B Data Register
12.4.3 DDRB – Port B Data Direction Register
12.4.4 PINB – Port B Input Pins Address
12.4.5 PORTC – Port C Data Register
12.4.6 DDRC – Port C Data Direction Register
12.4.7 PINC – Port C Input Pins Address
Bit 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0x35 (0x55) JTD PUD IVSEL IVCE MCUCR
Read/Write R/W R R R/W R R R/W R/W
Initial Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Bit 76543210
0x05 (0x25) PORTB7 PORTB6 PORTB5 PORTB4 PORTB3 PORTB2 PORTB1 PORTB0 PORTB
Read/Write R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W
Initial Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Bit 76543210
0x04 (0x24) DDB7 DDB6 DDB5 DDB4 DDB3 DDB2 DDB1 DDB0 DDRB
Read/Write R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W
Initial Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Bit 76543210
0x03 (0x23) PINB7 PINB6 PINB5 PINB4 PINB3 PINB2 PINB1 PINB0 PINB
Read/Write R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W
Initial Value N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Bit 76543210
0x08 (0x28) PORTC7 PORTC6 PORTC5 PORTC4 - PORTC2 PORTC1 PORTC0 PORTC
Read/Write R/W R/W R/W R/W R R/W R/W R/W
Initial Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Bit 76543210
0x07 (0x27) DDC7 DDC6 DDC5 DDC4 - DDC2 DDC1 DDC0 DDRC
Read/Write R/W R/W R/W R/W R R/W R/W R/W
Initial Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Bit 76543210
0x06 (0x26) PINC7 PINC6 PINC5 PINC4 - PINC2 PINC1 PINC0 PINC
Read/Write R/W R/W R/W R/W R R/W R/W R/W
Initial Value N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
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12.4.8 PORTD – Port D Data Register
12.4.9 DDRD – Port D Data Direction Register
12.4.10 PIND – Port D Input Pins Address
Bit 76543210
0x0B (0x2B) PORTD7 PORTD6 PORTD5 PORTD4 PORTD3 PORTD2 PORTD1 PORTD0 PORTD
Read/Write R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W
Initial Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Bit 76543210
0x0A (0x2A) DDD7 DDD6 DDD5 DDD4 DDD3 DDD2 DDD1 DDD0 DDRD
Read/Write R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W
Initial Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Bit 76543210
0x09 (0x29) PIND7 PIND6 PIND5 PIND4 PIND3 PIND2 PIND1 PIND0 PIND
Read/Write R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W
Initial Value N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
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13. External Interrupts
13.1 Overview
The External Interrupts are triggered by the INT[7:0] pin or any of the PCINT[12:0] pins. Observe
that, if enabled, the interrupts will trigger even if the INT[7:0] or PCINT[12:0] pins are configured
as outputs. This feature provides a way of generating a software interrupt.
The Pin change interrupt PCI0 will trigger if any enabled PCINT[7:0] pin toggles. PCMSK0 Reg-
ister control which pins contribute to the pin change interrupts. The Pin change interrupt PCI1
will trigger if any enabled PCINT[12:8] pin toggles. PCMSK1 Register control which pins contrib-
ute to the pin change interrupts. Pin change interrupts on PCINT[12:0] are detected
asynchronously. This implies that these interrupts can be used for waking the part also from
sleep modes other than Idle mode.
The External Interrupts can be triggered by a falling or rising edge or a low level. This is set up
as indicated in the specification for the External Interrupt Control Registers – EICRA (INT[3:0])
and EICRB (INT[7:4]). When the external interrupt is enabled and is configured as level trig-
gered, the interrupt will trigger as long as the pin is held low. Note that recognition of falling or
rising edge interrupts on INT[7:4] requires the presence of an I/O clock, described in “System
Clock and Clock Options” on page 26. Low level interrupts and the edge interrupt on INT[3:0] are
detected asynchronously. This implies that these interrupts can be used for waking the part also
from sleep modes other than Idle mode. The I/O clock is halted in all sleep modes except Idle
mode.
Note that if a level triggered interrupt is used for wake-up from Power-down, the required level
must be held long enough for the MCU to complete the wake-up to trigger the level interrupt. If
the level disappears before the end of the Start-up Time, the MCU will still wake up, but no inter-
rupt will be generated. The start-up time is defined by the SUT and CKSEL Fuses as described
in “System Clock and Clock Options” on page 26.
13.2 Register Description
13.2.1 EICRA – External Interrupt Control Register A
The External Interrupt Control Register A contains control bits for interrupt sense control.
Bits 7:0 – ISC31, ISC30 – ISC00, ISC00: External Interrupt 3:0 Sense Control Bits
The External Interrupts 3:0 are activated by the external pins INT[3:0] if the SREG I-flag and the
corresponding interrupt mask in the EIMSK is set. The level and edges on the external pins that
activate the interrupts are defined in Table 13-1. Edges on INT[3:0] are registered asynchro-
nously. Pulses on INT[3:0] pins wider than the minimum pulse width given in “External Interrupts
Characteristics” on page 268 will generate an interrupt. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to
generate an interrupt. If low level interrupt is selected, the low level must be held until the com-
pletion of the currently executing instruction to generate an interrupt. If enabled, a level triggered
interrupt will generate an interrupt request as long as the pin is held low. When changing the
ISCn bit, an interrupt can occur. Therefore, it is recommended to first disable INTn by clearing its
Interrupt Enable bit in the EIMSK Register. Then, the ISCn bit can be changed. Finally, the INTn
Bit 76543210
(0x69) ISC31 ISC30 ISC21 ISC20 ISC11 ISC10 ISC01 ISC00 EICRA
Read/Write R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W
Initial Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
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interrupt flag should be cleared by writing a logical one to its Interrupt Flag bit (INTFn) in the
EIFR Register before the interrupt is re-enabled.
Note: 1. n = 3, 2, 1or 0.
When changing the ISCn1/ISCn0 bits, the interrupt must be disabled by clearing its Interrupt
Enable bit in the EIMSK Register. Otherwise an interrupt can occur when the bits are changed.
13.2.2 EICRB – External Interrupt Control Register B
Bits 7:0 – ISC71, ISC70 - ISC41, ISC40: External Interrupt 7:4 Sense Control Bits
The External Interrupts [7:4] are activated by the external pins INT[7:4] if the SREG I-flag and
the corresponding interrupt mask in the EIMSK is set. The level and edges on the external pins
that activate the interrupts are defined in Table 13-2. The value on the INT[7:4] pins are sampled
before detecting edges. If edge or toggle interrupt is selected, pulses that last longer than one
clock period will generate an interrupt. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate an inter-
rupt. Observe that CPU clock frequency can be lower than the XTAL frequency if the XTAL
divider is enabled. If low level interrupt is selected, the low level must be held until the comple-
tion of the currently executing instruction to generate an interrupt. If enabled, a level triggered
interrupt will generate an interrupt request as long as the pin is held low.
Note: 1. n = 7, 6, 5 or 4.
When changing the ISCn1/ISCn0 bits, the interrupt must be disabled by clearing its Interrupt
Enable bit in the EIMSK Register. Otherwise an interrupt can occur when the bits are changed.
Table 13-1. Interrupt Sense Control(1)
ISCn1 ISCn0 Description
0 0 The low level of INTn generates an interrupt request.
0 1 Any edge of INTn generates asynchronously an interrupt request.
1 0 The falling edge of INTn generates asynchronously an interrupt request.
1 1 The rising edge of INTn generates asynchronously an interrupt request.
Bit 76543210
(0x6A) ISC71 ISC70 ISC61 ISC60 ISC51 ISC50 ISC41 ISC40 EICRB
Read/Write R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W
Initial Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Table 13-2. Interrupt Sense Control(1)
ISCn1 ISCn0 Description
0 0 The low level of INTn generates an interrupt request.
0 1 Any logical change on INTn generates an interrupt request
1 0 The falling edge between two samples of INTn generates an interrupt request.
1 1 The rising edge between two samples of INTn generates an interrupt request.
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13.2.3 EIMSK – External Interrupt Mask Register
Bits 7:0 – INT[7:0]: External Interrupt Request 7:0 Enable
When an INT[7:0] bit is written to one and the I-bit in the Status Register (SREG) is set (one), the
corresponding external pin interrupt is enabled. The Interrupt Sense Control bits in the External
Interrupt Control Registers – EICRA and EICRB – defines whether the external interrupt is acti-
vated on rising or falling edge or level sensed. Activity on any of these pins will trigger an
interrupt request even if the pin is enabled as an output. This provides a way of generating a
software interrupt.
13.2.4 EIFR – External Interrupt Flag Register
Bits 7:0 – INTF[7:0]: External Interrupt Flags 7:0
When an edge or logic change on the INT[7:0] pin triggers an interrupt request, INTF[7:0]
becomes set (one). If the I-bit in SREG and the corresponding interrupt enable bit, INT[7:0] in
EIMSK, are set (one), the MCU will jump to the interrupt vector. The flag is cleared when the
interrupt routine is executed. Alternatively, the flag can be cleared by writing a logical one to it.
These flags are always cleared when INT[7:0] are configured as level interrupt. Note that when
entering sleep mode with the INT[3:0] interrupts disabled, the input buffers on these pins will be
disabled. This may cause a logic change in internal signals which will set the INTF[3:0] flags.
See “Digital Input Enable and Sleep Modes” on page 71 for more information.
