SMD Resistors Tech Guide Datasheet by Panasonic Electronic Components

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Panasonic
SURFACE MOUNT RESISTORS
TECHNICAL GUIDE
Ver.3
Device Solutions Business Division
Industrial Solutions Company
Panasonic Corporation
TECHNICAL GUIDE Ver.3
1
Contents
1. First: ···················2 page
2. Construction of Surface Mount Resistors: ···················3 page
3. Manufacturing Method of Thick-film Chip Resistors: ···················4 page
4. System of Surface Mount Resistors: ···················5 page
5. Kinds of Surface Mount Resistors: ···················6 page
6. Reliability: ···················7 page
7. Failure Mechanism: ···················8 page
8. Application Notes: ···················9 to 10 page
9. Technique
9.1. Circuit Design: ···················11 to 17 page
9.2. Design of Printed Substrate: ···················18 to 19 page
9.3. Used Environment: ···················20 to 22 page
9.4. Mounted Method: ···················22 to 25page
10. Technical Trend in the Future: ···················26 to 27 page
TECHNICAL GUIDE Ver.3
2
1. First
Fixed resistors are principal electronic components composed electronic circuit. They
are developed with demands of various electronic circuits and used. This technical
guide is summarized the application technique about surface mount resistors used for
electric machine and tools, especially, which need high density mount in these fixed
resistors,
For selection of various surface mount resistors, confirm with the characteristic of that
circuit, in general, following step is proper.
(1) Single chip resistor or Composite chip resistor
(2) Single chip resistor: Thick-film chip resistor or Thin-film chip resistor
(3) Composite chip resistor: Chip resistor array (common terminal circuit) or
Chip resistor network (isolated circuit)
(4) Select the shape of surface mount resistors in accordance with using voltage
(power).
In our company, there are numerous kinds of surface mount resistors in order to
respond customer’s various needs. However, we are happy if you could understand the
contents of this technical guide, and talk over technical contents with us before use, so
that you can use it more stability.
Moreover, it is separately introduced as for other fixed resistors, components of noise
countermeasure and so on.
This technical guide might change.
TECHNICAL GUIDE Ver.3
3
2. Construction of Surface Mount Resistors
The construction figures of representative surface mount resistors are shown below
(Fig 1 to Fig 6). It is different a little by the application of surface mount resistors.
Foundation substrate: alumina substrate, Termination: thick-film conductive element,
Resistance: thick-film resistor or thin-film resistor.
Fig.1. Thick-film chip resistor Fig.2. Thin-film chip resistor
Fig.3. Chip resistor array (concave-type) Fig.4. Chip resistor array (convex-type)
Fig.5. Chip resistor network (concave-type) Fig.6. Chip resistor network (convex-type)
(
)
Thin film (NiCr)
Inner termination
Middle termination
Outer termination
Protective coating
H
igh purity ceramic substrate
Protective coating Inner termination
(thick film)
Middle termination (Ni plating)
Outer termination
(sn plating)
Thick-film resistive element
High purity
alumina substrate
Thick-film resistive element
Protective coating
Thick-film conductive element
High purity
alumina substrate
Thick-film
resistive element
Protective coating
Thick-film
conductive elemet
High purity
alumina substrate
Protective coating
Thick-film
resistive element
Thick-film conductive element
High purity
alumina substrate
Thick-film
resistive element
Protective coating
(Resin)
Inner
termination
Middle termination (Ni plating)
Outer termination (Sn plating)
High purity alumina substrate
Termination
(Thick-film Au)
a 14* //ZEE ’ V 44%! L g L .gggé / m; MM VAN/A VA VA‘ fi__ \waijij IQ/i mmmmw @% M14
TECHNICAL GUIDE Ver.3
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3. Manufacturing Method of Thick-film Chip Resistors
Manufacturing method of thick film chip resistors of surface mount resistors (the most
representative) is shown Fig.7.
Fig.7. Manufacturing process chart of thick-film chip resistor
Termination (upper) Termination (back)
Breaking slot
Resistance
Pre-coat glass
Trimming slot Protective coating
Substrate subjected to first breaking
Plating film
Substrate subjected to
secondary breaking
Termination
Electrode formation
Resistance printing
Calcined
Pre-coat glass printing
Calcined
Revise resistance value
Protective resin printing
Hardness
First breaking
Secondary breaking
Electrode plating
Pckaging (taping. bulk)
Shipment
Electrode spread
Hardness
A
lumina substrate
Electrode paste
Resistance paste
Glass paste
Protective resin
paste
Electrode (resin)
paste
Plating material
Packaging material
400 sou 2ou mu mu (ppm / degree) 200 sou 400 Resistance temperature characterlst sou eon 1 0 ‘0 «no 1K Resistance vai Fig.8. System figure of thick-film chip The range of resistance vaiue and TCR of thin-film c Fig.9. System figure of thin—fiim chip The range of resistance vaiue and TCR of thin-film c Fig.10. System figure of thin-film chip
TECHNICAL GUIDE Ver.3
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4. System of Surface Mount Resistors
The range of resistance value and resistance temperature characteristic (TCR) of thick-film
chip
resistor (by kind) are shown in Fig.8.
Fig.8. System figure of thick-film chip resistor
The range of resistance value and TCR of thin-film chip resistor (by kind) are shown in Fig.9.
Fig.9. System figure of thin-film chip resistor
The range of resistance value and TCR of thin-film chip resistor (by kind) are shown in Fig.10.
