Okay, so according to Moore's Law the number of transistors doubles every two years. This is all fine and dandy but it seems this can't go on for infinity - it defies logic. When do you guys think we'll hit a threshold and what are some of the solutions in the works?
Intel's Haswell CPU's released earlier this month contained 1.4 billion transistors the size of 22 nanometers. Transistors will continue to shrink until approximately the year 2020; by then they'll have shrank as small as a few nm.
1 nm is the cut-off point under present technology because 1 nm has the thickness of 10 atoms and the laws of physics behave differently on the atomic scale. Electrons virtually "teleport" through objects due to the quantum tunneling effect. If electrons teleport through, then transistor gates cannot control the flow of electrons therbey becoming useless.....at least from what I know.
I am supposing break throughs in quantum computing will result in the next "technological age."
As @Mteo2188 said, the electrons behave differently when you're considering their flow on the nm scale and that's because it's more about the very small attraction and repulsion forces between particles at that scale. However, my belief is a little different, after a while, when transistors reach the minimum possible size, we will probably not have transistors in their current form, and it might be a flexible surface that will contain millions of transistors, thus making a start for an organic era of electronics. You can find the studies on this by finding out details of the Nokia-funded research in the Cambridge center of Nano science and technology.