13.2.5 PCICR – Pin Change Interrupt Control Register
Bit 1:0 – PCIE[1:0]: Pin Change Interrupt Enable 1:0
When the PCIE1/0 bit is set (one) and the I-bit in the Status Register (SREG) is set (one), Pin
Change interrupt 1/0 is enabled. Any change on any enabled PCINT[12:8]/[7:0] pin will cause an
interrupt. The corresponding interrupt of Pin Change Interrupt Request is executed from the
PCI1/0 Interrupt Vector. PCINT[12:8]/[7:0] pins are enabled individually by the PCMSK1/0
Register.
13.2.6 PCIFR – Pin Change Interrupt Flag Register
Bit 76543210
0x1D (0x3D) INT7 INT6 INT5 INT4 INT3 INT2 INT1 IINT0 EIMSK
Read/Write R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W
Initial Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Bit 76543210
0x1C (0x3C) INTF7 INTF6 INTF5 INTF4 INTF3 INTF2 INTF1 INTF0 EIFR
Read/Write R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W
Initial Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Bit 76543210
(0x68) - - – – – – PCIE1 PCIE0 PCICR
Read/Write R R R R R R R/W R/W
Initial Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Bit 76543210
0x1B (0x3B) - - – – – – PCIF1 PCIF0 PCIFR
Read/Write R R R R R R R/W R/W
Initial Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
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Bit 1:0 – PCIF[1:0]: Pin Change Interrupt Flag 1:0
When a logic change on any PCINT[12:8]/[7:0] pin triggers an interrupt request, PCIF1/0
becomes set (one). If the I-bit in SREG and the PCIE1/0 bit in EIMSK are set (one), the MCU will
jump to the corresponding Interrupt Vector. The flag is cleared when the interrupt routine is exe-
cuted. Alternatively, the flag can be cleared by writing a logical one to it.
13.2.7 PCMSK0 – Pin Change Mask Register 0
Bit 7:0 – PCINT[7:0]: Pin Change Enable Mask 7:0
Each PCINT[7:0] bit selects whether pin change interrupt is enabled on the corresponding I/O
pin. If PCINT[7:0] is set and the PCIE0 bit in PCICR is set, pin change interrupt is enabled on the
corresponding I/O pin. If PCINT[7:0] is cleared, pin change interrupt on the corresponding I/O
pin is disabled.
13.2.8 PCMSK1 – Pin Change Mask Register 1
Bit 4:0 – PCINT[12:8]: Pin Change Enable Mask 12:8
Each PCINT[12:8] bit selects whether pin change interrupt is enabled on the corresponding I/O
pin. If PCINT[12:8] is set and the PCIE1 bit in PCICR is set, pin change interrupt is enabled on
the corresponding I/O pin. If PCINT[12:8] is cleared, pin change interrupt on the corresponding
I/O pin is disabled.
Bit 76543210
(0x6B) PCINT7 PCINT6 PCINT5 PCINT4 PCINT3 PCINT2 PCINT1 PCINT0 PCMSK0
Read/Write R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W
Initial Value 0 0 0 0 0000
Bit 76543210
(0x6C) - - - PCINT12 PCINT11 PCINT10 PCINT9 PCINT8 PCMSK1
Read/Write R R R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W
Initial Value 0 0 0 0 0000
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14. Timer/Counter0 and Timer/Counter1 Prescalers
14.1 Overview
Timer/Counter0 and 1 share the same prescaler module, but the Timer/Counters can have dif-
ferent prescaler settings. The description below applies to all Timer/Counters. Tn is used as a
general name, n = 0 or 1.
14.2 Internal Clock Source
The Timer/Counter can be clocked directly by the system clock (by setting the CSn[2:0] = 1).
This provides the fastest operation, with a maximum Timer/Counter clock frequency equal to
system clock frequency (fCLK_I/O). Alternatively, one of four taps from the prescaler can be used
as a clock source. The prescaled clock has a frequency of either fCLK_I/O/8, fCLK_I/O/64,
fCLK_I/O/256, or fCLK_I/O/1024.
14.3 Prescaler Reset
The prescaler is free running, i.e., operates independently of the Clock Select logic of the
Timer/Counter, and it is shared by the Timer/Counter Tn. Since the prescaler is not affected by
the Timer/Counter’s clock select, the state of the prescaler will have implications for situations
where a prescaled clock is used. One example of prescaling artifacts occurs when the timer is
enabled and clocked by the prescaler (6 > CSn[2:0] > 1). The number of system clock cycles
from when the timer is enabled to the first count occurs can be from 1 to N+1 system clock
cycles, where N equals the prescaler divisor (8, 64, 256, or 1024).
It is possible to use the prescaler reset for synchronizing the Timer/Counter to program execu-
tion. However, care must be taken if the other Timer/Counter that shares the same prescaler
also uses prescaling. A prescaler reset will affect the prescaler period for all Timer/Counters it is
connected to.
14.4 External Clock Source
An external clock source applied to the Tn pin can be used as Timer/Counter clock (clkTn). The
Tn pin is sampled once every system clock cycle by the pin synchronization logic. The synchro-
nized (sampled) signal is then passed through the edge detector. Figure 14-1 shows a functional
equivalent block diagram of the Tn synchronization and edge detector logic. The registers are
clocked at the positive edge of the internal system clock (clkI/O). The latch is transparent in the
high period of the internal system clock.
The edge detector generates one clkTn pulse for each positive (CSn2:0 = 7) or negative (CSn2:0
= 6) edge it detects.
Figure 14-1. Tn/T0 Pin Sampling
Tn_sync
(To Clock
Select Logic)
Edge DetectorSynchronization
DQDQ
LE
DQ
Tn
clk
I/O
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The synchronization and edge detector logic introduces a delay of 2.5 to 3.5 system clock cycles
from an edge has been applied to the Tn pin to the counter is updated.
Enabling and disabling of the clock input must be done when Tn has been stable for at least one
system clock cycle, otherwise it is a risk that a false Timer/Counter clock pulse is generated.
Each half period of the external clock applied must be longer than one system clock cycle to
ensure correct sampling. The external clock must be guaranteed to have less than half the sys-
tem clock frequency (fExtClk < fclk_I/O/2) given a 50/50% duty cycle. Since the edge detector uses
sampling, the maximum frequency of an external clock it can detect is half the sampling fre-
quency (Nyquist sampling theorem). However, due to variation of the system clock frequency
and duty cycle caused by Oscillator source (crystal, resonator, and capacitors) tolerances, it is
recommended that maximum frequency of an external clock source is less than fclk_I/O/2.5.
An external clock source can not be prescaled.
Figure 14-2. Prescaler for synchronous Timer/Counters
14.5 Register Description
14.5.1 GTCCR – General Timer/Counter Control Register
Bit 7 – TSM: Timer/Counter Synchronization Mode
Writing the TSM bit to one activates the Timer/Counter Synchronization mode. In this mode, the
value that is written to the PSRASY and PSRSYNC bits is kept, hence keeping the correspond-
ing prescaler reset signals asserted. This ensures that the corresponding Timer/Counters are
halted and can be configured to the same value without the risk of one of them advancing during
configuration. When the TSM bit is written to zero, the PSRASY and PSRSYNC bits are cleared
by hardware, and the Timer/Counters start counting simultaneously.
PSR10
Clear
Tn
Tn
clk
I/O
Synchronization
Synchronization
TIMER/COUNTERn CLOCK SOURCE
clk
Tn
TIMER/COUNTERn CLOCK SOURCE
clk
Tn
CSn0
CSn1
CSn2
CSn0
CSn1
CSn2
Bit 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0x23 (0x43) TSM - PSRSYNC GTCCR
Read/Write R/W R R R R R R R/W
Initial Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
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Bits 6:1 – Res: Reserved
These bits are reserved and will always read as zero.
Bit 0 – PSRSYNC: Prescaler Reset for Synchronous Timer/Counters
When this bit is one, Timer/Counter0 and Timer/Counter1, Timer/Counter3, Timer/Counter4 and
Timer/Counter5 prescaler will be Reset. This bit is normally cleared immediately by hardware,
except if the TSM bit is set. Note that Timer/Counter0 and Timer/Counter1 share the same pres-
caler and a reset of this prescaler will affect all timers.
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15. 8-bit Timer/Counter0 with PWM
15.1 Features
Two Independent Output Compare Units
Double Buffered Output Compare Registers
Clear Timer on Compare Match (Auto Reload)
Glitch Free, Phase Correct Pulse Width Modulator (PWM)
Variable PWM Period
Frequency Generator
Three Independent Interrupt Sources (TOV0, OCF0A, and OCF0B)
15.2 Overview
Timer/Counter0 is a general purpose 8-bit Timer/Counter module, with two independent Output
Compare Units, and with PWM support. It allows accurate program execution timing (event man-
agement) and wave generation.
A simplified block diagram of the 8-bit Timer/Counter is shown in Figure 15-1. For the actual
placement of I/O pins, refer to “Pinout” on page 2. CPU accessible I/O Registers, including I/O
bits and I/O pins, are shown in bold. The device-specific I/O Register and bit locations are listed
in the “Register Description” on page 102.
Figure 15-1. 8-bit Timer/Counter Block Diagram
15.2.1 Registers
The Timer/Counter (TCNT0) and Output Compare Registers (OCR0A and OCR0B) are 8-bit
registers. Interrupt request (abbreviated to Int.Req. in the figure) signals are all visible in the
Timer Interrupt Flag Register (TIFR0). All interrupts are individually masked with the Timer Inter-
rupt Mask Register (TIMSK0). TIFR0 and TIMSK0 are not shown in the figure.