Fig.10. System figure of thin-film chip resistor (low resistance value)
1.0 10 100 1k 10k 100k 1M
0
100
200
-100
-200
10M
ERA3Y(1608)
抵抗値(Ω
抵抗温度特性(ppm/)
ERA6Y(2012)
1.0 10 100
0
100
200
-100
-200
ERJM1
抗値(Ω)
抵抗温度特性(ppm/)
100m10m
300
400
-300
-400
1m
ERJL
□□
ERJ12R,14R,1WR
ERJ6R,8R
1.0 10 100 1k 10k 100k 1M
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
-100
-200
-300
-400
-500
-600
10M
一般
±100ppm
タイ
±50ppm
タイ
抵抗値(Ω
抗温度特性(ppm/)
Resistance value (ohm)
1.0 10 100 1K 10K 100K 1M 10M
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
-100
-200
-300
-400
-500
-600
Resistance temperature characteristic
(ppm / degree)
general ±100ppm type
±50ppm type
Resistance temperature characteristic
(ppm / degree)
200
100
0
-100
-200
Resistance temperature characteristic
(ppm / degree)
400
100
0
300
-100
-200
-300
200
-400
Resistance value (ohm)
1.0 10 100 1K 10K 100K 1M 10M
ERA3Y
(
1608
)
ERA6Y (2012)
ERJM1 ERJL□□
ERJ12R, 14R, 1WR
ERJ6R, 8R
Resistance value (ohm)
1m 10m 100m 1.0 10 100
Hrgh-preclslon Truck-Mm cmp Resrsmr Hrgh-funcuon Slngle cmp Resrstor Hrgh-preclslon Tnm-mm cmp Resrstor Surface Mount Hrgh-funcho" Resrstor Concave lermmalmn Cmp Reslslor Array Convex Iermmalmn Cumposne cmp Resrstor Concave lermmalmn Resrsmr Netwurk Convex Iermmalmn Fig.11. Kinds of surface mount resistors
TECHNICAL GUIDE Ver.3
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5. Kinds of Surface Mount Resistors
Fig.11. Kinds of surface mount resistors
Surface Mount
Resistor
Single Chip
Resistor
Composite Chip
Resistor
Thick-film Chip
Resistor
Thin-film Chip
Resistor
Chip Resistor
Array
Resistor
Network
General
High-precision
High-function
High-precision
High-function
Concave
termination
Convex
termination
Concave
termination
Convex
termination
±5% (J-level)
±2% (G-level)
±1% (F-level)
±0.5% (D-level)
±0.5% (D-level)
±0.1% (B-level)
Anti-serge
Anti-sulfuration
Trimmable
Fuse resistor
Low resistance
value
Thermal sensitive
chip
2-element
4-element
2-element
4-element
8-element
8-element
8-element
15-element
X212 r+1 a X2§2 r+1 a)
TECHNICAL GUIDE Ver.3
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6. Reliability
Field failure rate of surface mount resistors (thick-film chip resistors) is shown in the table-1.
(Set : television)
Table-1: Field failure rate
Failure rate (fit)
Products
(Shape)
Quantity of
used parts
(n)
Used time
(n x T)
Failure
(r) Point
estimation
(λ 0)
Reliability level 60%
(λ 60)
ERJ2G
(1005)
1.21x1010
(From 1990)
5.86×1013
(From 1990) 0 0.0 0.0000156
ERJ3G
(1608)
5.64×1010
(From 1986)
4.41×1014
(From 1986) 0 0.0 0.0000020
ERJ6G
(2012)
1.20×1011
(From 1986)
1.38×1015
(From 1986) 0 0.0 0.0000006
ERJ8G
(3216)
5.06×1010
(From 1986)
8.38×1014
(From 1986) 0 0.0 0.0000011
ERJ14
(3225)
1.11×109
(From 1987)
7.66×1012
( From 1987) 0 0.0 0.0001200
ERJ12
(4532)
1.01×109
(From 1987)
7.25×1012
(From 1987) 0 0.0 0.0001268
ERJ1W
(6432)
1.53×108
(From 1990)
8.87×1011
(From 1990) 0 0.0 0.0010360
Used time (T) = Use 6 hours / a day × 365 days
<Calculating method of failure rate>
Reliability level = 60%
Reliability guaranteed coefficient of market fraction defective X2 {2 (r + 1), α }
(When it is “0”) 2
=0.92
Market fraction defective λ 60 = X2 {2 (r + 1), α} × 109
2 (n X T)
= 0.92 X10
9 (f i t)
n × T
Failure mode Failure mechanism Manufacturing factor ¢ Tnin electrode-him Electrode crack 11— Solderstress #7 . Ununllorm Solder breaklng l1 i Electrode Open AL corrosion Temperature Solder rising degradation Resistorchlpplng Glass enipping F, Tr Crack snape defective F7 Voltage ‘ Inner loss of resistor breakdown Voltage Large enange or _ degradation 1‘ Resistance value l Translllnn of Temperature electrode material ‘ rising Fig.12. Failure mechanism (Chip fixed resistors, Chip resistor array, Chip resistor network)
TECHNICAL GUIDE Ver.3
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7. Failure Mechanism
Failure mechanism of thick-film chip resistor and chip resistor array is shown in Fig.12,
Failure mechanism of thin-film chip resistor is shown in Fig.13. As destruction mode, it
could be resistance value open or large changing of resistance value, it could not be
short circuit mode of resistors,
Fig.12. Failure mechanism
(Chip fixed resistors, Chip resistor array, Chip resistor network)
Failure mode Failure mechanism Manufacturing factor Application factor
Open
Electrode crack Solder stress
Thin electrode-film
Ununiform
Solder breaking
Electrode
corrosion
Solder
degradation
Resistor chipping
Crack
Large change of
Resistance value
Voltage
breakdown
Voltage
degradation
Transition of
electrode material
Temperature
rising
Temperature
rising
Glass chipping
Quantity of solder
Unbalance
Resin for mold
Unsuitable pattern design
Stress of P-board
Unsuitable of
soldering condition
Sulfur atmosphere
Over-load
Thin-middle-Ni
Ununiform
Large of division stress
Shape defective
Inner loss of resistor
Large of mount zipper
power
Large of pulse-load
Large of static electricity
Lot of pulse-times
Over-load
Quanmy of solder Tmn e‘ecvude-fflm ‘ Resm lur mmd Unsmlable patterm Stress of P-buard Using atmosphere Open ,— Elemmenc 4' Puuumn High temperature Over-mad Permeatmn of if Defect of reswslance DXIUE a! resistance- ngh ammom ? Over-mad smdenng Temperature Crack of Protecnve-Nm Large of mwsuon Curmm breakdown \nner-loss a! ‘Large of puls luau Large slam:
TECHNICAL GUIDE Ver.3
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Fig.13. Failure mechanism of thin-film chip resistors
8. Application Note
8.1. Precautions in handling resistors
Our products are intended for use in general standard applications for general electronic
equipment (AV products, household electric appliances, office equipment, information
and communication equipment, etc.); hence, they do not take the use under the
following special environments into consideration. Accordingly, the use in the following
special environments, and such environments, and such environmental conditions may
affect the performance of the products; prior to use, verify the performance, reliability,
etc.