The Timer/Counter can be clocked internally, via the prescaler, or by an external clock source on
the T0 pin. The Clock Select logic block controls which clock source and edge the Timer/Counter
Clock Select
Timer/Counter
DATA BUS
OCRnA
OCRnB
=
=
TCNTn
Waveform
Generation
Waveform
Generation
OCnA
OCnB
=
Fixed
TOP
Value
Control Logic
=
0
TOP BOTTOM
Count
Clear
Direction
TOVn
(Int.Req.)
OCnA
(Int.Req.)
OCnB
(Int.Req.)
TCCRnA TCCRnB
Tn
Edge
Detector
( From Prescaler )
clk
Tn
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uses to increment (or decrement) its value. The Timer/Counter is inactive when no clock source
is selected. The output from the Clock Select logic is referred to as the timer clock (clkT0).
The double buffered Output Compare Registers (OCR0A and OCR0B) are compared with the
Timer/Counter value at all times. The result of the compare can be used by the Waveform Gen-
erator to generate a PWM or variable frequency output on the Output Compare pins (OC0A and
OC0B). See “Output Compare Unit” on page 93. for details. The Compare Match event will also
set the Compare Flag (OCF0A or OCF0B) which can be used to generate an Output Compare
interrupt request.
15.2.2 Definitions
Many register and bit references in this section are written in general form. A lower case “n”
replaces the Timer/Counter number, in this case 0. A lower case “x” replaces the Output Com-
pare Unit, in this case Compare Unit A or Compare Unit B. However, when using the register or
bit defines in a program, the precise form must be used, i.e., TCNT0 for accessing
Timer/Counter0 counter value and so on.
The definitions in Table 15-1 are also used extensively throughout the document.
15.3 Timer/Counter Clock Sources
The Timer/Counter can be clocked by an internal or an external clock source. The clock source
is selected by the Clock Select logic which is controlled by the Clock Select (CS02:0) bits
located in the Timer/Counter Control Register (TCCR0B). For details on clock sources and pres-
caler, see “Timer/Counter0 and Timer/Counter1 Prescalers” on page 88.
15.4 Counter Unit
The main part of the 8-bit Timer/Counter is the programmable bi-directional counter unit. Figure
15-2 shows a block diagram of the counter and its surroundings.
Figure 15-2. Counter Unit Block Diagram
Signal description (internal signals):
Table 15-1. Definitions
BOTTOM The counter reaches the BOTTOM when it becomes 0x00.
MAX The counter reaches its MAXimum when it becomes 0xFF (decimal 255).
TOP The counter reaches the TOP when it becomes equal to the highest value in the
count sequence. The TOP value can be assigned to be the fixed value 0xFF
(MAX) or the value stored in the OCR0A Register. The assignment is depen-
dent on the mode of operation.
DATA BUS
TCNTn Control Logic
count
TOVn
(Int.Req.)
Clock Select
top
Tn
Edge
Detector
( From Prescaler )
clk
Tn
bottom
direction
clear
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count Increment or decrement TCNT0 by 1.
direction Select between increment and decrement.
clear Clear TCNT0 (set all bits to zero).
clkTnTimer/Counter clock, referred to as clkT0 in the following.
top Signalize that TCNT0 has reached maximum value.
bottom Signalize that TCNT0 has reached minimum value (zero).
Depending of the mode of operation used, the counter is cleared, incremented, or decremented
at each timer clock (clkT0). clkT0 can be generated from an external or internal clock source,
selected by the Clock Select bits (CS0[2:0]). When no clock source is selected (CS0[2:0] = 0)
the timer is stopped. However, the TCNT0 value can be accessed by the CPU, regardless of
whether clkT0 is present or not. A CPU write overrides (has priority over) all counter clear or
count operations.
The counting sequence is determined by the setting of the WGM01 and WGM00 bits located in
the Timer/Counter Control Register (TCCR0A) and the WGM02 bit located in the Timer/Counter
Control Register B (TCCR0B). There are close connections between how the counter behaves
(counts) and how waveforms are generated on the Output Compare outputs OC0A and OC0B.
For more details about advanced counting sequences and waveform generation, see “Modes of
Operation” on page 96.
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV0) is set according to the mode of operation selected by
the WGM0[2:0] bits. TOV0 can be used for generating a CPU interrupt.
15.5 Output Compare Unit
The 8-bit comparator continuously compares TCNT0 with the Output Compare Registers
(OCR0A and OCR0B). Whenever TCNT0 equals OCR0A or OCR0B, the comparator signals a
match. A match will set the Output Compare Flag (OCF0A or OCF0B) at the next timer clock
cycle. If the corresponding interrupt is enabled, the Output Compare Flag generates an Output
Compare interrupt. The Output Compare Flag is automatically cleared when the interrupt is exe-
cuted. Alternatively, the flag can be cleared by software by writing a logical one to its I/O bit
location. The Waveform Generator uses the match signal to generate an output according to
operating mode set by the WGM0[2:0] bits and Compare Output mode (COM0x[1:0]) bits. The
max and bottom signals are used by the Waveform Generator for handling the special cases of
the extreme values in some modes of operation (“Modes of Operation” on page 96).
Figure 15-3 shows a block diagram of the Output Compare unit.
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Figure 15-3. Output Compare Unit, Block Diagram
The OCR0x Registers are double buffered when using any of the Pulse Width Modulation
(PWM) modes. For the normal and Clear Timer on Compare (CTC) modes of operation, the dou-
ble buffering is disabled. The double buffering synchronizes the update of the OCR0x Compare
Registers to either top or bottom of the counting sequence. The synchronization prevents the
occurrence of odd-length, non-symmetrical PWM pulses, thereby making the output glitch-free.
The OCR0x Register access may seem complex, but this is not case. When the double buffering
is enabled, the CPU has access to the OCR0x Buffer Register, and if double buffering is dis-
abled the CPU will access the OCR0x directly.
15.5.1 Force Output Compare
In non-PWM waveform generation modes, the match output of the comparator can be forced by
writing a one to the Force Output Compare (FOC0x) bit. Forcing Compare Match will not set the
OCF0x Flag or reload/clear the timer, but the OC0x pin will be updated as if a real Compare
Match had occurred (the COM0x1:0 bits settings define whether the OC0x pin is set, cleared or
toggled).
15.5.2 Compare Match Blocking by TCNT0 Write
All CPU write operations to the TCNT0 Register will block any Compare Match that occur in the
next timer clock cycle, even when the timer is stopped. This feature allows OCR0x to be initial-
ized to the same value as TCNT0 without triggering an interrupt when the Timer/Counter clock is
enabled.
15.5.3 Using the Output Compare Unit
Since writing TCNT0 in any mode of operation will block all Compare Matches for one timer
clock cycle, there are risks involved when changing TCNT0 when using the Output Compare
Unit, independently of whether the Timer/Counter is running or not. If the value written to TCNT0
equals the OCR0x value, the Compare Match will be missed, resulting in incorrect waveform
OCFnx (Int.Req.)
= (8-bit Comparator )
OCRnx
OCnx
DATA BUS
TCNTn
WGMn1:0
Waveform Generator
top
FOCn
COMnX1:0
bottom
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generation. Similarly, do not write the TCNT0 value equal to BOTTOM when the counter is
down-counting.
The setup of the OC0x should be performed before setting the Data Direction Register for the
port pin to output. The easiest way of setting the OC0x value is to use the Force Output Com-
pare (FOC0x) strobe bits in Normal mode. The OC0x Registers keep their values even when
changing between Waveform Generation modes.
Be aware that the COM0x[1:0] bits are not double buffered together with the compare value.
Changing the COM0x[1:0] bits will take effect immediately.
15.6 Compare Match Output Unit
The Compare Output mode (COM0x[1:0]) bits have two functions. The Waveform Generator
uses the COM0x[1:0] bits for defining the Output Compare (OC0x) state at the next Compare
Match. Also, the COM0x[1:0] bits control the OC0x pin output source. Figure 15-4 shows a sim-
plified schematic of the logic affected by the COM0x[1:0] bit setting. The I/O Registers, I/O bits,
and I/O pins in the figure are shown in bold. Only the parts of the general I/O Port Control Regis-
ters (DDR and PORT) that are affected by the COM0x[1:0] bits are shown. When referring to the
OC0x state, the reference is for the internal OC0x Register, not the OC0x pin. If a system reset
occur, the OC0x Register is reset to “0”.
Figure 15-4. Compare Match Output Unit, Schematic
The general I/O port function is overridden by the Output Compare (OC0x) from the Waveform
Generator if either of the COM0x1:0 bits are set. However, the OC0x pin direction (input or out-
put) is still controlled by the Data Direction Register (DDR) for the port pin. The Data Direction
Register bit for the OC0x pin (DDR_OC0x) must be set as output before the OC0x value is visi-
ble on the pin. The port override function is independent of the Waveform Generation mode.
The design of the Output Compare pin logic allows initialization of the OC0x state before the out-
put is enabled. Note that some COM0x1:0 bit settings are reserved for certain modes of
operation. See “Register Description” on page 102.
PORT
DDR
DQ
DQ
OCnx
Pin
OCnx
DQ
Waveform
Generator
COMnx1
COMnx0
0
1
DATA BU S
FOCn
clk
I/O
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15.6.1 Compare Output Mode and Waveform Generation
The Waveform Generator uses the COM0x[1:0] bits differently in Normal, CTC, and PWM
modes. For all modes, setting the COM0x[1:0] = 0 tells the Waveform Generator that no action
on the OC0x Register is to be performed on the next Compare Match. For compare output
actions in the non-PWM modes refer to Table 15-2 on page 102. For fast PWM mode, refer to
Table 15-3 on page 102, and for phase correct PWM refer to Table 15-4 on page 103.
A change of the COM0x1:0 bits state will have effect at the first Compare Match after the bits are
written. For non-PWM modes, the action can be forced to have immediate effect by using the
FOC0x strobe bits.
15.7 Modes of Operation
The mode of operation, i.e., the behavior of the Timer/Counter and the Output Compare pins, is
defined by the combination of the Waveform Generation mode (WGM0[2:0]) and Compare Out-
put mode (COM0x[1:0]) bits. The Compare Output mode bits do not affect the counting
sequence, while the Waveform Generation mode bits do. The COM0x[1:0] bits control whether
the PWM output generated should be inverted or not (inverted or non-inverted PWM). For non-
PWM modes the COM0x[1:0] bits control whether the output should be set, cleared, or toggled
at a Compare Match (See “Compare Match Output Unit” on page 95.).
For detailed timing information see “Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams” on page 100.
15.7.1 Normal Mode
The simplest mode of operation is the Normal mode (WGM0[2:0] = 0). In this mode the counting
direction is always up (incrementing), and no counter clear is performed. The counter simply
overruns when it passes its maximum 8-bit value (TOP = 0xFF) and then restarts from the bot-
tom (0x00). In normal operation the Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV0) will be set in the same
timer clock cycle as the TCNT0 becomes zero. The TOV0 Flag in this case behaves like a ninth
bit, except that it is only set, not cleared. However, combined with the timer overflow interrupt
that automatically clears the TOV0 Flag, the timer resolution can be increased by software.
There are no special cases to consider in the Normal mode, a new counter value can be written
anytime.
The Output Compare Unit can be used to generate interrupts at some given time. Using the Out-
put Compare to generate waveforms in Normal mode is not recommended, since this will
occupy too much of the CPU time.
15.7.2 Clear Timer on Compare Match (CTC) Mode
In Clear Timer on Compare or CTC mode (WGM0[2:0] = 2), the OCR0A Register is used to
manipulate the counter resolution. In CTC mode the counter is cleared to zero when the counter
value (TCNT0) matches the OCR0A. The OCR0A defines the top value for the counter, hence
also its resolution. This mode allows greater control of the Compare Match output frequency. It
also simplifies the operation of counting external events.
The timing diagram for the CTC mode is shown in Figure 15-5. The counter value (TCNT0)
increases until a Compare Match occurs between TCNT0 and OCR0A, and then counter
(TCNT0) is cleared.
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Figure 15-5. CTC Mode, Timing Diagram
An interrupt can be generated each time the counter value reaches the TOP value by using the
OCF0A Flag. If the interrupt is enabled, the interrupt handler routine can be used for updating
the TOP value. However, changing TOP to a value close to BOTTOM when the counter is run-
ning with none or a low prescaler value must be done with care since the CTC mode does not
have the double buffering feature. If the new value written to OCR0A is lower than the current
value of TCNT0, the counter will miss the Compare Match. The counter will then have to count to
its maximum value (0xFF) and wrap around starting at 0x00 before the Compare Match can
occur.
For generating a waveform output in CTC mode, the OC0A output can be set to toggle its logical
level on each Compare Match by setting the Compare Output mode bits to toggle mode
(COM0A[1:0] = 1). The OC0A value will not be visible on the port pin unless the data direction
for the pin is set to output. The waveform generated will have a maximum frequency of fOC0 =
fclk_I/O/2 when OCR0A is set to zero (0x00). The waveform frequency is defined by the following
equation:
The N variable represents the prescale factor (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).
As for the Normal mode of operation, the TOV0 Flag is set in the same timer clock cycle that the
counter counts from MAX to 0x00.
15.7.3 Fast PWM Mode
The fast Pulse Width Modulation or fast PWM mode (WGM0[2:0] = 3 or 7) provides a high fre-
quency PWM waveform generation option. The fast PWM differs from the other PWM option by
its single-slope operation. The counter counts from BOTTOM to TOP then restarts from BOT-
TOM. TOP is defined as 0xFF when WGM0[2:0] = 3, and OCR0A when WGM0[2:0] = 7. In non-
inverting Compare Output mode, the Output Compare (OC0x) is cleared on the Compare Match
between TCNT0 and OCR0x, and set at BOTTOM. In inverting Compare Output mode, the out-
put is set on Compare Match and cleared at BOTTOM. Due to the single-slope operation, the
operating frequency of the fast PWM mode can be twice as high as the phase correct PWM
mode that use dual-slope operation. This high frequency makes the fast PWM mode well suited
for power regulation, rectification, and DAC applications. High frequency allows physically small
sized external components (coils, capacitors), and therefore reduces total system cost.
In fast PWM mode, the counter is incremented until the counter value matches the TOP value.
The counter is then cleared at the following timer clock cycle. The timing diagram for the fast
TCNTn
OCn
(Toggle)
OCnx Interrupt Flag Set
1 4
Period 2 3
(COMnx1:0 = 1)
f
OCnx
fclk_I/O
2N1OCRnx+
--------------------------------------------------
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PWM mode is shown in Figure 15-6. The TCNT0 value is in the timing diagram shown as a his-
togram for illustrating the single-slope operation. The diagram includes non-inverted and
inverted PWM outputs. The small horizontal line marks on the TCNT0 slopes represent Com-
pare Matches between OCR0x and TCNT0.
Figure 15-6. Fast PWM Mode, Timing Diagram
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV0) is set each time the counter reaches TOP. If the inter-
rupt is enabled, the interrupt handler routine can be used for updating the compare value.
In fast PWM mode, the compare unit allows generation of PWM waveforms on the OC0x pins.
Setting the COM0x[1:0] bits to two will produce a non-inverted PWM and an inverted PWM out-
put can be generated by setting the COM0x[1:0] to three: Setting the COM0A[1:0] bits to one
allows the OC0A pin to toggle on Compare Matches if the WGM02 bit is set. This option is not
available for the OC0B pin (See Table 15-3 on page 102). The actual OC0x value will only be
visible on the port pin if the data direction for the port pin is set as output. The PWM waveform is
generated by setting (or clearing) the OC0x Register at the Compare Match between OCR0x
and TCNT0, and clearing (or setting) the OC0x Register at the timer clock cycle the counter is
cleared (changes from TOP to BOTTOM).
The PWM frequency for the output can be calculated by the following equation:
The N variable represents the prescale factor (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCR0A Register represents special cases when generating a PWM
waveform output in the fast PWM mode. If the OCR0A is set equal to BOTTOM, the output will
be a narrow spike for each MAX+1 timer clock cycle. Setting the OCR0A equal to MAX will result
in a constantly high or low output (depending on the polarity of the output set by the COM0A1:0
bits.)
A frequency (with 50% duty cycle) waveform output in fast PWM mode can be achieved by set-
ting OC0x to toggle its logical level on each Compare Match (COM0x[1:0] = 1). The waveform
generated will have a maximum frequency of fOC0 = fclk_I/O/2 when OCR0A is set to zero. This
TCNTn
OCRnx Update and
TOVn Interrupt Flag Set
1
Period
2 3
OCnx
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 2)
(COMnx1:0 = 3)
OCRnx Interrupt Flag Set
4 5 6 7
fOCnxPWM
fclk_I/O
N256
-------------------
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feature is similar to the OC0A toggle in CTC mode, except the double buffer feature of the Out-
put Compare unit is enabled in the fast PWM mode.
15.7.4 Phase Correct PWM Mode
The phase correct PWM mode (WGM0[2:0] = 1 or 5) provides a high resolution phase correct
PWM waveform generation option. The phase correct PWM mode is based on a dual-slope
operation. The counter counts repeatedly from BOTTOM to TOP and then from TOP to BOT-
TOM. TOP is defined as 0xFF when WGM0[2:0] = 1, and OCR0A when WGM0[2:0] = 5. In non-
inverting Compare Output mode, the Output Compare (OC0x) is cleared on the Compare Match
between TCNT0 and OCR0x while upcounting, and set on the Compare Match while down-
counting. In inverting Output Compare mode, the operation is inverted. The dual-slope operation
has lower maximum operation frequency than single slope operation. However, due to the sym-
metric feature of the dual-slope PWM modes, these modes are preferred for motor control
applications.
In phase correct PWM mode the counter is incremented until the counter value matches TOP.
When the counter reaches TOP, it changes the count direction. The TCNT0 value will be equal
to TOP for one timer clock cycle. The timing diagram for the phase correct PWM mode is shown
on Figure 15-7. The TCNT0 value is in the timing diagram shown as a histogram for illustrating
the dual-slope operation. The diagram includes non-inverted and inverted PWM outputs. The
small horizontal line marks on the TCNT0 slopes represent Compare Matches between OCR0x
and TCNT0.