(1). Use in liquids such as water, oil, chemical, and organic solvent.
(2). Use under direct sunlight and in outdoor and dusty atmospheres.
(3). Use in places full of corrosive gasses such as sea breeze, Cl2, H2O, NH3, SO2, and
NOX.
(4). Use in environment with large static electricity and strong electromagnetic waves.
Failure mode Failure mechanism Manufacturing factor Application factor
Quantity of solder
Unbalance
Electrode crack Solder stress Thin electrode-film
Ununiform
Resin for mold
Unsuitable patterm
design
Stress of P-board
Electrode corrosion Using atmosphere
(humidity,gas)
O
p
en Pollution
Electrolytic
corrosion
High temperature
load
Over-load
Permeation of
pollutant
Load concentration Defect of resistance
film
Oxide of resistance-
film heat
High ambiont
temperature
Over-load
(include pulse-
Soldering
degradation
Temperature
rising Over-load
Crack of
resistor-film
Protective-film
chipping
Large of division
stress
Current breakdown
of resistor film
Inner-loss of
resistor
Large of pulse-load
Large static
electricity
TECHNICAL GUIDE Ver.3
10
(5). Where the product is close to a heating component, and where an inflammable such
as a polyvinyl chloride wire is arranged close to the product.
(6). Where the resistor ids sealed and coated with resin, etc.
(7). Where water or a water-soluble detergent is used in cleaning free soldering and in
flux cleaning after soldering (Pay particular attention to water-soluble flux.)
8.2.Requests
(1). This technical guide is summarized technical contents of surface mount resistors
(produced and sold by our company) so that customer can use it properly.
(2). In traffic transportation equipment (trains, cars, traffic signal equipment, etc.),
medical equipment, aerospace equipment, electric heating appliances, combustion
and gas equipment, rotating equipment, disaster and crime preventive equipment,
etc. in cases where it is forecast that the failure of this product gives serious damage
to the human life and others, use fail-safe design and ensure safety by studying the
following items to.
Ensure safety as the system by setting protective circuits and protective equipment.
Ensure safety as the system by setting such rebundant circuits as do not cause
danger by a single failure.
(3). When it is happened that a doubt about safety of this product, let us know quickly
and you must examine technically.
(4). If transient load (heavy load in a short time) like pulse is expected to be applied,
carry out evaluation and confirmation test with the resistors actually mounted on your
own board. Moreover, if it is used under the specific condition, talk over it
beforehand.
(5). High-active flux as halogen-type (chlorine, bromine, etc) is not recommended as the
residue may affect performance or reliability of resistors. Confirm it before use.
(6). When soldering with soldering iron, never touch the body of the chip resistor with a
tip of the soldering iron. When using a soldering iron with a tip at high temperature,
solder for a time as short as possible.(up to 350 degree, less than 3 seconds)
(7). Avoid physical shock to the resistor and nipping of the resistor with hard tool (pliers
or tweezers) as it may damage protective coating or body of resistor and may affect
resistor’s performance.
(8). Avoid immersion of chip resistor in solvent for a long time. Use solvent after the
effect of immersion is confirmed.
8.3. Storage method
If the product is stored in the following environments and conditions, the performance
and solderability maybe badly affected. Avoid the storage in the following environment.
(1). Storage in places full of corrosive gasses such as sea breeze, Cl2, H2S, NH3, SO2,
and NO2.
(2). Storage in places exposed to direct sunlight.
Noise INDEX (dB) 10 mu 1K 10K 100K 1M Fig 4 Noise \evel average of chip resistor 11
TECHNICAL GUIDE Ver.3
11
(3). Storage in places outside the temperature range of 5deg to 35deg and humidity
range of 45% to 85%RH.
(4). Storage over a year after our delivery (This item also applies to the case where the
storage method specified in item (1) to (3) has been followed.
9. Technique
9.1. Circuit design
If using surface mount resistors, pay attention the following performance. (Primarily for
film-chip resistors.)
9.1.1. Resistor noise
In general, resistor noise is calculated from the following formula.