Figure 15-7. Phase Correct PWM Mode, Timing Diagram
The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOV0) is set each time the counter reaches BOTTOM. The
Interrupt Flag can be used to generate an interrupt each time the counter reaches the BOTTOM
value.
In phase correct PWM mode, the compare unit allows generation of PWM waveforms on the
OC0x pins. Setting the COM0x1:0 bits to two will produce a non-inverted PWM. An inverted
PWM output can be generated by setting the COM0x[1:0] to three: Setting the COM0A0 bit to
TOVn Interrupt Flag Set
OCnx Interrupt Flag Set
1 2 3
TCNTn
Period
OCnx
OCnx
(COMnx1:0 = 2)
(COMnx1:0 = 3)
OCRnx Update
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one allows the OC0A pin to toggle on Compare Matches if the WGM02 bit is set. This option is
not available for the OC0B pin (See Table 15-4 on page 103). The actual OC0x value will only
be visible on the port pin if the data direction for the port pin is set as output. The PWM wave-
form is generated by clearing (or setting) the OC0x Register at the Compare Match between
OCR0x and TCNT0 when the counter increments, and setting (or clearing) the OC0x Register at
Compare Match between OCR0x and TCNT0 when the counter decrements. The PWM fre-
quency for the output when using phase correct PWM can be calculated by the following
equation:
The N variable represents the prescale factor (1, 8, 64, 256, or 1024).
The extreme values for the OCR0A Register represent special cases when generating a PWM
waveform output in the phase correct PWM mode. If the OCR0A is set equal to BOTTOM, the
output will be continuously low and if set equal to MAX the output will be continuously high for
non-inverted PWM mode. For inverted PWM the output will have the opposite logic values.
At the very start of period 2 in Figure 15-7 OCnx has a transition from high to low even though
there is no Compare Match. The point of this transition is to guarantee symmetry around BOT-
TOM. There are two cases that give a transition without Compare Match.
OCR0A changes its value from MAX, like in Figure 15-7. When the OCR0A value is MAX the
OCn pin value is the same as the result of a down-counting Compare Match. To ensure
symmetry around BOTTOM the OCn value at MAX must correspond to the result of an up-
counting Compare Match.
The timer starts counting from a value higher than the one in OCR0A, and for that reason
misses the Compare Match and hence the OCn change that would have happened on the
way up.
15.8 Timer/Counter Timing Diagrams
The Timer/Counter is a synchronous design and the timer clock (clkT0) is therefore shown as a
clock enable signal in the following figures. The figures include information on when Interrupt
Flags are set. Figure 15-8 contains timing data for basic Timer/Counter operation. The figure
shows the count sequence close to the MAX value in all modes other than phase correct PWM
mode.
Figure 15-8. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, no Prescaling
Figure 15-9 shows the same timing data, but with the prescaler enabled.
fOCnxPCPWM
fclk_I/O
N510
-------------------
=
clkTn
(clk
I/O
/1)
TOVn
clkI/O
TCNTn MAX - 1 MAX BOTTOM BOTTOM + 1
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Figure 15-9. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, with Prescaler (fclk_I/O/8)
Figure 15-10 shows the setting of OCF0B in all modes and OCF0A in all modes except CTC
mode and PWM mode, where OCR0A is TOP.
Figure 15-10. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, Setting of OCF0x, with Prescaler (fclk_I/O/8)
Figure 15-11 shows the setting of OCF0A and the clearing of TCNT0 in CTC mode and fast
PWM mode where OCR0A is TOP.
Figure 15-11. Timer/Counter Timing Diagram, Clear Timer on Compare Match mode, with Pres-
caler (fclk_I/O/8)
TOVn
TCNTn MAX - 1 MAX BOTTOM BOTTOM + 1
clkI/O
clkTn
(clk
I/O
/8)
OCFnx
OCRnx
TCNTn
OCRnx Value
OCRnx - 1 OCRnx OCRnx + 1 OCRnx + 2
clk
I/O
clk
Tn
(clk
I/O
/8)
OCFnx
OCRnx
TCNTn
(CTC)
TOP
TOP - 1 TOP BOTTOM BOTTOM + 1
clk
I/O
clk
Tn
(clk
I/O
/8)
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15.9 Register Description
15.9.1 TCCR0A – Timer/Counter Control Register A
Bits 7:6 – COM0A[1:0]: Compare Match Output A Mode
These bits control the Output Compare pin (OC0A) behavior. If one or both of the COM0A1:0
bits are set, the OC0A output overrides the normal port functionality of the I/O pin it is connected
to. However, note that the Data Direction Register (DDR) bit corresponding to the OC0A pin
must be set in order to enable the output driver.
When OC0A is connected to the pin, the function of the COM0A[1:0] bits depends on the
WGM0[2:0] bit setting. Table 15-2 shows the COM0A[1:0] bit functionality when the WGM0[2:0]
bits are set to a normal or CTC mode (non-PWM).
Table 15-3 shows the COM0A[1:0] bit functionality when the WGM0[1:0] bits are set to fast
PWM mode.
Note: 1. A special case occurs when OCR0A equals TOP and COM0A1 is set. In this case, the Com-
pare Match is ignored, but the set or clear is done at TOP. See “Fast PWM Mode” on page 97
for more details.
Bit 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0x24 (0x44) COM0A1 COM0A0 COM0B1 COM0B0 WGM01 WGM00 TCCR0A
Read/Write R/W R/W R/W R/W R R R/W R/W
Initial Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Table 15-2. Compare Output Mode, non-PWM Mode
COM0A1 COM0A0 Description
0 0 Normal port operation, OC0A disconnected.
0 1 Toggle OC0A on Compare Match
1 0 Clear OC0A on Compare Match
1 1 Set OC0A on Compare Match
Table 15-3. Compare Output Mode, Fast PWM Mode(1)
COM0A1 COM0A0 Description
0 0 Normal port operation, OC0A disconnected.
01
WGM02 = 0: Normal Port Operation, OC0A Disconnected.
WGM02 = 1: Toggle OC0A on Compare Match.
1 0 Clear OC0A on Compare Match, set OC0A at TOP
1 1 Set OC0A on Compare Match, clear OC0A at TOP
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Table 15-4 shows the COM0A1:0 bit functionality when the WGM0[2:0] bits are set to phase cor-
rect PWM mode.
Note: 1. A special case occurs when OCR0A equals TOP and COM0A1 is set. In this case, the Com-
pare Match is ignored, but the set or clear is done at TOP. See “Phase Correct PWM Mode” on
page 99 for more details.
Bits 5:4 – COM0B[1:0]: Compare Match Output B Mode
These bits control the Output Compare pin (OC0B) behavior. If one or both of the COM0B[1:0]
bits are set, the OC0B output overrides the normal port functionality of the I/O pin it is connected
to. However, note that the Data Direction Register (DDR) bit corresponding to the OC0B pin
must be set in order to enable the output driver.
When OC0B is connected to the pin, the function of the COM0B[1:0] bits depends on the
WGM0[2:0] bit setting. Table 15-2 shows the COM0A[1:0] bit functionality when the WGM0[2:0]
bits are set to a normal or CTC mode (non-PWM).
[
Table 15-3 shows the COM0B[1:0] bit functionality when the WGM0[2:0] bits are set to fast
PWM mode.
Note: 1. A special case occurs when OCR0B equals TOP and COM0B1 is set. In this case, the Com-
pare Match is ignored, but the set or clear is done at TOP. See “Fast PWM Mode” on page 97
for more details.
Table 15-4. Compare Output Mode, Phase Correct PWM Mode(1)
COM0A1 COM0A0 Description
0 0 Normal port operation, OC0A disconnected.
01
WGM02 = 0: Normal Port Operation, OC0A Disconnected.
WGM02 = 1: Toggle OC0A on Compare Match.
10
Clear OC0A on Compare Match when up-counting. Set OC0A on
Compare Match when down-counting.
11
Set OC0A on Compare Match when up-counting. Clear OC0A on
Compare Match when down-counting.
Table 15-5. Compare Output Mode, non-PWM Mode
COM0B1 COM0B0 Description
0 0 Normal port operation, OC0B disconnected.
0 1 Toggle OC0B on Compare Match
1 0 Clear OC0B on Compare Match
1 1 Set OC0B on Compare Match
Table 15-6. Compare Output Mode, Fast PWM Mode(1)
COM0B1 COM0B0 Description
0 0 Normal port operation, OC0B disconnected.
0 1 Reserved
1 0 Clear OC0B on Compare Match, set OC0B at TOP
1 1 Set OC0B on Compare Match, clear OC0B at TOP
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Table 15-4 shows the COM0B[1:0] bit functionality when the WGM0[2:0] bits are set to phase
correct PWM mode.
Note: 1. A special case occurs when OCR0B equals TOP and COM0B1 is set. In this case, the Com-
pare Match is ignored, but the set or clear is done at TOP. See “Phase Correct PWM Mode” on
page 99 for more details.
Bits 3:2 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved and will always read as zero.
Bits 1:0 – WGM0[1:0]: Waveform Generation Mode
Combined with the WGM02 bit found in the TCCR0B Register, these bits control the counting
sequence of the counter, the source for maximum (TOP) counter value, and what type of wave-
form generation to be used, see Table 15-8. Modes of operation supported by the Timer/Counter
unit are: Normal mode (counter), Clear Timer on Compare Match (CTC) mode, and two types of
Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) modes (see “Modes of Operation” on page 96).
Notes: 1. MAX = 0xFF
2. BOTTOM = 0x00
Table 15-7. Compare Output Mode, Phase Correct PWM Mode(1)
COM0B1 COM0B0 Description
0 0 Normal port operation, OC0B disconnected.
0 1 Reserved
10
Clear OC0B on Compare Match when up-counting. Set OC0B on
Compare Match when down-counting.
11
Set OC0B on Compare Match when up-counting. Clear OC0B on
Compare Match when down-counting.
Table 15-8. Waveform Generation Mode Bit Description
Mode WGM2 WGM1 WGM0
Timer/Counter
Mode of
Operation TOP Update of
OCRx at TOV Flag
Set on(1)(2)
0 0 0 0 Normal 0xFF Immediate MAX
1001
PWM, Phase
Correct 0xFF TOP BOTTOM
2 0 1 0 CTC OCRA Immediate MAX
3 0 1 1 Fast PWM 0xFF TOP MAX
4 1 0 0 Reserved
5101
PWM, Phase
Correct OCRA TOP BOTTOM
6 1 1 0 Reserved
7 1 1 1 Fast PWM OCRA TOP TOP
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15.9.2 TCCR0B – Timer/Counter Control Register B
Bit 7 – FOC0A: Force Output Compare A
The FOC0A bit is only active when the WGM bits specify a non-PWM mode.
However, for ensuring compatibility with future devices, this bit must be set to zero when
TCCR0B is written when operating in PWM mode. When writing a logical one to the FOC0A bit,
an immediate Compare Match is forced on the Waveform Generation unit. The OC0A output is
changed according to its COM0A1:0 bits setting. Note that the FOC0A bit is implemented as a
strobe. Therefore it is the value present in the COM0A1:0 bits that determines the effect of the
forced compare.
A FOC0A strobe will not generate any interrupt, nor will it clear the timer in CTC mode using
OCR0A as TOP.
The FOC0A bit is always read as zero.
Bit 6 – FOC0B: Force Output Compare B
The FOC0B bit is only active when the WGM bits specify a non-PWM mode.
However, for ensuring compatibility with future devices, this bit must be set to zero when
TCCR0B is written when operating in PWM mode. When writing a logical one to the FOC0B bit,
an immediate Compare Match is forced on the Waveform Generation unit. The OC0B output is
changed according to its COM0B[1:0] bits setting. Note that the FOC0B bit is implemented as a
strobe. Therefore it is the value present in the COM0B[1:0] bits that determines the effect of the
forced compare.
A FOC0B strobe will not generate any interrupt, nor will it clear the timer in CTC mode using
OCR0B as TOP.
The FOC0B bit is always read as zero.
Bits 5:4 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits and will always read as zero.
Bit 3 – WGM02: Waveform Generation Mode
See the description in the “TCCR0A – Timer/Counter Control Register A” on page 102.
Bits 2:0 – CS0[2:0]: Clock Select
The three Clock Select bits select the clock source to be used by the Timer/Counter.
Bit 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0x25 (0x45) FOC0A FOC0B WGM02 CS02 CS01 CS00 TCCR0B
Read/Write W W R R R/W R/W R/W R/W
Initial Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Table 15-9. Clock Select Bit Description
CS02 CS01 CS00 Description
0 0 0 No clock source (Timer/Counter stopped)
0 0 1 clkI/O/(No prescaling)
0 1 0 clkI/O/8 (From prescaler)
0 1 1 clkI/O/64 (From prescaler)
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If external pin modes are used for the Timer/Counter0, transitions on the T0 pin will clock the
counter even if the pin is configured as an output. This feature allows software control of the
counting.
15.9.3 TCNT0 – Timer/Counter Register
The Timer/Counter Register gives direct access, both for read and write operations, to the
Timer/Counter unit 8-bit counter. Writing to the TCNT0 Register blocks (removes) the Compare
Match on the following timer clock. Modifying the counter (TCNT0) while the counter is running,
introduces a risk of missing a Compare Match between TCNT0 and the OCR0x Registers.
15.9.4 OCR0A – Output Compare Register A
The Output Compare Register A contains an 8-bit value that is continuously compared with the
counter value (TCNT0). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare interrupt, or to
generate a waveform output on the OC0A pin.
15.9.5 OCR0B – Output Compare Register B
The Output Compare Register B contains an 8-bit value that is continuously compared with the
counter value (TCNT0). A match can be used to generate an Output Compare interrupt, or to
generate a waveform output on the OC0B pin.
15.9.6 TIMSK0 – Timer/Counter Interrupt Mask Register
Bits 7:3 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved bits and will always read as zero.
1 0 0 clkI/O/256 (From prescaler)
1 0 1 clkI/O/1024 (From prescaler)
1 1 0 External clock source on T0 pin. Clock on falling edge.
1 1 1 External clock source on T0 pin. Clock on rising edge.
Table 15-9. Clock Select Bit Description (Continued)
CS02 CS01 CS00 Description
Bit 76543210
0x26 (0x46) TCNT0[7:0] TCNT0
Read/Write R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W
Initial Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Bit 76543210
0x27 (0x47) OCR0A[7:0] OCR0A
Read/Write R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W
Initial Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Bit 76543210
0x28 (0x48) OCR0B[7:0] OCR0B
Read/Write R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W R/W
Initial Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Bit 765432 10
(0x6E) – – – – OCIE0B OCIE0A TOIE0 TIMSK0
Read/Write R R R R R R/W R/W R/W
Initial Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
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Bit 2 – OCIE0B: Timer/Counter Output Compare Match B Interrupt Enable
When the OCIE0B bit is written to one, and the I-bit in the Status Register is set, the
Timer/Counter Compare Match B interrupt is enabled. The corresponding interrupt is executed if
a Compare Match in Timer/Counter occurs, i.e., when the OCF0B bit is set in the Timer/Counter
Interrupt Flag Register – TIFR0.
Bit 1 – OCIE0A: Timer/Counter0 Output Compare Match A Interrupt Enable
When the OCIE0A bit is written to one, and the I-bit in the Status Register is set, the
Timer/Counter0 Compare Match A interrupt is enabled. The corresponding interrupt is executed
if a Compare Match in Timer/Counter0 occurs, i.e., when the OCF0A bit is set in the
Timer/Counter 0 Interrupt Flag Register – TIFR0.
Bit 0 – TOIE0: Timer/Counter0 Overflow Interrupt Enable
When the TOIE0 bit is written to one, and the I-bit in the Status Register is set, the
Timer/Counter0 Overflow interrupt is enabled. The corresponding interrupt is executed if an
overflow in Timer/Counter0 occurs, i.e., when the TOV0 bit is set in the Timer/Counter 0 Inter-
rupt Flag Register – TIFR0.
15.9.7 TIFR0 – Timer/Counter 0 Interrupt Flag Register
Bits 7:3 – Res: Reserved Bits
These bits are reserved and will always read as zero.
Bit 2 – OCF0B: Timer/Counter 0 Output Compare B Match Flag
The OCF0B bit is set when a Compare Match occurs between the Timer/Counter and the data in
OCR0B – Output Compare Register0 B. OCF0B is cleared by hardware when executing the cor-
responding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, OCF0B is cleared by writing a logic one to
the flag. When the I-bit in SREG, OCIE0B (Timer/Counter Compare B Match Interrupt Enable),
and OCF0B are set, the Timer/Counter Compare Match Interrupt is executed.
Bit 1 – OCF0A: Timer/Counter 0 Output Compare A Match Flag
The OCF0A bit is set when a Compare Match occurs between the Timer/Counter0 and the data
in OCR0A – Output Compare Register0. OCF0A is cleared by hardware when executing the cor-
responding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, OCF0A is cleared by writing a logic one to
the flag. When the I-bit in SREG, OCIE0A (Timer/Counter0 Compare Match Interrupt Enable),
and OCF0A are set, the Timer/Counter0 Compare Match Interrupt is executed.
Bit 0 – TOV0: Timer/Counter0 Overflow Flag
The bit TOV0 is set when an overflow occurs in Timer/Counter0. TOV0 is cleared by hardware
when executing the corresponding interrupt handling vector. Alternatively, TOV0 is cleared by
writing a logic one to the flag. When the SREG I-bit, TOIE0 (Timer/Counter0 Overflow Interrupt
Enable), and TOV0 are set, the Timer/Counter0 Overflow interrupt is executed.
The setting of this flag is dependent of the WGM0[2:0] bit setting. Refer to Table 15-8, “Wave-
form Generation Mode Bit Description” on page 104.
Bit 76543210
0x15 (0x35) – – – – – OCF0B OCF0A TOV0 TIFR0
Read/Write R R R R R R/W R/W R/W
Initial Value 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
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16. 16-bit Timer/Counter 1 with PWM
16.1 Features
True 16-bit Design (i.e., Allows 16-bit PWM)
Three independent Output Compare Units
Double Buffered Output Compare Registers
One Input Capture Unit
Input Capture Noise Canceler
Clear Timer on Compare Match (Auto Reload)
Glitch-free, Phase Correct Pulse Width Modulator (PWM)
Variable PWM Period
Frequency Generator
External Event Counter
Five independent interrupt sources (TOV1, OCF1A, OCF1B, OCF1C, ICF1)
16.2 Overview
The 16-bit Timer/Counter 1 unit allows accurate program execution timing (event management),
wave generation, and signal timing measurement. Most register and bit references in this sec-
tion are written in general form. A lower case “n” replaces the Timer/Counter number (for this
product, only n=1 is available), and a lower case “x” replaces the Output Compare unit channel.