Resistor noise = thermal fuse + 1 / f noise
It is thermal noise that depends on shake of speed distribution by clash of carrier and
grid. It is 1 / f-noise that factor, which controlled electric current, shakes in some cause
and, as the result, it arises from density of carrier and modulation of electric current. It is
thought to be in proportion to a reciprocal of frequency.
Regarding thick-film chip resistor, it is formed resistance value by connect resistance.
Therefore, 1 / f-noise shall be primarily noise, and it is calculated from the following
formula.
Noise Index (dB) = A –10 Log (w l t)
A: Resistive material, value by manufacturing condition
w • l • t: W-dimensions, L-dimensions, t-dimensions
Noise level average of chip resistor by shape is shown in Fig.14.
Fig.14. Noise level average of chip resistor
-
40
-
50
-
30
-
20
-
10
0
+
10
+
20
2
G
3
G
,6
G
8
G
14
12,1
W
6
Y
3
Y
10Ω 100Ω 1
k
Ω10
k
Ω 100
k
Ω1
M
Ω
流雑音特性
QUANTECH
315
C)
ノイズ
INDEX (dB)
膜抵抗
薄膜抵抗
Thick-film chip resistors
2G: 1005
3G: 1608
6G: 2012
8G: 3216
14: 3225
12: 4532
1W: 6432
Thin-film chip resistors
Current noise characteristic (QUANTECH315C)
Noise INDEX (dB)
+20
+10
0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50
10 100 1K 10K 100K 1M (ohm)
8G
2G
3G
,
6G
14
12
,
1W
Thick-film resistor
Thin-film resistor
3Y
6
Y
Fiq.15. Resistance vaiue changing model of over-load life characteristic of thick-film chip resistor Table-2 Power-up assurance of thick-film chip resistors
TECHNICAL GUIDE Ver.3
12
From Fig.14, a noise level tends to become large, so that form becomes small.
Therefore, in the circuit that attaches importance to the noise-characteristic, chip
resistor of large shape or thin-film chip resistor is recommended.
9.1.1. Over-load characteristic of chip resistor
There are the following 3 cases in the over-load phenomenon of chip resistors.
Over-load life characteristic: Applied over rated power for a long time.
Static electric (ESD) characteristic: Applied high-voltage momentarily.
Pulse characteristic: Applied several times of voltage for a short time.
(1). Over-load life characteristic
Resistance value changing model of over-load life characteristic of thick-filfm chip
resistor is shown in Fig.15.
Fig.15. Resistance value changing model of over-load life characteristic of thick-film chip resistor
As shown in Fig.15, if impressed in the state of over-load for a long time, decreasing
part of insulation resistance in the resistor occur, and resistance value continues
decreasing. However, if it is still continued applying, electric current starts to concentrate
in that part, decreasing of insulation resistance accelerates and resistors destroy by
joule heat, resistance value start to rise, finally, come to be disconnection.
Regarding our thick-film chip resistor, as shown in table-2, the electric power guarantee
that carried out the one rank rise of the conventional rated electric power.
Table-2 Power-up assurance of thick-film chip resistors
Shape Size Rated power
ERJ3G 1608 1/16W1/10W
ERJ6G 2012 1/10W1/8W
ERJ8G 3216 1/8W1/4W
However, since the temperature of soldering part may serves high temperature by
generation of heat by load depending on ambient temperature when there is no
R(%
時間(t)
R (%)
Time (t)
Fiq.16. Reliability deterioration of solderinq part in long time over-load Fiq.17. Correlation with L-size W-size of thick-film chip resistor and ESD characteristic
TECHNICAL GUIDE Ver.3
13
resistance value chance if electric power is impressed in the state of over-load foe a
long time, sufficient reliability check is required.
Fig.16. Reliability deterioration of soldering part in long time over-load
(2). Static electricity characteristic
In thick-film chip resistors, correlation with length of L-size and W-size of resistor and
changing rate of resistance value when ESD voltage is impressed is shown in Fig.17.
Fig.17. Correlation with L-size, W-size of thick-film chip resistor and ESD characteristic
From Fig.17, ESD characteristic is greatly influenced by termination interval. Therefore,
resistance value by ESD characteristic tends to become large following on becoming
small. Moreover, it is influenced by conductive mechanism of resistive material,
resistance value trends to be influenced with the range from 100 ohms to 100k ohms,
and the ESD characteristic is hard to be influenced by ESD in the domain where
resistance value is lower than that range or a high domain.
0.4W 40 degree 0.4W 70 degree
Change of L-length
(W ? 0.22 mm) Serge voltage 1-applied
Serge voltage 10-applied
Resistance change rate
Chan
g
e of W-width
Serge voltage 10-applied
Resistance change rate
TECHNICAL GUIDE Ver.3
14
As reference, ESD characteristic of ERJ3G-type (1608-size) is shown in Fig.18.
Fig.18. ESD characteristic (ERJ3G-ype)
ESD characteristic
ERJ3G-type (1608) Impressing frequency: once
Impressing voltage (kv)
11')
TECHNICAL GUIDE Ver.3
15
(3). Pulse characteristic
Regarding the pulse characteristic of thick-film chip resistors, examination for the
contents shown below is required.
Pulse limit power (PP), Pulse limit voltage (VP) and Pulse limit current (IP) shall be
calculate by the following formula.
PP (VP, IP)
τ
T
P
VR
IR
R
VPmax
: Pulse continuous time
: Pulse period
: Rated power
: Rated voltage
: Rated current
: Normal resistance value
: Max. pulse limit voltage
(s)
(s)
(W)
(V)
(A)
()
(V)
PP = K ּ P ּ T / τ
V
P = K ּ P ּ R ּ T / τ
I
P = K ּ P ּ 1 / R ּ T / τ
<Note> * T > 1 (s) T = 1 (s)
* T / τ > 100 T / τ = 100
* PP (VP, IP) < P (VR, IR)
P (VR, IR) stands for PP (VP, IP)
* The voltage which can be added is less than
VPmax.