However, when using the register or bit defines in a program, the precise form must be used,
i.e., TCNT1 for accessing Timer/Counter1 counter value and so on.
A simplified block diagram of the 16-bit Timer/Counter is shown in Figure 16-1. For the actual
placement of I/O pins, see “Pinout” on page 2. CPU accessible I/O Registers, including I/O bits
and I/O pins, are shown in bold. The device-specific I/O Register and bit locations are listed in
the “16-bit Timer/Counter 1 with PWM” on page 108.
The Power Reduction Timer/Counter1 bit, PRTIM1, in “PRR0 – Power Reduction Register 0” on
page 46 must be written to zero to enable Timer/Counter1 module.
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Figure 16-1. 16-bit Timer/Counter Block Diagram(1)
Note: 1. Refer to Figure 1-1 on page 2, Table 12-3 on page 74, and Table 12-6 on page 77 for
Timer/Counter1 pin placement and description.
16.2.1 Registers
The Timer/Counter (TCNTn), Output Compare Registers (OCRnA/B/C), and Input Capture Reg-
ister (ICRn) are all 16-bit registers. Special procedures must be followed when accessing the 16-
bit registers. These procedures are described in the section “Accessing 16-bit Registers” on
page 110. The Timer/Counter Control Registers (TCCRnA/B/C) are 8-bit registers and have no
CPU access restrictions. Interrupt requests (shorten as Int.Req.) signals are all visible in the
Timer Interrupt Flag Register (TIFRn). All interrupts are individually masked with the Timer Inter-
rupt Mask Register (TIMSKn). TIFRn and TIMSKn are not shown in the figure since these
registers are shared by other timer units.
The Timer/Counter can be clocked internally, via the prescaler, or by an external clock source on
the Tn pin. The Clock Select logic block controls which clock source and edge the Timer/Counter
uses to increment (or decrement) its value. The Timer/Counter is inactive when no clock source
is selected. The output from the clock select logic is referred to as the timer clock (clkTn).
The double buffered Output Compare Registers (OCRnA/B/C) are compared with the
Timer/Counter value at all time. The result of the compare can be used by the Waveform Gener-
ator to generate a PWM or variable frequency output on the Output Compare pin (OCnA/B/C).
ICFn (Int.Req.)
TOVn
(Int.Req.)
Clock Select
Timer/Counter
DATABUS
ICRn
=
=
=
TCNTn
Waveform
Generation
Waveform
Generation
Waveform
Generation
OCnA
OCnB
OCnC
Noise
Canceler
ICPn
=
Fixed
TOP
Values
Edge
Detector
Control Logic
=
0
TOP BOTTOM
Count
Clear
Direction
OCFnA
(Int.Req.)
OCFnB
(Int.Req.)
OCFnC
(Int.Req.)
TCCRnA TCCRnB TCCRnC
( From Analog
Comparator Ouput )
Tn
Edge
Detector
( From Prescaler )
TCLK
OCRnC
OCRnB
OCRnA
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See “Output Compare Units” on page 117.. The compare match event will also set the Compare
Match Flag (OCFnA/B/C) which can be used to generate an Output Compare interrupt request.
The Input Capture Register can capture the Timer/Counter value at a given external (edge trig-
gered) event on either the Input Capture pin (ICPn) or on the Analog Comparator pins (See
“Analog Comparator” on page 223.) The Input Capture unit includes a digital filtering unit (Noise
Canceler) for reducing the chance of capturing noise spikes.
The TOP value, or maximum Timer/Counter value, can in some modes of operation be defined
by either the OCRnA Register, the ICRn Register, or by a set of fixed values. When using
OCRnA as TOP value in a PWM mode, the OCRnA Register can not be used for generating a
PWM output. However, the TOP value will in this case be double buffered allowing the TOP
value to be changed in run time. If a fixed TOP value is required, the ICRn Register can be used
as an alternative, freeing the OCRnA to be used as PWM output.
16.2.2 Definitions
The following definitions are used extensively throughout the document:
16.3 Accessing 16-bit Registers
The TCNTn, OCRnA/B/C, and ICRn are 16-bit registers that can be accessed by the AVR CPU
via the 8-bit data bus. The 16-bit register must be byte accessed using two read or write opera-
tions. Each 16-bit timer has a single 8-bit register for temporary storing of the high byte of the 16-
bit access. The same Temporary Register is shared between all 16-bit registers within each 16-
bit timer. Accessing the low byte triggers the 16-bit read or write operation. When the low byte of
a 16-bit register is written by the CPU, the high byte stored in the Temporary Register, and the
low byte written are both copied into the 16-bit register in the same clock cycle. When the low
byte of a 16-bit register is read by the CPU, the high byte of the 16-bit register is copied into the
Temporary Register in the same clock cycle as the low byte is read.
Not all 16-bit accesses uses the Temporary Register for the high byte. Reading the OCRnA/B/C
16-bit registers does not involve using the Temporary Register.
To do a 16-bit write, the high byte must be written before the low byte. For a 16-bit read, the low
byte must be read before the high byte.
The following code examples show how to access the 16-bit timer registers assuming that no
interrupts updates the temporary register. The same principle can be used directly for accessing
the OCRnA/B/C and ICRn Registers. Note that when using “C”, the compiler handles the 16-bit
access.
BOTTOM The counter reaches the BOTTOM when it becomes 0x0000.
MAX The counter reaches its MAXimum when it becomes 0xFFFF (decimal 65535).
TOP
The counter reaches the TOP when it becomes equal to the highest value in the count
sequence. The TOP value can be assigned to be one of the fixed values: 0x00FF,
0x01FF, or 0x03FF, or to the value stored in the OCRnA or ICRn Register. The
assignment is dependent of the mode of operation.
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Note: 1. See “Code Examples” on page 6.
The assembly code example returns the TCNTn value in the r17:r16 register pair.
It is important to notice that accessing 16-bit registers are atomic operations. If an interrupt
occurs between the two instructions accessing the 16-bit register, and the interrupt code
updates the temporary register by accessing the same or any other of the 16-bit Timer Regis-
ters, then the result of the access outside the interrupt will be corrupted. Therefore, when both
the main code and the interrupt code update the temporary register, the main code must disable
the interrupts during the 16-bit access.
The following code examples show how to do an atomic read of the TCNTn Register contents.
Reading any of the OCRnA/B/C or ICRn Registers can be done by using the same principle.
Assembly Code Examples(1)
...
; Set TCNTn to 0x01FF
ldi r17,0x01
ldi r16,0xFF
out TCNTnH,r17
out TCNTnL,r16
; Read TCNTn into r17:r16
in r16,TCNTnL
in r17,TCNTnH
...
C Code Examples(1)
unsigned int i;
...
/* Set TCNTn to 0x01FF */
TCNTn = 0x1FF;
/* Read TCNTn into i */
i = TCNTn;
...
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Note: 1. See “Code Examples” on page 6.
The assembly code example returns the TCNTn value in the r17:r16 register pair.
Assembly Code Example(1)
TIM16_ReadTCNTn:
; Save global interrupt flag
in r18,SREG
; Disable interrupts
cli
; Read TCNTn into r17:r16
in r16,TCNTnL
in r17,TCNTnH
; Restore global interrupt flag
out SREG,r18
ret
C Code Example(1)
unsigned int TIM16_ReadTCNTn( void )
{
unsigned char sreg;
unsigned int i;
/* Save global interrupt flag */
sreg = SREG;
/* Disable interrupts */
__disable_interrupt();
/* Read TCNTn into i */
i = TCNTn;
/* Restore global interrupt flag */
SREG = sreg;
return i;
}
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The following code examples show how to do an atomic write of the TCNTn Register contents.
Writing any of the OCRnA/B/C or ICRn Registers can be done by using the same principle.
Note: 1. See “Code Examples” on page 6.
The assembly code example requires that the r17:r16 register pair contains the value to be writ-
ten to TCNTn.
16.3.1 Reusing the Temporary High Byte Register
If writing to more than one 16-bit register where the high byte is the same for all registers written,
then the high byte only needs to be written once. However, note that the same rule of atomic
operation described previously also applies in this case.
16.4 Timer/Counter Clock Sources
The Timer/Counter can be clocked by an internal or an external clock source. The clock source
is selected by the Clock Select logic which is controlled by the Clock Select (CSn2:0) bits
located in the Timer/Counter control Register B (TCCRnB). For details on clock sources and
prescaler, see “Timer/Counter0 and Timer/Counter1 Prescalers” on page 88.
Assembly Code Example(1)
TIM16_WriteTCNTn:
; Save global interrupt flag
in r18,SREG
; Disable interrupts
cli
; Set TCNTn to r17:r16
out TCNTnH,r17
out TCNTnL,r16
; Restore global interrupt flag
out SREG,r18
ret
C Code Example(1)
void TIM16_WriteTCNTn( unsigned int i )
{
unsigned char sreg;
unsigned int i;
/* Save global interrupt flag */
sreg = SREG;
/* Disable interrupts */
__disable_interrupt();
/* Set TCNTn to i */
TCNTn = i;
/* Restore global interrupt flag */
SREG = sreg;
}
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16.5 Counter Unit
The main part of the 16-bit Timer/Counter is the programmable 16-bit bi-directional counter unit.
Figure 16-2 shows a block diagram of the counter and its surroundings.
Figure 16-2. Counter Unit Block Diagram
Signal description (internal signals):
Count Increment or decrement TCNTn by 1.
Direction Select between increment and decrement.
Clear Clear TCNTn (set all bits to zero).
clkTnTimer/Counter clock.
TOP Signalize that TCNTn has reached maximum value.
BOTTOM Signalize that TCNTn has reached minimum value (zero).
The 16-bit counter is mapped into two 8-bit I/O memory locations: Counter High (TCNTnH) con-
taining the upper eight bits of the counter, and Counter Low (TCNTnL) containing the lower eight
bits. The TCNTnH Register can only be indirectly accessed by the CPU. When the CPU does an
access to the TCNTnH I/O location, the CPU accesses the high byte temporary register (TEMP).
The temporary register is updated with the TCNTnH value when the TCNTnL is read, and
TCNTnH is updated with the temporary register value when TCNTnL is written. This allows the
CPU to read or write the entire 16-bit counter value within one clock cycle via the 8-bit data bus.
It is important to notice that there are special cases of writing to the TCNTn Register when the
counter is counting that will give unpredictable results. The special cases are described in the
sections where they are of importance.
Depending on the mode of operation used, the counter is cleared, incremented, or decremented
at each timer clock (clkTn). The clkTn can be generated from an external or internal clock source,
selected by the Clock Select bits (CSn2:0). When no clock source is selected (CSn2:0 = 0) the
timer is stopped. However, the TCNTn value can be accessed by the CPU, independent of
whether clkTn is present or not. A CPU write overrides (has priority over) all counter clear or
count operations.
The counting sequence is determined by the setting of the Waveform Generation mode bits
(WGMn3:0) located in the Timer/Counter Control Registers A and B (TCCRnA and TCCRnB).
There are close connections between how the counter behaves (counts) and how waveforms
are generated on the Output Compare outputs OCnx. For more details about advanced counting
sequences and waveform generation, see “Modes of Operation” on page 120.
TEMP (8-bit)
DATA BUS
(8-bit)
TCNTn (16-bit Counter)
TCNTnH (8-bit) TCNTnL (8-bit) Control Logic
Count
Clear
Direction
TOVn
(Int.Req.)
Clock Select
TOP BOTTOM
Tn
Edge
Detector
( From Prescaler )
clk
Tn
Alli—El.
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The Timer/Counter Overflow Flag (TOVn) is set according to the mode of operation selected by
the WGMn3:0 bits. TOVn can be used for generating a CPU interrupt.
16.6 Input Capture Unit
The Timer/Counter incorporates an input capture unit that can capture external events and give
them a time-stamp indicating time of occurrence. The external signal indicating an event, or mul-
tiple events, can be applied via the ICPn pin or alternatively, for the Timer/Counter1 only, via the
Analog Comparator unit. The time-stamps can then be used to calculate frequency, duty-cycle,
and other features of the signal applied. Alternatively the time-stamps can be used for creating a
log of the events.
The Input Capture unit is illustrated by the block diagram shown in Figure 16-3. The elements of
the block diagram that are not directly a part of the input capture unit are gray shaded. The small
“n” in register and bit names indicates the Timer/Counter number.
Figure 16-3. Input Capture Unit Block Diagram
Note: The Analog Comparator Output (ACO) can only trigger the Timer/Counter1 ICP – not
Timer/Counter3, 4 or 5.
When a change of the logic level (an event) occurs on the Input Capture Pin (ICPn), alternatively
on the analog Comparator output (ACO), and this change confirms to the setting of the edge
detector, a capture will be triggered. When a capture is triggered, the 16-bit value of the counter
(TCNTn) is written to the Input Capture Register (ICRn). The Input Capture Flag (ICFn) is set at
the same system clock as the TCNTn value is copied into ICRn Register. If enabled (TICIEn =
1), the input capture flag generates an input capture interrupt. The ICFn flag is automatically
cleared when the interrupt is executed. Alternatively the ICFn flag can be cleared by software by
writing a logical one to its I/O bit location.
ICFn (Int.Req.)
Analog
Comparator
WRITE ICRn (16-bit Register)
ICRnH (8-bit)
Noise
Canceler
ICPn
Edge
Detector
TEMP (8-bit)
DATA BU S
(8-bit)
ICRnL (8-bit)
TCNTn (16-bit Counter)
TCNTnH (8-bit) TCNTnL (8-bit)
ACIC* ICNC ICES
ACO*
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Reading the 16-bit value in the Input Capture Register (ICRn) is done by first reading the low
byte (ICRnL) and then the high byte (ICRnH). When the low byte is read the high byte is copied
into the high byte Temporary Register (TEMP). When the CPU reads the ICRnH I/O location it
will access the TEMP Register.
The ICRn Register can only be written when using a Waveform Generation mode that utilizes
the ICRn Register for defining the counter’s TOP value. In these cases the Waveform Genera-
tion mode (WGMn3:0) bits must be set before the TOP value can be written to the ICRn
Register. When writing the ICRn Register the high byte must be written to the ICRnH I/O location
before the low byte is written to ICRnL.
For more information on how to access the 16-bit registers refer to “Accessing 16-bit Registers”
on page 110.
16.6.1 Input Capture Trigger Source
The main trigger source for the input capture unit is the Input Capture Pin (ICPn).
Timer/Counter1 can alternatively use the analog comparator output as trigger source for the
input capture unit. The Analog Comparator is selected as trigger source by setting the analog
Comparator Input Capture (ACIC) bit in the Analog Comparator Control and Status Register
(ACSR). Be aware that changing trigger source can trigger a capture. The input capture flag
must therefore be cleared after the change.
Both the Input Capture Pin (ICPn) and the Analog Comparator output (ACO) inputs are sampled
using the same technique as for the Tn pin (Figure 14-1 on page 88). The edge detector is also
identical. However, when the noise canceler is enabled, additional logic is inserted before the
edge detector, which increases the delay by four system clock cycles. Note that the input of the
noise canceler and edge detector is always enabled unless the Timer/Counter is set in a Wave-
form Generation mode that uses ICRn to define TOP.
An input capture can be triggered by software by controlling the port of the ICPn pin.
16.6.2 Noise Canceler
The noise canceler improves noise immunity by using a simple digital filtering scheme. The
noise canceler input is monitored over four samples, and all four must be equal for changing the
output that in turn is used by the edge detector.
The noise canceler is enabled by setting the Input Capture Noise Canceler (ICNCn) bit in
Timer/Counter Control Register B (TCCRnB). When enabled the noise canceler introduces addi-
tional four system clock cycles of delay from a change applied to the input, to the update of the
ICRn Register. The noise canceler uses the system clock and is therefore not affected by the
prescaler.
16.6.3 Using the Input Capture Unit
The main challenge when using the Input Capture unit is to assign enough processor capacity
for handling the incoming events. The time between two events is critical. If the processor has
not read the captured value in the ICRn Register before the next event occurs, the ICRn will be
overwritten with a new value. In this case the result of the capture will be incorrect.
When using the Input Capture interrupt, the ICRn Register should be read as early in the inter-
rupt handler routine as possible. Even though the Input Capture interrupt has relatively high
priority, the maximum interrupt response time is dependent on the maximum number of clock
cycles it takes to handle any of the other interrupt requests.
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Using the Input Capture unit in any mode of operation when the TOP value (resolution) is
actively changed during operation, is not recommended.
Measurement of an external signal’s duty cycle requires that the trigger edge is changed after
each capture. Changing the edge sensing must be done as early as possible after the ICRn
Register has been read. After a change of the edge, the Input Capture Flag (ICFn) must be
cleared by software (writing a logical one to the I/O bit location). For measuring frequency only,
the clearing of the ICFn Flag is not required (if an interrupt handler is used).
16.7 Output Compare Units
The 16-bit comparator continuously compares TCNTn with the Output Compare Register
(OCRnx). If TCNT equals OCRnx the comparator signals a match. A match will set the Output
Compare Flag (OCFnx) at the next timer clock cycle. If enabled (OCIEnx = 1), the Output Com-
pare Flag generates an Output Compare interrupt. The OCFnx Flag is automatically cleared
when the interrupt is executed. Alternatively the OCFnx Flag can be cleared by software by writ-
ing a logical one to its I/O bit location. The Waveform Generator uses the match signal to
generate an output according to operating mode set by the Waveform Generation mode
(WGMn3:0) bits and Compare Output mode (COMnx1:0) bits. The TOP and BOTTOM signals
are used by the Waveform Generator for handling the special cases of the extreme values in
some modes of operation (See “Modes of Operation” on page 120.)
A special feature of Output Compare unit A allows it to define the Timer/Counter TOP value (i.e.,
counter resolution). In addition to the counter resolution, the TOP value defines the period time
for waveforms generated by the Waveform Generator.
Figure 16-4 shows a block diagram of the Output Compare unit. The small “n” in the register and
bit names indicates the device number (n = n for Timer/Counter n), and the “x” indicates Output
Compare unit (A/B/C). The elements of the block diagram that are not directly a part of the Out-
put Compare unit are gray shaded.
Figure 16-4. Output Compare Unit, Block Diagram
OCFnx (Int.Req.)
=
(16-bit Comparator )
OCRnx Buffer (16-bit Register)
OCRnxH Buf.