* Judgement : Resistance change +/-5%
(After 1000 hours)
#Constant K and VPmax shall be shown in the below table.
K
Rated Power
(W) ~ 1010 ~ 100 ~1k ~ 10k ~ VPmax
ERJ2G 0.1 0.11 0.11 0.11 --- --- 100
ERJ3G 0.1 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.15 0.12 100
ERJ6G 0.125 0.36 0.36 0.24 0.20 0.16 200
ERJ8G 0.25 0.22 0.22 0.15 0.12 0.10 400
ERJ14Y 0.5 0.22 0.22 0.15 0.12 0.10 400
ERJ12Y/12ZY 0.75 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.16 0.13 400
ERJ1WY/1TY 1.0 0.45 0.45 0.30 0.25 0.20 500
T
τ
TECHNICAL GUIDE Ver.3
16
Approximation method Pulse wave shall be approximated to rectangle wave form
as below.
* The discharge waveform of a capacitor.
* Sine curve
* Triangular wave
* Special wave
τ
τ
τ τ/2
τ/2
τ τ/3
0.4 x VP
VP
τ/2
VP
VP
VP
VP VP
VP VP
0.4 x VP
IDD so 10 IOm mam u woo so |flflm I!
TECHNICAL GUIDE Ver.3
17
Fig.19. Pulse limited data of ERJ3G (1608)-type
Fig.20. Pulse limited data of ERJ6G (2012)
Fig.19 and 20 is reference data to the last, and please fully perform a reliability check
with your system in the use of the circuit that pulse-load is impressed.
Test method: The limit value when impressing the shortwave of the following condition is grasped.
Impressing time: 1m sec, 10m sec, 100m sec, 1 sec ; 10 ohm
Period: 10 sec; 100 ohm
Impressing frequency: 1000 times (criteria, changing rate of resistance value within 5%); 1k ohm
Number of sample: n = 5; 10k ohm
Impressing time (sec)
I Impressing power (w)
Test method: The limit value when impressing the shortwave of following condition is grasped.
Impressing time: 1m sec, 10m sec, 100m sec, 1 sec; 10 ohm
Period: 10 sec; 100 ohm
Impressing frequency: 1000 times (criteria, changing rate of resistance value within 5%); 1k ohm
Number of samples: n = 5; 10k ohm
I Impressing voltage (w)
Impressing time (sec)
Fig.21. Recommended of chiQ resistor
TECHNICAL GUIDE Ver.3
18
9.2. Design of Printed Substrate
When using surface mount resistor, caring about the following point and please perform
printed substrate.
9.2.1. Recommended land pattern
9.2.1.1 Chip resistors
Recommended land pattern of chip resistor by each shape is shown in Fig.21.
Dimensions (mm)
Products
a b c
ERJXG 0.15 to 0.20 0.5 to 0.7 0.20 to 0.25
ERJ1G 0.3 to 0.4 0.8 to 0.9 0.25 to 0.35
ERJ2G 0.5 to 0.6 1.4 to 1.6 0.4 to 0.6
ERJ3G 0.7 to 0.9 2.0 to 2.2 0.8 to 1.0
ERJ6G 1.0 to 1.4 3.2 to 3.8 0.9 to 1.4
ERJ8G 2.0 to 2.4 4.4 to 5.0 1.2 to 0.8
ERJ14 2.0 to 2.4 4.4 to 5.0 1.8 to 2.8
ERJ12 3.3 to 3.7 5.7 to 6.5 2.3 to 3.5
ERJ12Z 3.6 to 4.0 6.2 to 7.0 1.8 to 2.8
ERJ1T 5.0 to 5.4 7.6 to 8.6 2.3 to 3.5
ERJL1W 3.6 to 4.0 7.6 to 8.6 2.3 to 3.5
Fig.21. Recommended of chip resistor
9.2.1.2. Chip resistor array
Recommended land pattern of chip resistor array by each shape is shown in Fig.22.
bc
c
a
b
iq.22. Recommended land pattern of chip resistor arra WEDDDD ,EDDDDD 4—? L—4 Frq.23. Recommended land pattern of chip resistor network
TECHNICAL GUIDE Ver.3
19
Dimensions (mm)
Products a b c P f
14V 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.8 to 0.9
18V 0.2 to 0.3 0.15 to 0.20 0.15 to 0.20 0.4 0.8 to 0.9
24V 0.500 0.35 to 0.40 0.3 0.65 1.4 to 1.5
28V 0.4 0.525 0.25 0.5 1.4
N8V 0.45 to 0.50 0.35 to 0.38 0.25 0.5 1.4 to 2.0
V4V,V8V 0.7 to 0.9 0.4 to 0.45 0.4 to 0.45 0.8 2.0 to 2.4
34V,38V 0.7 to 0.9 0.4 to 0.5 0.4 to 0.5 0.8 2.2 to 2.6
S8V 1.0 to 1.2 0.5 to 0.75 0.5 to 0.75 1.27 3.2 to 3.8
2HV 1.0 0.425 0.25 0.5 2.00
ig.22. Recommended land pattern of chip resistor array
9.2.1.3. Chip resistor network
Recommended land pattern of chip resistor network by each shape is shown in Fig.23.
EXB A-type
EXB E/D-type
Products A B C1 C2 D1 D2 P
EXBE 0.4 0.5 3.1 5.1 1.5 3.5 0.8
EXBD 0.3 0.4 2.65 4.15 0.9 2.6 0.635
Fig.23. Recommended land pattern of chip resistor network
4.5
2.5
0.5 1.27
AP
C1
C2
D1
4.5
2.5
0.5 1.270.5
D2
D1
B
A P
C1
C2
E )> 20000 mi ! [I] i E OOOOC Fiq.24. The caution when attaching to the place is easy to bend A>C>B nea'
TECHNICAL GUIDE Ver.3
20
9.2.2. Components arrangement
Since the stress to the curvature or bending at the time of breaking printed substrate
may cause fault when arranging surface mount resistor near printed substrate breaking
point, consideration is required for the method of arrangement of surface mount resistor.
Arrangement method when arranged surface mount resistor near the breaking part of
substrate is shown in Fig.24.
Fig.24. The caution when attaching to the place is easy to bend
The probability that surface mount resistor will break by stress when substrate break is
followed below.
A > C > B (near infinite) D
Therefore, arrange to the break line of printed substrate as in parallel as possible, or
keep away from break line as much as possible.
9.3. Used environment
Please consider enough and use under the following environment for it especially, to the
environment in the case of using surface mount resistor.
9.3.1. Anti-gas characteristic of chip resistor (sulfurated atmosphere)
In the case of thick-film chip resistor that is used the material of Ag-system as inner
termination, sulfulated gas invades from the space between a protective-film and plating
in atmosphere , such as sufulated gas (it is possible to occur by heat-stress while
mounting), and there is rarely case that inner termination of Ag-system cause
disconnection, from a reaction as shown in the following chemical formula progressing.
Ag Ag+ + e-
S + 2e- S2-
2Ag+ + S2- Ag2S
The reaction velocity in this case is influenced by sulfurated gas density, temperature
and humidity greatly.
As especially the factor of sulfulated atmosphere, there are cases, rubber that is used
sulufur as vulcanization,and sulfur-chlorination or sulfur oil is used in heat and
×
X O
A
B
C
D
TECHNICAL GUIDE Ver.3
21
high-humidity atmosphere.
appearance and cross-sectional picture when inner termination of Ag-system is
influenced by sulfuration are shown in Fig.25.
Fig.25. Sulfurated effect for chip resistor
9.3.2. Resin mold of chip resistor
In using resin mold of the resistor, the protective-film of resistor may exfoliate, the crack
in a solder joint point may occur by the stress at the time of mold resin hardening or
resistance value change and disconnection may be generated under the influence of
the ingredient contained to the resin (to be mold), please fully perform reluability
evaluation.
The example which the crack is generated in the solder joint part by stress at the time of
resin mold are shown in Fig.26.
Appearance picture of sulfuration Sectional picture
Fi .26. Disconnection b resin mold of chi resistors 553 L121 Fig 7. The mounting method in common land
TECHNICAL GUIDE Ver.3
22
Fig.26. Disconnection by resin mold of chip resistors
9.4. Mounting quality
Please use surface mount resistor in consideration of the following contents to the
method of mounting in a printed substrate, and the washing method after mounting.
9.4.1. Soldering method
Since the manhattan phenomenon at the time of exfoliation of upper surface termination
or mounting may occur when it mounts two or more parts in a common land pattern, be
careful for separating land pattern by solder resist and the amount of solder beyond
necessity not to adhere.
Fig.27. The mounting method in common land
Bad example
Without solder resist
Good example
With solder resist
Crack
zomc 250 240 230 220 210 200 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Fiq.28. The limit of resistance to soldering heat of surface mount resistor
TECHNICAL GUIDE Ver.3
23
Moreover, in mounting surface mount resistor in narrow pitch, in order to suppress
generating of a solder ball, it recommends the solder cream that is used the solder of
the shape of a delicate solder ball.
In mounting of the chip resistor in narrow pitch, and mounting of chip resistor array and
chip resistor network etc., with flow soldering, since the solder bridge between
termination may be generated, use of reflow soldering is recommended. In addition,
regarding repair of surface mount resistor, pay attention for shock for termination part by
soldering iron and temperature and time of soldering iron.
Moreover, when putting a resistor with tweezers etc., the consideration to not giving a
shock to protective coating and shock to soldered termination is required.
9.4.1. The limit of resistance to soldering heat
The limit of resistance to soldering heat of surface mount resistor is shown in Fig.28.
Fig.28. The limit of resistance to soldering heat of surface mount resistor
Please setup of the soldering profile by the within the limita of Fig.28.
Temperature (degree)
Time (minute)
Rising temperature 1
Pre-heatin
g
5 sec Peak temperature
Gradual coolin
g
Rising temperature 1: normal to preheating, 30 to 50 sec
Pre-heating: 140 to 160 deg, 60 to 120 sec
Rising temperature 2: pre-heating to 200 deg, 20 to 40 sec
Gradual cooling: 200 to 100 deg, 1 to 4 deg / sec
Rising temperature 2 Main heating
Peak temperature (degree)
Time of above 200 degree (sec) (Main heating parts)
a: 5295
TECHNICAL GUIDE Ver.3
24
9.4.1. Washing method
Although the fron detergent has been conventionally used for washing of a mounting
base widely, it is difficult for an ozone layer depletion problem to use. Therefore,
although the cases changed in this opportunity by reexamination of flux material or a
reliability evaluation into no washing have increased in number in general market, the
case changed into a fron-alternative detergent in part is also seen.
Principal fron-alternative detergent and characteristic are shown in table-3.
Table-3 Principal fron alternative detergent and characteristic
Evaluation method of anti-washing and its condition are shown in table-4, anti-washing
characteristic of principal fixed resistor and fron-alternative detergent is shown in
table-5.
From table-5, regarding the washing nature of chip fixed resistor, it is comparatively
good. However, table-4 is reference data to the last, and performs fully reliability check
with your system in actual use.
washing power Reliability Safety
Classification Primary detergent
(and maker)
Ion residue
Anti-ion residue
Part (space)
Parts damage
washing
residue
New of flux
Flashing
Harmful
Ozone destruction
Water (pure water) (water-soluble for flux) A B B A A C A A A
Surfactant Detergent: A, B, C,
D, E
AABBB A
(to B)
A
(to B)
A
(to B)
A
Water
Water-soluble
detergent Alkali Detergent: F A A B B B A A A A
natural Detergent: G A A A B B A B A ASemi-
water Hydrocarbon oil Detergent: H, I B A A B B A B B A
Hydrocarbon
(oil)
Detergent: J, K, L B A A B A A B B A
Alchohol Detergent: IPA
Ethanol
BABAAB BAA
Silicon Detergent: M B A B B B A B B A
Solvent
Anti-semiwater
HCFC Detergent: N
O
BAAAA B A C
B
B
C
Reference Fron (CFC-113) Detergent: P, Q B A A A A A A B C
A Excellence C Problem
B Some problem
(normal (lemperalure) 5 min)~>(110 deg‘ 30 min) (normal. 5 min)~>(110 deg, 30 min) 9 E Drying (110 deg, 30 min) 9 waler; 2 min. purerwaler. l min) a Drying (110 deg‘ 30 min) 9 normal. 2 min)» Drying ( -1; 100 deg. 2 min) N mmersed. N division) division) Solid resislor a a b b b a a a resislor resislor resislor resislor resislor (ERW)* resislor (ERF) (ERX) resislor (SlPrlype) chip resislor (SMDrlype) EMI fillers f b c b b b b a (will lead) Chip EMI fillers f b c b b b c b Chip bead core f b b b b b b b capacilor Capacitor nelwork f b c b b b b c Thermal culroff f f f f f f f f sensor film resislor g capsular array (ERO) MR elemenls f f l f l f f f
TECHNICAL GUIDE Ver.3
25
Table-4. Evaluation method of anti-washing and its condition
Table-5. Anti-washing of principal fixed resistor and fron-alternative detergent
10. Technical trend in the Future
Washing (substrate attachment state)
Pure water Ultrasonic washingDrying
(normal (temperature) 5 min)(110 deg, 30 min)
IPA Ultrasonic washingDrying
(normal, 5 min)(110 deg, 30 min)
Deter
g
ent; A
B
E
Ultrasonic washing (60 deg, 5 min) Rinse (normal, running
water; 2 min, pure water; 1 min) Drying (110 deg, 30 min)
Detergent; J Ultrasonic washing (60 deg, 5 min) Rinse (IPA 1min)
Drying (110 deg, 30 min)
Deter
g
ent; G Ultrasonic washing (normal), 5 min) Rinse (normal, running
water; 2 min, pure-water; 1 min) Drying (110 deg, 30 min)
Deter
g
ent; M Ultrasonic washing (FRW-17: 40deg, 5 min) Rinse (FRW-1;
normal, 2 min) Drying (FRV-1; 100 deg, 2 min)
Life test in humidity (1000 hours, etc)
The catalog test conditions for every
parts are centers. In part, others are
also carried out)
Reliability test
Note1) Although ultrasonic wave are the following conditions, some parts are immersed.
Techno care; 15v / l, 28KHz, Others; 6v / l, 28 to 45 to 100KHz swing
Note2) Heat-resistance low parts are dried at 80 deg, for 30min.
Note3) Using flux is RA-grade, water-soluble is non-halogen type
Note4) It is carrying out without putting flux into a detergent at all.
Product name
Pure water
IPA
BAEJGM
(Fixed resistor
division)
Solid resistor aabbbaaa
Carbon film
resistor
aaddffff
Carbon fuse
resistor
aaddffff
Wirewound
resistor (ERF)
aaaaffff
Metal (oxide)
resistor
cccccccc
Thick-film
chip resistor
aaaaaaaa
3-teriminal
capacitor
(with lead)
f bcbbbbc
Chip 3-terminal
capacitor
aaaaaaaa
Thermal cut-off ffffffff
Precision metal
film resistor
aaddffff
Metal film resistor
(ERO)
aaddffff
( without condition of ultrasonic wave)
Product name
Pure water
IPA
BAEJGM
(Fixed resistor
division)
Metal (oxide) fuse
resistor
eeeeeeee
Thermal sensitive
resistor
aadd f f f f
Wirewound
resistor (ERW)
ccffffff
Metal film resistor
(ERX)
cccccccc
Network resistor
(SIP-type)
f aaaaaaa
Network resistor
(SMD-type)
cacccccc
EMI filters f b c b b b b c
Chip EMI filters f b c b b b c b
Chip bead core f b bbbbbb
Capacitor network f b c b b b b c
Dew condensation
sensor
ffffffff
Chip feed throu
g
h
capacitor array
aaaaaaaa
MR elements ffffffff
a: performance, markingOK b: performanceOK, markingattention
c: performance, markingattention (The limit of washing condition and complete of rinse condition)
d: unusable e: No assurance of washing from the former
f: individual correspondence
zmz «we was we was lyve new type mm. moi We...“ use: was: nmpmlmmwm my 5mm; mm mm mm 4, 4. 4. F mm: mm mm ‘ ms ans .5 ‘ 5m: 0505 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. ”mm 4. 4. 4. 4. rmmmwe 4. 4. 4. mmme 4. 4. 4. Mamamvam. 41 mm }—>1 mm }—>1 umnm }—>\ Dofiuhm H‘uozuhmHuuo‘uhm‘ 5m mm mm mm amp mmm Campus“. Reduclmn M Dad mafler
TECHNICAL GUIDE Ver.3
26
As trend of surface mount resistor, those with four and its flow are greatly indicated to
be, (1) the formation of small-light weight of components,
As trend of surface mount resistors, those with four and its flow in Fig.29 are greatly
indicated to be (1) formation of small-light weight of components, (2) composition of
components, (3) high-precision and advanced features, (4) the earth environment
protection and saving resources.
Fig.12. Trend of surface mount components
Although it becomes 0603 chip as present minimum form parts about the trend of
miniaturization of parts, from the last of 93, this product began to appear in the market,
and time is in a situation still required for establishment of mounting technology.
Therefore, it is surmised that considerable time is required for the appearance of the
further small parts. Then, the high-density mounting method is also improved fillet-less
chip of 1005 chip that can make good use of mounting technique of conventional chip in
a narrow chip. Furthermore, there is composition of components as method of
high-density mounting. A parts interval can be lost by composition and mounting area
can be made smaller the single article mounting. Naturally, also in this composition,
narrow pitch is progressing (1.27 0.8 0.5 mm), from now on, a narrow pitch is
accelerated to further 0.4 or 0.3 mm, and it will be surmised that the center of further
high-density is borne.
Array
Network
Thick-film type
Thin-film type
Low resistance value
Series
Composite
Narrow pitch
Reduction of tape-width
Reduction of environment load matte
r
Spread of resin
Pl
a
ti
ng o
f
electrode
Pb
-
f
ree o
f
resistive
3216 type
chip resistor
P:4mm P:2mm P:1mm
W:8mm W:5mm
R/C chip network C network
E
arth environment protection/Saving resouire
s
Taping Bulk
0.001 ohm
Trimable
chi
p
Anti-sulfuroted
chi
p
resisto
r
chip fuse resistor
10 ohm 1 ohm 0.1 ohm 0.05 ohm
6432:4 element
p:1.27 concave
4021:8 element
p:0.8 concave
3216:8 element
p:0.65 concave
0.02 ohm
High precision
Tol.:+-5%
TCR:+-200ppm/K
Tol.:+-2%
TCR:+-200ppm/K
Tol.:+-1%
TCR:+-100ppm/K
3816:8 res.
p:0.5
convex
0806:2 res.
p:0.5
convex
1806:4 res.
p:0.5
convex
3816:15 element
p:0.5 convex
1616:4 res.
p:0.8
convex
1010:2 res.
p:0.65
convex
2010:4 res.
p:0.5
convex
Tol.:+-0.5%
TCR:+-25ppm/K
Tol.:+-0.5%
TCR:+-50ppm/K
Composite(narrow pitch)
Tol.:+-0.05%
TCR:+-25ppm/K
Pelative accuracy
array
H
igh functio
n
5022:4 res.
p:1.27
concave
3216:4 res.
p:0.8
concave
1616:2 res.
p:0.8
concave
Tol.:+-0.1%
TCR:+-25ppm/K
0606:2 res.
p:0.4
convex
3216:4 res.
p:0.8
convex
0603 type 05025 type
1005 Fillet-less 0603 Fillet-less
Small size
2012 type 1608 type 1005 type
TECHNICAL GUIDE Ver.3
27
As a high- precise trend, although correspondence is possible to resistance tolerance: ±
0.5%, TCR: ±50 ppm / degree, with the thick-film technology, the present level
presumes the limit and the high-precision product beyond this becomes a thin-film
resistor, for example, resistance tolerance: ±0.1%, TCR: ±25 ppm / degree.
Moreover, chip with various functions is produced commercially in the present. For
example, there are resistor for functional trimming of alternation of half-fixed resistor,
chip fuse resistor with fuse function, low resistance chip with low resistance, anti-serge
chip strong against serge voltage, and anti- sulfurated chip strong against sulfuration
atmosphere. From now on, it is thought that series of those products will progress.
Finally, the earth environment protection and saving-resources are explained. a market
is considered. that the measure is advanced focusing on reduction of an environmental
load substance, and waste now. About reduction of environmental load substance, the
conditional examination for lead-free solder use is specially tackled. To this trend, our
company is conjecturing resin of protective –film, resin of external termination and
focusing on reduction of Pb and Pb-composed among environmental substances, such
as Pb-free plating of external termination. This demand will become strong further, from
now on. Moreover, as part of waste reduction, re-use of taping reel, narrow pitch of
paper carrier-taping pitch, and packaging form also think that the change to a bulk
cassette from taping etc. are accelerated.
References
(1) Soldering Mount Guide LinePanasonic Electronic Devices Co., Ltd.
Soldering no-amendment WG
(2) SMD Reliability Guide LinePanasonic Electronic Devices Co., Ltd.
(3) Fixed Resistor Technical GuidePanasonic Electronic Devices Co., Ltd.
Resistor Division
(4) Reliability Data Book of Surface Mount Components
Panasonic Electronic Devices Co., Ltd.
Surface Mount Resistors
TECHNICAL GUIDE
Published Date; First Edition November, 1, 1999
Publication; Device Solutions Business Division
Industrial Solutions Company
Panasonic Corporation
* Apr.-4, 2019
Renamed to Industrial Solutions Company
Unapproved reproduction is forbidden
28

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